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Early modern books by women

“what joy may you have, that you living to such an age, shall see the blessings of God on your labours while you live” Country House-Wife’s Garden 1631

273J William Lawson (1553/4–1635)

A nevv orchard and garden or The best way for planting, grafting, and to make any ground good, for a rich orchard: particularly in the north, and generally for the whole kingdome of England, as in nature, reason, situation, and all probabilitie, may and doth appeare. Wit the country housewifes garden for hearbes of common vse their vertues, seasons, profits, ornaments, varietie of knots, models for trees, and plots for the best ordering of grounds and walkes. As also the husbandry of bees, with their seuerall vses and annoyances all being the experience of 48. yeares labour, and now the second time corrected and much enlarged, by William Lawson. Whereunto is newly added the art of propagating plants, with the true ordering of all manner of fruits, in their gathering, carring home & preseruation.

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London: Printed by Nicholas Okes, for Iohn Harison, at the golden Vnicorne in Pater-noster-row, 1631.    $1,900

 

Quarto.A⁴ B-I⁸ K⁴ (last leaf blank).

This copy is disbound  in a folding cloth binder  There are a few woodcut illustrations.    Minor wear, one leaf cropped close with slight loss; a very nice copy.

This is an early issue of this horticultural classic, first published in 1618, and notable for the inclusion of Lawson’s Country House-Wife’s Garden, the first book on the subject specifically written for women, and one of the most delightful gardening books in the language, illustrated with the oft-reproduced cuts of knot designs.

aha2_orchardWilliam Lawson was a writer on gardening and Church of England clergyman, was probably a member of the extensive northern English gentry family of Lawson, but his parents’ names are not known. He was ordained deacon in 1580, and became vicar of Ormesby, near Teesmouth, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, in 1583. He spent the rest of his life there. His first wife, Sibille, with whom he had two children, was buried at Ormesby in 1618; on 28 April 1619 he married Emme Tailer, who survived him.  Lawson was a long-lived Yorkshire parson and a real ‘hands on’ gardener: he declares his book to be written from ‘my meer and sole experience, without respect to any former-written Treatise’. His two passions were orchards and bees and he covers all aspects of his subjects, soil management, planting and pruning, the construction of beehives, the control of various ‘nuisances’ (including birds, deer and moles) and the harvesting of fruits and honey.

Lawson refers several times to the difficulties of the local environment and warns his fellow northern gardeners to ‘meddle not with Apricockes nor Peaches, nor scarcely with Quinces, which will not like our cold parts’. He also stresses how important it is to keep bees in weatherproof accommodation using a good northern term to explain that the ‘nesh Bee can neither abide cold or wet’!  However, he writes lyrically of the pleasures of an orchard: ‘your trees standing in comely order which way soever you look … your borders on every side hanging and drooping with Feberries, Raspberries, Barberries, Currents and the roots of your trees powdred with Strawberries, red,white and green, what pleasure is this?Interestingly, in his advice to the country housewife, Lawson advises that every household should maintain two gardens, a kitchen garden and a flower garden. He suggests that the reason for this is that ‘your garden flowers shall suffer some disgrace if among them you intermingle onions, parsnips etc’.
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The woodcuts which illustrate the book are delightful (Lawson tell us that he instructed the publisher to expend ‘much cost and care … in having the Knots and Models by the best Artizan cut’) They include patterns for knot gardens (the little prancing horse and the man with a sword represent topiary designs) and images of gardeners, sporting some very jaunty headwear, digging and planting.

Lawson’s summary of the satisfaction to be gained from gardening remains as true today as it was for his seventeenth century readers: ‘whereas every other pleasure commonly fills some one of or senses, and that only, with delight, this makes all our senses swim in pleasure’.

aha2_tpcropThis is Lawson’s only book, A new orchard and garden, has a dedication to a connection of one branch of the Lawsons, Sir Henry Belasyse. It was the first published work on gardening in the north of England, and its second section, Aha2_countrytp.jpeg

The Countrie Housewifes Garden, was the first horticultural work written specifically for women (there would not be another in English for a century). The ‘sound, clear, natural wit’ manifested in it was praised by John Beale forty years later (Beale, 14), Illustrated with cuts of tools, a garden plan, and knot designs.

aha2_beehives

ESTC S4739;  STC 15331.3; Henrey 228n, p. 160; Rohde, p. 54; British Bee Books 20; Poynter, p. 176.

‘To conclude, what joy may you have, that you living to such an age, shall see the blessings of God on your labours while you live, and leave behind you to heirs or successors (for God will make heires) such a work, that many ages after your death, shall record your love to their Country? And the rather, when you consider to what length of time your worke is like to last’

Three libraries hold copies in the US!, Berkeley :University of Illinois :Yale

and now I will copy from  GLASGOW UNIVERSITY LIBRARY SPECIAL COLLECTIONS DEPARTMENT

Book of the Month

July 2006

William Lawson 

A New Orchard and Garden with The Country-Housewifes Garden for Herbs

London: 1648.     Sp Coll Ferguson Ah-a.2

Our July choice is a popular Renaissance work on gardening, A new orchard and garden by William Lawson. It was printed together with the first horticultural book written solely for women, The country housewife’s garden. Both are full of sensible and practical advice, imbued with Lawson’s charming philosophy. For Lawson, working in the orchard and garden was the ideal kind of rest and relaxation: ‘For whereas every other pleasure commonly fills some one of our senses, and that only, with delight, this makes all our senses swim in pleasure, and that with infinite variety joyned with no lesse commodity’.
William Lawson (1553/4-1635) was the vicar of Ormesby, a country parish in Yorkshire.  First and foremost a religious man who carried out his clerical duties most diligently, he was obviously also a keen gardener with considerable land. A man of some learning, he evidently read widely on agriculture and gardening, and his two works are also scattered with references to the classics. When he died he willed ‘all my latine books & mie English books of contraversie’ to his son William, which suggests that he may well have owned a relatively substantial library of books for the period.
A New Orchard and Garden and The Country Housewife’s Garden were Lawson’s only published works. They were first printed together in 1618* and proved popular enough to warrant further reprints in quick succession. The copy featured here is a later, enlarged edition from 1648, part of A Way to Get Wealth, a compilation of treatises on husbandry and other household matters by Gervase Markham.
Lawson dedicated his work to Sir Henry Belloses (Belasyse), a prominent Yorkshire baronet who was also an orchard enthusiast. In his dedication, Lawson thanks him for the profit he received from his ‘learned Discourse of Fruit trees’. However, in the preface following he is at pains to point out that his book is in fact a product of ‘my meer and sole experience, without respect to any former-written Treatise’. It is a result of forty eight years experience in working a northern garden. Occasionally in the text he refers to the difficulties of this environment. He advises his fellow northerners, for instance, to ‘meddle not with Apricockes nor Peaches, nor scarcely with Quinces, which will not like our cold parts’. This book can therefore be credited with being the first to deal with the northern garden.
Gardening had become a national passion in the Sixteenth Century. Then, as now, it was a recreation that brought peace and contentment, and Eyler suggests that it provided a welcome escape from the trials of a turbulent age. Renaissance interest was certainly sparked by the influence of Protestant refugees from the Continent, while an increase in travel abroad and geographical discovery brought back new plants and ideas. There was a subsequent demand for new knowledge and exchange of information, spurring the production of horticultural manuals such as this.
Although not published until 1618, Lawson’s work is really the product of an Elizabethan life. But it is interesting to note that in its practicality, it is also an example of the age of reason; at this time there was a growing preoccupancy with the workings of nature and science, and a burgeoning interest in subjects such as botany, concentrating on the useful qualities and medical virtues of plants. Such a utilitarian outlook was also to be found in the tenets of Puritanism: good husbandry was keenly pursued, physical toil being regarded as a form of devotion to God. It should be remembered that Lawson was a Protestant preacher, and as Thick points out, his religious convictions were broadly puritan; as he states, he had no time for ‘popery and knavery’.
The heading preceding the first chapter sums up the aim of Lawson’s New Orchard: ‘the best, sure and readiest way to make a good orchard and garden’.  He begins with the traits to be sought in a good gardener should the reader be in the position to employ one: he should be honest, and certainly not ‘an idle, or lazie lubber’. If lucky enough to have the services of such a paragon, ‘God shall crowne the labours of his hands with joyfulnesse, and make the clouds drop fatnesse upon your trees’. For those who have to roll up their own sleeves, however, Lawson has written this book and ‘gathered these rules’ together.
 
The work goes on to deal comprehensively with all aspects of orchard management, covering: the kind of soil required (‘blacke, fat, mellow, cleane and well tempered’) and how to improve it; the best kind of site and how to protect it with fencing, or even better, ‘quickwood, and moates or ditches of water’; how to deal with ‘annoyances’ such as animals, birds, thieves, disease and the weather (not to mention the evils of a ‘carelesse master’); how to plant, space and prune your trees; the different types of fruit trees and bushes and their qualities; and how to gather, store and preserve the fruits of your labours. As Lawson sums up, ‘skill and pains, bring fruitful gains’.
Lawson’s advice is eminently sensible. His instructions are clear and obviously draw on the considerable personal skills he accrued over his lifetime. However, it is the underlying philosophy of the author and his frequent lyricism and rhetorical eloquence that still makes this book such a pleasure to read today. This is apparent even in the most technical of chapters, where Lawson deals with topics such as raising sets, planting and grafting. A typical example is found in the section on pruning where he emphasises the need for man’s intervention by drawing a comparison with an uncultivated wood full of neglected, rotten, and dying trees, as he rails: ‘What rottennesse? what hollownes? what dead armes? withered tops? curtalled trunks? what loads of mosses? drouping boughes? & dying branches shall you see everywhere?’
 
 
But Lawson’s sentiments rarely override his practicality. For instance, he devotes a considerable section to the measures required to counteract the ‘whole Army of mischiefs’ that plague the gardener. He ruefully acknowledges that ‘Good things have most enemies’ and catalogues a whole host of enemies ranging from deer to moles (they will ‘anger you’). He even advises that sparrowhawks are useful against plundering garden birds: although he acknowledges the delight of hearing blackbirds and thrushes singing on a May morning, ‘I had rather want their company than my fruit’.
Despite his problem with flying cherry thieves, the overall impression gained from reading the book is that Lawson’s ideal garden would be a delight. As well as abundant fruit trees, there would be sweet scented flowers, humming bees (whom, he assures us, do not sting their friends), beautiful ornaments, silver sounding music, broad and long walkways, a maze, and even a bowling alley for exercise.
The satisfied gardener should ‘view now with delight the works of your owne hands, your fruit trees of all sorts, loaden with sweet blossomes, and fruit of all tasts, operations and colours: your trees standing in comely order which way soever you look … Your borders on every side hanging and drooping with Feberries, Raspberries, Barberries, Currents, and the roots of your trees powdred with Strawberries, red, white and green, what a pleasure is this?’
Having gathered in the  harvest, Lawson recommends a period of reflection: ‘Now pause with your selfe, and view the end of all your labours in an Orchard: unspeakable pleasure, and infinite commodity’. But although the yield will hopefully be profitable, the means is not all about the end: ‘For what is greedy gaine, without delight, but moyling, and turmoyling in slavery? But comfortable delight, with content, is the good of every thing, and the patterne of heaven … And who can deny but the principall end of an orchard, is the honest delight of one wearied with the works of his lawfull calling?’
The book is also loved for its woodcut illustrations. In the preface, Lawson explains that no expense was spared in producing these for the ‘common good’: much ‘cost and care’ was bestowed by the publisher in having them produced by ‘the best Artizan’.
The illustration depicting the ‘overall plan for the form of a garden’ is a simplified view of a typical late Elizabethan garden. The overall rectangular shape is split into six square sections set over three levels or terraces, negotiated via flights of stairs and intercrossing walkways. Its design demonstrates the Tudors love for symmetry and patterns. A mount (‘M’) at each corner overlooks the garden and the countryside beyond it, and a fountain plays at one of the walkway crossings. There are two still houses in the top corners (‘N’). The individual gardens within gardens are variously landscaped with trees, kitchen gardens, flowerbeds, knots, and topiary (signified by the horse and sword wielding man). A river runs at the top and bottom of the garden. The presence of water nearby is lauded as being both practical (in providing moisture for thirsty trees and in acting as a barrier) and pleasant for sport, for ‘you might sit in your mount and angle a peckled trout, sleighty eel or some other daintie fish’. According to Malcolm Thick, this garden would have been considered old-fashioned by the most fashion-conscious gentlemen of the early Seventeenth Century who were more interested in Italian influenced grand ‘Renaissance’ gardens, preferably laid out by a Continental gardeners. But is should be remembered that Lawson was hearkening back to the 1570s when writing his work, and the gardens he favoured ‘had an intimacy never regained once the impact of the high Italian Renaissance and the French grand manner reached England’ (Miles Hadfield, quoted by Thick).
The second work in Lawson’s book, The Country Housewife’s Companion, lacks the philosophical discourses of its companion volume. This is perhaps because it was written specifically for women (‘my country housewife, not skillful artists’), and its simple tone is therefore pitched at a less learned readership. Nonetheless, it frequently refers to the text of The New Orchard and it seems that the two books were intended to be read and used together.
The book is split into a series of short chapters that offer advice on a number of topics, including the soil and layout of the ideal garden, the properties of various herbs and plants, general rules for gardening, and the husbandry of bees.
Lawson suggests that each household should have two gardens: a kitchen garden and a flower garden. He explains that the distinction between the two does not have to be perfect but that ‘your garden flowers shall suffer some disgrace if among them you intermingle onions, parsnips,etc.’ The division is for both practical and aesthetic reasons: that ‘for your kitchen’s use must yield daily roots or other herbs and suffer deformity’ while ‘the herbs of both will not be both alike ready at one time either for gathering or removing’.
The flower (or ‘summer’) garden could be set out in  in squares and knots. Lawson recommends using a mix of flowers and herbs, mentioning roses, rosemary, lavendar, hyssop, sage, thyme, cowslips, peonies, daisies, clove-gilliflowers, pinks, and lilies. Several illustrations of patterns for knot gardens are provided, but Lawson concedes that for these ‘speciall formes in squares’  there are as many devices as ‘gardeners braines’ and prefers to ‘leave every house-wife to herself.’
plans for knots (pages 80-82 [ie 81])
aha2_beehives
This work also provides detailed information about bee-keeping, covering everything from constructing a hive to extracting honey. This again was based on personal experience, Lawson telling us that he was a ‘Bee-master’ for many years. He goes against conventional wisdom in preferring a straw hive for his bees over a wooden one, but says that he recommends them for ‘nimblenesse, closenesse, warmnesse and drynesse.’ He emphasises the tenderness of bees on several occasions, saying, for example, that the ‘nesh Bee can neither abide cold or wet’.
Two short pamphlets are appended to the end of Lawson’s work: A most profitable new treatise, from approved experience of the art of propagating plants by Simon Harward (pages 109-123) and The husbandmans fruitfull orchard (pages 125-134). Harward’s work is an in-depth explanation of the methodology for layering and grafting trees. The last work is a common sense guide to picking, packing, transporting and preserving fruit.
We do not know who originally owned this copy of the book, but the volume does bear intriguing glimpses of its past life. An annotation in an Italic hand at the foot of the main title-page indicates that the book was in Durham and purchased for six shillings at some unspecified point in its history. This inscription is followed by a more obscure annotation – possibly the initials ‘J.G.’, the initials ‘I.G. also being blind stamped on the front board of the binding.
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Glasgow University Library acquired the book as part of the collection of John Ferguson, purchased in 1920. Ferguson (1838-1916) was a Professor of Chemistry at Glasgow University from 1874 to 1915. Although his library is justly renowned for its strengths in Alchemy and Chemistry, it also contains many interesting books and manuals on practical topics such as gardening, husbandry and cookery. According to a note in the front pastedown, Ferguson bought this book on 16 February, 1906.
This book will be on display in the Special Collections foyer (on level 12 of Glasgow University Library), along with a small selection of other gardening books, until the end of September 2006.

‘To conclude, what joy may you have, that you living to such an age, shall see the blessings of God on your labours while you live, and leave behind you to heirs or successors (for God will make heires) such a work, that many ages after your death, shall record your love to their Country? And the rather, when you consider to what length of time your worke is like to last’.

 

Gerson on “Pollutione Nocturna”

276J.  Jean Gerson 

Incipit tractatulus venerabil[is] m[a]g[ist]ri Johannis Gerson cancellarij Parisiensis tractans de polluc[i]o[n]e nocturna an impediat celebrantem an non

[Cologne : Johann Guldenschaff, about 1480]                       SOLD

046654_2
Gerson De Polluc[i]o[n]e Nocturna Guldenschaff ca. 1480

All incunable editions are undated and unsigned by their printers.  ISTC locates 15  incunable editions of this practical text which testifies to a real demand. Yet the fact that they are all printed anonymously might make one wonder.

img_0664Gerson wrote this treaties around 1412, In Brian Patrick McGuire’s Biography of Gerson [Jean Gerson and the Last Medieval Reformation .Pennsylvania State University Press 2005]  he discusses at length this “important commentary on his (Gerson)attitude to the body and its functions” 

Gerson commences the Pollutione Nocturna with a personal statement.

“I have frequently and for a long time been in doubt, especially after I was ordained priest, if someone who was polluted by a nighttime dream should refrain from celebrating Mass…..”

Gerson has “to speak in an impure way” to address this Subject but he proceeds in his usual orderly fashion ,with 10 ‘considerationes’  McGuire Describes it thus: “Gerson’s img_0663familiar manner, starting out with free will and choice, as well as the individual’s worthiness to celebrated the Mass, and ending with Detailed instructions on how to cope with bond functions.    …  He asks when it is that a person gives consent. In other words: when semen flowers in sleep to what extent can the individual be considered responsible?”

The fifth considerations tells us:

“No form of pollution that is begun and completed in sleep is a mortal sin”

The psychology and biology which Gerson exposes here is quite interesting.

 

Quarto 8 x 6  Inches unsigned [a-b8].(the first leaf blank and present)        This copy is bound in 19th century boards. The type seems quite archaic and has a roundish face and is called “lettre de somme” for a book from 1480. It is very similar to Zel’s type, (see the image below).

 

Here is a list of the 15 editions, our copy is number 6.

  1. Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. Add: Forma absolutionis sacramentalis. — [Cologne : Ulrich Zel, about 1466]. — 4°
    Bibliographical References: Goff G254; HC 7694* = H 7666; Klebs 459.1; Voull(K) 476; Pell 5219; Polain(B) 1632; IDL 1963; Sajó-Soltész 1418; Voull(B) 678; Schüling 385; Finger 427; Oates 281; Pr 800; BMC I 179; BSB-Ink G-159; GW 10808
    ISTC ig00254000
    4541373
    [Cologne : Ulrich Zel, about 1466].

    2) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. — [Cologne : Ulrich Zel, about 1467]. — 4° Bibliographical References: Goff G255; H 7697 = 7704 (I); Klebs 459.2; Voull(K) 477; Pell 5212; Delisle 820; Polain(B) 1627; IDL 1964; IGI 4257; Voull(B) 678,2; Schlechter-Ries 739; Ohly-Sack 1225; Finger 428; Oates 290; Bod-inc G-122; Sheppard 608; Pr 806; BMC I 180; GW 10809 ISTC ig00255000
  2. inc-ii-576_0001
    De pollutione nocturna — [Cologne: Ulrich Zel, about 1467]
  3. 3) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. — [Cologne : Printer of Dares (Johannes Solidi (Schilling), not after 1472]. — 4° The Basel UB copy has a rubricator’s date 1472. — Bibliographical References: Goff G257; H 7693*; Klebs 459.5; Voull(K) 480; Pell 5215; Arnoult 688; Castan(Besançon) 489, 490; IDL 1967; Sotheby’s (London), 1 July 1994 (Donaueschingen) 183 ; Günt(L) 580; Voull(B) 750; Voull(Trier) 417; Kind(Göttingen) 2138; Rhodes(Oxford Colleges) 839; Pr 995; BMC I 213; BSB-Ink G-162; GW 10812. ISTC ig00257000
    4) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. Add: Henricus de Hassia (the Younger?): Regulae ad cognoscendum differentiam inter peccatum mortale et veniale et Septem signa amoris Dei. — [Esslingen : Conrad Fyner, 1473?]. — 4°
    Bibliographical References: Goff G259; H 7699* (incl H 8400*); Klebs 459.6; Pell 5216; Zehnacker 973; Delisle 821; Sajó-Soltész 1420; Šimáková-Vrchotka 806; Ohly-Sack 1226; Sack(Freiburg) 1559; Hubay(Augsburg) 897; Voull(B) 1143; Walsh 929; Pr 2470; BMC II 512; BSB-Ink G-163; GW 10815. ISTC ig00259000
    5) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. — [Paris : Ulrich Gering, Martin Crantz and Michael Friburger, about 1474]. — 4° Bibliographical References: C 2692; Klebs 459.7; Pell 5217; Arnoult 689; Buffévent 220; Frasson-Cochet 136; Torchet 385; Castan(Besançon) 492; Polain(B) 1630; Martín Abad G-40; Schlechter-Ries 741; Borm 1142; Rhodes(Oxford Colleges) 840; GW 10813 (I) ISTC ig00259400
    6) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. — [Cologne : Johann Guldenschaff, about 1480]. — 4°
    Bibliographical References: Goff G260; C 2691; Klebs 459.8; Voull(K) 481; Polain(B) 1629; IDL 1968; SI 1650; Madsen 1722; Sallander 1734; Voull(B) 905,4; Voull(Trier) 584; Hubay(Augsburg) 898; Sack(Freiburg) 1560; Kind(Göttingen) 2139; GW 10816
    ISTC ig00260000

img_0665

7) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. — [Speyer : Johann and Conrad Hist, about 1485]. — 4°. Reprinted from Gering’s undated Paris editions, Pell 5217 and Pell 5144? (BMC). — Bibliographical References: H 7698*; Pell 5220; Péligry 375; IBP 2388; Engel-Stalla col 1657; Schlechter-Ries 740; Voull(B) 2055; Sack(Freiburg) 1561; Pr 2403A; BMC II 502; BSB-Ink G-164; GW 10817. ISTC ig00261500
8) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. De cognitione castitatis et de pollutionibus diurnis. Add: Forma absolutionis sacramentalis. — [Cologne : Ludwig von Renchen, about 1488]. — 4° GW dates this about 1485. — Bibliographical References: Goff G262; H 7701*; Klebs 461.4; Voull(K) 482; Pell 5218 (I); Aquilon 318; Zehnacker 961; IBP 2390; SI 1652; Sallander 1735; Šimáková-Vrchotka 807; Sack(Freiburg) 1562, 1563; Günt(L) 822; Kind(Göttingen) 2140; Schullian 211; Walsh 425; Pr 1275; BMC I 268; BSB-Ink G-165; Döring-Fuchs G-71; GW 10818 ISTC ig00262000
9) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. De cognitione castitatis et de pollutionibus diurnis. — [Rouen : Guillaume Le Talleur, about 1490]. — 4°
Bibliographical References: Goff G263; H 7703; C 2693; GfT 2270; Klebs 461.3; Verdier(Talleur) XIX; Pell 5221; Castan(Besançon) 493; IBE 2654; IGI 4258; Pr 8789; BMC VIII 392; GW 10821 ISTC ig00263000
10) Gerson, Johannes: Tractatus diversi: De praeparatione ad missam, De pollutione nocturna. De pollutione diurna. De modo vivendi omnium fidelium. Opus tripartitum. Donatus moralisatus. — [Antwerp : Mathias van der Goes, about 1491]. — 4°
Bibliographical References: C 2707 + 2698; Camp 818 (quires i-m) + 821 (quires a-h); ILC 1092; Inv Ant 91; Polain(B) 1640; IDL 1953; Bod-inc G-134; Sheppard 7203; Pr 9429; GW 10839 ISTC ig00273700
11) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. — [Cologne : Ulrich Zel, about 1467-72]. — 4°
Bibliographical References: Goff G256; H 7696*; Klebs 459.3; Voull(K) 478; Pell 5213; Arnoult 687; IDL 1966; Sajó-Soltész 1419; Borm 1140; Voull(B) 679; Voull(Trier) 333; Hubay(Augsburg) 896; Oates 321; Bod-inc G-123; Sheppard 629; Pr 837; BMC I 184; BSB-Ink G-160; GW 10810 ISTC ig00256000
12) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. — [Cologne : Ulrich Zel, about 1472]. — 4°
Dated by Goff about 1472. — Polain dates about 1470. — Bibliographical References: Goff G258; H 7695*; Klebs 459.4; Voull(K) 479; Pell 5214; Zehnacker 972; Polain(B) 1628; IDL 1965; IBPort 769; SI 1649; Kotvan 529; Coll(U) 596; Madsen 1723; Sack(Freiburg) 1558; Finger 429, 430; Borm 1141; Schüling 386; Ernst(Hildesheim) I,I 202; Voull(B) 680; Günt(L) 916; Pad-Ink 274, 275; Oates 373; Pr 872; BMC I 190; BSB-Ink G-161; GW 10811
ISTC ig00258000
13) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. De cognitione castitatis et de pollutionibus diurnis. — [Poland (Chelmno?) : Printer of Leo Papa, ‘Sermones’, about 1474-75]. — 4°
On the location of this printing-house in Poland see E. Szandorowska, in Quaerendo 2 (1972), pp.162-172. The press was previously assigned to the Netherlands (GW) and tentatively to Cologne (V. Scholderer, in BSA 54 (1960) pp.111-13, reprinted in Fifty Essays (Amsterdam, 1966) pp.279-80). — Bibliographical References: Camp-Kron 811a; IBP 2387; SI 1651; Louda 754; Coll(S) 452; Oates 3669; GW 10814 ISTC ig00259500
14) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. De cognitione castitatis et de pollutionibus diurnis. Add: Forma absolutionis sacramentalis. — [Louvain : Johannes de Westfalia, about 1484-87]. — 4° Reproductions of the watermarks found in the paper used in this edition are provided by the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National Library of the Netherlands. –– Bibliographical References: Goff G261; HC 7702; Klebs 461.2; Camp 812; ILC 1091; Polain(B) 1631; IDL 1969; IBP 2389; Rhodes(Oxford Colleges) 841; BMC IX 153; GW 10819 ISTC ig00261000
15) Gerson, Johannes: De pollutione nocturna. De cognitione castitatis et de pollutionibus diurnis. — [Paris : Pierre Levet, between 1488 and 1490]. — 4°
Bibliographical References: Klebs 461.5; Pell 5222; Parguez 465; Polain(B) 1633; Arnoult 690; GW 10820 ISTC ig00262500

Country House-Wife’s Garden 1631

273J William Lawson (1553/4–1635)

A nevv orchard and garden or The best way for planting, grafting, and to make any ground good, for a rich orchard: particularly in the north, and generally for the whole kingdome of England, as in nature, reason, situation, and all probabilitie, may and doth appeare. Wit the country housewifes garden for hearbes of common vse their vertues, seasons, profits, ornaments, varietie of knots, models for trees, and plots for the best ordering of grounds and walkes. As also the husbandry of bees, with their seuerall vses and annoyances all being the experience of 48. yeares labour, and now the second time corrected and much enlarged, by William Lawson. Whereunto is newly added the art of propagating plants, with the true ordering of all manner of fruits, in their gathering, carring home & preseruation.

aha2_log

London: Printed by Nicholas Okes, for Iohn Harison, at the golden Vnicorne in Pater-noster-row, 1631.    $1,900

 

Quarto.A⁴ B-I⁸ K⁴ (last leaf blank).

This copy is disbound  in a folding cloth binder  There are a few woodcut illustrations.    Minor wear, one leaf cropped close with slight loss; a very nice copy.

This is an early issue of this horticultural classic, first published in 1618, and notable for the inclusion of Lawson’s Country House-Wife’s Garden, the first book on the subject specifically written for women, and one of the most delightful gardening books in the language, illustrated with the oft-reproduced cuts of knot designs.

aha2_orchardWilliam Lawson was a writer on gardening and Church of England clergyman, was probably a member of the extensive northern English gentry family of Lawson, but his parents’ names are not known. He was ordained deacon in 1580, and became vicar of Ormesby, near Teesmouth, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, in 1583. He spent the rest of his life there. His first wife, Sibille, with whom he had two children, was buried at Ormesby in 1618; on 28 April 1619 he married Emme Tailer, who survived him.  Lawson was a long-lived Yorkshire parson and a real ‘hands on’ gardener: he declares his book to be written from ‘my meer and sole experience, without respect to any former-written Treatise’. His two passions were orchards and bees and he covers all aspects of his subjects, soil management, planting and pruning, the construction of beehives, the control of various ‘nuisances’ (including birds, deer and moles) and the harvesting of fruits and honey.

Lawson refers several times to the difficulties of the local environment and warns his fellow northern gardeners to ‘meddle not with Apricockes nor Peaches, nor scarcely with Quinces, which will not like our cold parts’. He also stresses how important it is to keep bees in weatherproof accommodation using a good northern term to explain that the ‘nesh Bee can neither abide cold or wet’!  However, he writes lyrically of the pleasures of an orchard: ‘your trees standing in comely order which way soever you look … your borders on every side hanging and drooping with Feberries, Raspberries, Barberries, Currents and the roots of your trees powdred with Strawberries, red,white and green, what pleasure is this?Interestingly, in his advice to the country housewife, Lawson advises that every household should maintain two gardens, a kitchen garden and a flower garden. He suggests that the reason for this is that ‘your garden flowers shall suffer some disgrace if among them you intermingle onions, parsnips etc’.
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The woodcuts which illustrate the book are delightful (Lawson tell us that he instructed the publisher to expend ‘much cost and care … in having the Knots and Models by the best Artizan cut’) They include patterns for knot gardens (the little prancing horse and the man with a sword represent topiary designs) and images of gardeners, sporting some very jaunty headwear, digging and planting.

Lawson’s summary of the satisfaction to be gained from gardening remains as true today as it was for his seventeenth century readers: ‘whereas every other pleasure commonly fills some one of or senses, and that only, with delight, this makes all our senses swim in pleasure’.

aha2_tpcropThis is Lawson’s only book, A new orchard and garden, has a dedication to a connection of one branch of the Lawsons, Sir Henry Belasyse. It was the first published work on gardening in the north of England, and its second section, Aha2_countrytp.jpeg

The Countrie Housewifes Garden, was the first horticultural work written specifically for women (there would not be another in English for a century). The ‘sound, clear, natural wit’ manifested in it was praised by John Beale forty years later (Beale, 14), Illustrated with cuts of tools, a garden plan, and knot designs.

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ESTC S4739;  STC 15331.3; Henrey 228n, p. 160; Rohde, p. 54; British Bee Books 20; Poynter, p. 176.

Three libraries hold copies in the US!, Berkeley :University of Illinois :Yale

and now I will copy from  GLASGOW UNIVERSITY LIBRARY SPECIAL COLLECTIONS DEPARTMENT

Book of the Month

July 2006

William Lawson 

A New Orchard and Garden with The Country-Housewifes Garden for Herbs

London: 1648.     Sp Coll Ferguson Ah-a.2

Our July choice is a popular Renaissance work on gardening, A new orchard and garden by William Lawson. It was printed together with the first horticultural book written solely for women, The country housewife’s garden. Both are full of sensible and practical advice, imbued with Lawson’s charming philosophy. For Lawson, working in the orchard and garden was the ideal kind of rest and relaxation: ‘For whereas every other pleasure commonly fills some one of our senses, and that only, with delight, this makes all our senses swim in pleasure, and that with infinite variety joyned with no lesse commodity’.
William Lawson (1553/4-1635) was the vicar of Ormesby, a country parish in Yorkshire.  First and foremost a religious man who carried out his clerical duties most diligently, he was obviously also a keen gardener with considerable land. A man of some learning, he evidently read widely on agriculture and gardening, and his two works are also scattered with references to the classics. When he died he willed ‘all my latine books & mie English books of contraversie’ to his son William, which suggests that he may well have owned a relatively substantial library of books for the period.
A New Orchard and Garden and The Country Housewife’s Garden were Lawson’s only published works. They were first printed together in 1618* and proved popular enough to warrant further reprints in quick succession. The copy featured here is a later, enlarged edition from 1648, part of A Way to Get Wealth, a compilation of treatises on husbandry and other household matters by Gervase Markham.
Lawson dedicated his work to Sir Henry Belloses (Belasyse), a prominent Yorkshire baronet who was also an orchard enthusiast. In his dedication, Lawson thanks him for the profit he received from his ‘learned Discourse of Fruit trees’. However, in the preface following he is at pains to point out that his book is in fact a product of ‘my meer and sole experience, without respect to any former-written Treatise’. It is a result of forty eight years experience in working a northern garden. Occasionally in the text he refers to the difficulties of this environment. He advises his fellow northerners, for instance, to ‘meddle not with Apricockes nor Peaches, nor scarcely with Quinces, which will not like our cold parts’. This book can therefore be credited with being the first to deal with the northern garden.
Gardening had become a national passion in the Sixteenth Century. Then, as now, it was a recreation that brought peace and contentment, and Eyler suggests that it provided a welcome escape from the trials of a turbulent age. Renaissance interest was certainly sparked by the influence of Protestant refugees from the Continent, while an increase in travel abroad and geographical discovery brought back new plants and ideas. There was a subsequent demand for new knowledge and exchange of information, spurring the production of horticultural manuals such as this.
Although not published until 1618, Lawson’s work is really the product of an Elizabethan life. But it is interesting to note that in its practicality, it is also an example of the age of reason; at this time there was a growing preoccupancy with the workings of nature and science, and a burgeoning interest in subjects such as botany, concentrating on the useful qualities and medical virtues of plants. Such a utilitarian outlook was also to be found in the tenets of Puritanism: good husbandry was keenly pursued, physical toil being regarded as a form of devotion to God. It should be remembered that Lawson was a Protestant preacher, and as Thick points out, his religious convictions were broadly puritan; as he states, he had no time for ‘popery and knavery’.
The heading preceding the first chapter sums up the aim of Lawson’s New Orchard: ‘the best, sure and readiest way to make a good orchard and garden’.  He begins with the traits to be sought in a good gardener should the reader be in the position to employ one: he should be honest, and certainly not ‘an idle, or lazie lubber’. If lucky enough to have the services of such a paragon, ‘God shall crowne the labours of his hands with joyfulnesse, and make the clouds drop fatnesse upon your trees’. For those who have to roll up their own sleeves, however, Lawson has written this book and ‘gathered these rules’ together.

The work goes on to deal comprehensively with all aspects of orchard management, covering: the kind of soil required (‘blacke, fat, mellow, cleane and well tempered’) and how to improve it; the best kind of site and how to protect it with fencing, or even better, ‘quickwood, and moates or ditches of water’; how to deal with ‘annoyances’ such as animals, birds, thieves, disease and the weather (not to mention the evils of a ‘carelesse master’); how to plant, space and prune your trees; the different types of fruit trees and bushes and their qualities; and how to gather, store and preserve the fruits of your labours. As Lawson sums up, ‘skill and pains, bring fruitful gains’.
Lawson’s advice is eminently sensible. His instructions are clear and obviously draw on the considerable personal skills he accrued over his lifetime. However, it is the underlying philosophy of the author and his frequent lyricism and rhetorical eloquence that still makes this book such a pleasure to read today. This is apparent even in the most technical of chapters, where Lawson deals with topics such as raising sets, planting and grafting. A typical example is found in the section on pruning where he emphasises the need for man’s intervention by drawing a comparison with an uncultivated wood full of neglected, rotten, and dying trees, as he rails: ‘What rottennesse? what hollownes? what dead armes? withered tops? curtalled trunks? what loads of mosses? drouping boughes? & dying branches shall you see everywhere?’
 
 
But Lawson’s sentiments rarely override his practicality. For instance, he devotes a considerable section to the measures required to counteract the ‘whole Army of mischiefs’ that plague the gardener. He ruefully acknowledges that ‘Good things have most enemies’ and catalogues a whole host of enemies ranging from deer to moles (they will ‘anger you’). He even advises that sparrowhawks are useful against plundering garden birds: although he acknowledges the delight of hearing blackbirds and thrushes singing on a May morning, ‘I had rather want their company than my fruit’.
Despite his problem with flying cherry thieves, the overall impression gained from reading the book is that Lawson’s ideal garden would be a delight. As well as abundant fruit trees, there would be sweet scented flowers, humming bees (whom, he assures us, do not sting their friends), beautiful ornaments, silver sounding music, broad and long walkways, a maze, and even a bowling alley for exercise.
The satisfied gardener should ‘view now with delight the works of your owne hands, your fruit trees of all sorts, loaden with sweet blossomes, and fruit of all tasts, operations and colours: your trees standing in comely order which way soever you look … Your borders on every side hanging and drooping with Feberries, Raspberries, Barberries, Currents, and the roots of your trees powdred with Strawberries, red, white and green, what a pleasure is this?’
Having gathered in the  harvest, Lawson recommends a period of reflection: ‘Now pause with your selfe, and view the end of all your labours in an Orchard: unspeakable pleasure, and infinite commodity’. But although the yield will hopefully be profitable, the means is not all about the end: ‘For what is greedy gaine, without delight, but moyling, and turmoyling in slavery? But comfortable delight, with content, is the good of every thing, and the patterne of heaven … And who can deny but the principall end of an orchard, is the honest delight of one wearied with the works of his lawfull calling?’
The book is also loved for its woodcut illustrations. In the preface, Lawson explains that no expense was spared in producing these for the ‘common good’: much ‘cost and care’ was bestowed by the publisher in having them produced by ‘the best Artizan’.
The illustration depicting the ‘overall plan for the form of a garden’ is a simplified view of a typical late Elizabethan garden. The overall rectangular shape is split into six square sections set over three levels or terraces, negotiated via flights of stairs and intercrossing walkways. Its design demonstrates the Tudors love for symmetry and patterns. A mount (‘M’) at each corner overlooks the garden and the countryside beyond it, and a fountain plays at one of the walkway crossings. There are two still houses in the top corners (‘N’). The individual gardens within gardens are variously landscaped with trees, kitchen gardens, flowerbeds, knots, and topiary (signified by the horse and sword wielding man). A river runs at the top and bottom of the garden. The presence of water nearby is lauded as being both practical (in providing moisture for thirsty trees and in acting as a barrier) and pleasant for sport, for ‘you might sit in your mount and angle a peckled trout, sleighty eel or some other daintie fish’. According to Malcolm Thick, this garden would have been considered old-fashioned by the most fashion-conscious gentlemen of the early Seventeenth Century who were more interested in Italian influenced grand ‘Renaissance’ gardens, preferably laid out by a Continental gardeners. But is should be remembered that Lawson was hearkening back to the 1570s when writing his work, and the gardens he favoured ‘had an intimacy never regained once the impact of the high Italian Renaissance and the French grand manner reached England’ (Miles Hadfield, quoted by Thick).
The second work in Lawson’s book, The Country Housewife’s Companion, lacks the philosophical discourses of its companion volume. This is perhaps because it was written specifically for women (‘my country housewife, not skillful artists’), and its simple tone is therefore pitched at a less learned readership. Nonetheless, it frequently refers to the text of The New Orchard and it seems that the two books were intended to be read and used together.
The book is split into a series of short chapters that offer advice on a number of topics, including the soil and layout of the ideal garden, the properties of various herbs and plants, general rules for gardening, and the husbandry of bees.
Lawson suggests that each household should have two gardens: a kitchen garden and a flower garden. He explains that the distinction between the two does not have to be perfect but that ‘your garden flowers shall suffer some disgrace if among them you intermingle onions, parsnips,etc.’ The division is for both practical and aesthetic reasons: that ‘for your kitchen’s use must yield daily roots or other herbs and suffer deformity’ while ‘the herbs of both will not be both alike ready at one time either for gathering or removing’.
The flower (or ‘summer’) garden could be set out in  in squares and knots. Lawson recommends using a mix of flowers and herbs, mentioning roses, rosemary, lavendar, hyssop, sage, thyme, cowslips, peonies, daisies, clove-gilliflowers, pinks, and lilies. Several illustrations of patterns for knot gardens are provided, but Lawson concedes that for these ‘speciall formes in squares’  there are as many devices as ‘gardeners braines’ and prefers to ‘leave every house-wife to herself.’
plans for knots (pages 80-82 [ie 81])
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This work also provides detailed information about bee-keeping, covering everything from constructing a hive to extracting honey. This again was based on personal experience, Lawson telling us that he was a ‘Bee-master’ for many years. He goes against conventional wisdom in preferring a straw hive for his bees over a wooden one, but says that he recommends them for ‘nimblenesse, closenesse, warmnesse and drynesse.’ He emphasises the tenderness of bees on several occasions, saying, for example, that the ‘nesh Bee can neither abide cold or wet’.
Two short pamphlets are appended to the end of Lawson’s work: A most profitable new treatise, from approved experience of the art of propagating plants by Simon Harward (pages 109-123) and The husbandmans fruitfull orchard (pages 125-134). Harward’s work is an in-depth explanation of the methodology for layering and grafting trees. The last work is a common sense guide to picking, packing, transporting and preserving fruit.
We do not know who originally owned this copy of the book, but the volume does bear intriguing glimpses of its past life. An annotation in an Italic hand at the foot of the main title-page indicates that the book was in Durham and purchased for six shillings at some unspecified point in its history. This inscription is followed by a more obscure annotation – possibly the initials ‘J.G.’, the initials ‘I.G. also being blind stamped on the front board of the binding.
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Glasgow University Library acquired the book as part of the collection of John Ferguson, purchased in 1920. Ferguson (1838-1916) was a Professor of Chemistry at Glasgow University from 1874 to 1915. Although his library is justly renowned for its strengths in Alchemy and Chemistry, it also contains many interesting books and manuals on practical topics such as gardening, husbandry and cookery. According to a note in the front pastedown, Ferguson bought this book on 16 February, 1906.
This book will be on display in the Special Collections foyer (on level 12 of Glasgow University Library), along with a small selection of other gardening books, until the end of September 2006.

‘To conclude, what joy may you have, that you living to such an age, shall see the blessings of God on your labours while you live, and leave behind you to heirs or successors (for God will make heires) such a work, that many ages after your death, shall record your love to their Country? And the rather, when you consider to what length of time your worke is like to last’.

 

“Popish Midwife” Elizabeth Cellier , English Catholic Midwife 1680

741G Elizabeth Cellier
741G Elizabeth Cellier

741G   Elizabeth Cellier fl 1668-1688

Malice defeated, or, A brief relation of the accusation and deliverance of Elizabeth Cellier wherein her proceedings both before and during her confinement are particularly related and the Mystery of the meal-tub fully discovered : together with an abstract of her arraignment and tryal, written by her self, for the satisfaction of all lovers of undisguised truth.

Includes “The matchless picaro” (caption title), two leaves at end (quire N), which was also published separately in the same year as “The matchless rogue” (Wing C1662).

 

London: Printed for Elizabeth Cellier, 1680           Sold

Folio   A-l2,[Inserted after p. 42 (L2) is a leaf (¹M1) containing “A postscript to the impartial readers,” dated 21 Aug. 1680, and signed: Elizabeth Cellier.]  , M2 (m2 is the begining of Wing C-1663)   First edition. Disbound, with generally clean, well margined leaves, though cutting into some marginal notation a bit, with some small stains on the title, some faint marginal toning.

“Popish Midwife”Cellier, who was know as the “Popish Midwife” first came into prominence through the pretended “Meal-Tub Plot” of 1680.   Nothing seems known of her life till her marriage with Peter Cellier, a Frenchman, and her conversion from Anglicanism. In 1678 the prisons were filled with Catholics in consequence of the national alarm caused by the fabricated plots of Titus Oates. Mrs. Cellier’s charity led her to visit and relieve these prisoners, and as her profession procured for her the acquaintance of many leading Catholic ladies, she often became the channel of their charity towards the prisoners. Among these ladies was the Countess of Powis, whose kindness was shown to, among others, a clever impostor, Thomas Dangerfield. Becoming aware of this man’s true character, Lady Powis ceased to assist him further, and he, in revenge, decided to denounce her to the Government as concerned in a new popish plot. His story was that he had been released from prison through the good offices of Lady Powis and Mrs. Cellier, on condition that he would assassinate the king, Lord Shaftesbury, and others. He further pretended that he was to be engaged in manufacturing false plots to be foisted on those who were known to be unfavorable to the Catholic cause. One of these shams was to be based on a document which, he alleged, was hidden in a meal-tub in Mrs. Cellier’s house. Search was made, and in a meal-tub the paper in question was found. This document charged with treason most of the leading Protestants, including the king’s natural son, the Duke of Monmouth, the Earl of Shaftesbury, and Sir Thomas Waller, who was the very official who conducted the search. In consequence of Dangerfield’s accusation founded on this document, Lady Powis and Mrs. Cellier were arrested, as well as some other Catholics, among them the Earl of Castlemain.  Mrs. Cellier’s trial took place on 11 June, 1680. She was charged with high treason, but practically the only evidence against her was that of Dangerfield himself, and she had little difficulty in proving him a witness entirely unworthy of credence. She was found not guilty, and Dangerfield himself was arrested on account of a felony, for which he had been previously outlawed. After her acquittal she published a this brief relation of the whole affair, under the title of “Malice Defeated”. This led not only to a long series of pamphlets for and against her, but also to her second prosecution. The charge this time was that of libel against the King and ministry, because she alleged that two witnesses in the Edmundbury Godfrey case had been tortured. But the real object of this prosecution, according to Roger North, was to prevent her from giving evidence in favor of the imprisoned Catholic peers.  For this she was sentenced to pay a fine of £1,000 and to stand three times in the pillory. During the reign of James II she planned the foundation of a corporation of skilled midwives and a foundling hospital. It is stated that she is buried in Great Missenden Church, Buckinghamshire. She wrote: (1) “Malice Defeated; or a brief relation of the Accusation and Deliverance of Elizabeth Cellier” (London, 1680); (2) “A scheme for the Foundation of a Royal Hospital and raising a revenue of £5000 or £6000 a year by and for the maintenance of a Corporation of skillful midwives” (London, 1687), printed in the “Harleian Miscellany” (IV, 142) and in the “Somers Tracts” (II, 243); (3) “To Dr. ______, An answer to his Queries concerning the College of Midwives” (London, 1687-88). This book was burnt by the authorities after Cellier was found guilty.

Bound with

“The matchless picaro

Wing C-1661 In this edition, the fourth line of the title ends: and du-

& bound with  C-1662

Cellier1

N.America LinkCalifornia State Library-Sutro 
LinkFolger Shakespeare 
LinkHenry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery 
LinkNorthwestern University 
LinkUniversity of Kansas, Spencer Research 
LinkUniversity of Pennsylvania Van Pelt-Dietrich 

 

Katherine Philips 1631-1664 update

This is perhaps the most famous English collection of poems by a woman prior to 1700. P.W. Souers, in his critical biography of Katherine Philips, asserts for her the right to be historically the first English poetess—“In her, for the first time in the history of English letters, a woman was received into the select company of poets.” Jeremy Taylor dedicated to her his “Discourse on the Nature, Offices, and Measures of Friendship;” Abraham Cowley, Henry Vaughan the Silurist, Thomas Flatman, the Earl of Roscommon, and the Earl of Cork and Orrery all celebrated her talent, and Dryden could pay no higher compliment to Anne Killigrew than to compare her to Orinda.

 

933G Katherine Philips 1631-1664

Poems By the most deservedly Admired Mrs. Katherine Philips, The Matchless Orinda. To which is added Monsieur Corneilles Pompey & Horace,} Tragedies. With several other Translations out of French.

London: Printed by T.N. for Henry Herringman , 1678                                 $4,500

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Folio 11 x 7 inches.  [ ]2, A4, a-Z4, Aa-Tt4, Uu2.   Fourth edition This copy is in good condition internally. It is bound in full seventeenth century English calfskin.

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“The daughter of a London merchant, Katherine Fowler [her maiden name] was probably the first English woman poet to have her work published. She married a gentleman of substance from Cardigan, James Philips, and seems to have moved effortlessly into the literary circle adorned by Vaughan, Cowley, and Jeremy Taylor. She was best known by her pseudonym ‘Orinda’ and the name appears on the collection of her Letters, which give a useful picture of the early seventeenth-century literary world. Her translation of Corneille’s ‘Pompee’ was performed in Dublin in 1663 and a collection of her verses was published posthumously in 1664.” (Cambridge Guide to English Literature)Mrs. Philips’ poems were circulated in manuscript, and secured for her a considerable reputation. The surreptitious quarto edition produced in 1664 caused her much annoyance, and Marriott, the publisher, was obliged to withdraw it from sale, and publicly to express his regret for having issued it. Some trouble was taken, it would appear, to destroy the copies, which would account for its rarity. In the preface of the 1667 edition, reference is made to the ‘false edition,’ and a long letter from the author in relation to it is quoted. P.W. Souers, in his critical biography of Katherine Philips, asserts for her the right to be historically the first English poetess—“In her, for the first time in the history of English letters, a woman was received into the select company of poets.” Jeremy Taylor dedicated to her his “Discourse on the Nature, Offices, and Measures of Friendship;” Abraham Cowley, Henry Vaughan the Silurist, Thomas Flatman, the Earl of Roscommon, and the Earl of Cork and Orrery all celebrated her talent, and Dryden could pay no higher compliment to Anne Killigrew than to compare her to Orinda. Keats, in a letter to Reynolds in 1817, quotes her verses with approval. She died of smallpox in 1664 at the age of 33. Wing P-2035.

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It is not usual to find a printed book which gives us such a vivid depiction of the literary world for 17th century women, this is a great book and I am constantly amazed by it.

 

Please enjoy reading about it.

840g    Philips, Katherine.1631-1664

LETTERS FROM ORINDA TO POLIARCHUS

LONDON: PRINTED BY W.B. FOR BERNARD LINTOTT, 1705                       $3,500

 

OCTAVO,6.75 X 3.75 INCHES.  FIRST EDITION A-R8  BOUND IN ORIGINAL CALF recently rebaked it is a NICE ORIGINAL CONDITION COPY WITH ONLY SOME BROWNING, SPOTTING AND DAMP STAINING, IT IS A VERY GOOD COPY.

 

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This is a collection of 48 ( XLVIII) actual letters written by Philips to her patron Sir Charles Cotterell published several decades after her death, there is quit a bit of discussion of the literary culture of the seventh century in Britain. Including insite to Philips writing and reading habits. she often mentions books she is reading and plays which she is working on.

Philips was interested in the epistolary form, she founded the Society of Friendship in 1651 until 1661 was a semi-literary correspondence circle made up of mostly women, though men were also involved. The membership of this group, however, is somewhat questionable, because the authors took on pseudonyms from Classical literature (for example Katherine took on the name Orinda, in which the other members added on the accolade “Matchless.”)

It is interesting to see the relations between the female members of the circle, especially Anne Owen, who is known in Philips’s poems as Lucasia.  Half of Katherine’s poetry is dedicated to this woman. Anne and Katherine seem to have been lovers in an emotional, if not in a physical, sense for about ten years. Also significant as correspondents and lovers were Mary Awbrey (Rosania) and Elizabeth Boyle (Celimena). Elizabeth’s relationship with Katherine, however, was cut short by Philips’ death in 1664.

In  “The Sapphic-Platonics of Katherine Philips, 1632-1664”   Harriette Andreadis

Source:Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 15, no. 1 (autumn 1989): 34-60.

Ms Andreadis, in this essay nicely gives a view of Orinda’s live (and Loves) in relation to her writing by using excerpts from her poems and These letters;

 

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103gPhilips, Katherine.1631-1664

Letters from Orinda to Poliarchus

 London: printed by W.B. for Bernard Lintott, 1705                       $5,500

Octavo,6.75 X 3.75 inches.  First edition A-R8  Bound in original calf totally un-restored a very nice original condition copy with only some browning, spotting and damp staining, It is a very good copy.

It is housed in a custom Box.

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934G William Cartwright.  (1611-1643)

Comedies, Tragi-Comedies, With other Poems by Mr. William Cartwright late Student of Christ–Church in Oxford and Proctor of the University. The Ayres and Songs set by Mr. Henry Lawes Servant to His late Majesty in His Publick and Private Musick. —nec Ignes, Nec potuit Ferrum,—

London: Printed for Humphrey Moseley, and are to be sold at his Shop, at the sign of the Prince’s Arms in St Pauls Church–yard, 1651.         $4,750

[Portrait]1, [a]-b8, *14 , *8, ¶4, **8, ***14, *10, a-e8, f4, g-k8, A-T8, U3,  U8, X2, with leaf *11 in cancelled state as usual and showing the original stub. Leaves **7 and U1-3 appear to be in uncancelled state with no evidence of stubs, otherwise this collation matches that described by Evans. First Edition. DSC_0059 3This copy is bound in later green Morocco gilt spin a distinguished looking copy.

 

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“Cartwright enjoyed a considerable success among his contemporaries but posterity has been less kind and his work is only known to students of seventeenth century literature. He was educated at Westminster School and went up to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1628; he spent the rest of his short life there. He wrote four plays, intended for academic performance: The Ordinary or The City Cozener (1634) shows clearly the influence of Ben Jonson; The Lady Errant, The Royall Slave, and The Siege or Love’s Convert were published in 1651. The Royall Slave, with designs by Inigo Jones and music by Henry Lawes, was acted for King Charles I and Henrietta Maria at Oxford in 1636 and proved a great success. Cartwright took holy orders in 1638 and wrote no more plays but he became a celebrated preacher; in 1642 he became reader in metaphysics to the university. A Royalist, Cartwright preached at Oxford before the king after the Battle of Edgehill. The edition of his works published in 1651 contained 51 commendatory verses by writers of the day, including Izaak Walton and Henry Vaughan. The Plays and Poems of William Cartwright were collected and edited by G. Blakemore Evans and published in 1951. (Stapleton) This work also includes the first poem by Katherine Phillips to be printed (DNB). 

Cartwright was well liked, and many of his wide circle of friends contributed to the verses occupying the first 100 pages or so; Dr. John Fell, Jasper Mayne, Henry Vaughan the Silurist, Alexander Brome, Izaak Walton, Francis Vaughan, Thomas Vaughan, Henry Lawes, Sir John Birkenhead, James Howell and many others. 

 

Wing C-709; see also The Plays and Poems of William Cartwright by G. Blakemore Evans, pages 62-72; Hayward English Poetry Catalogue, 104; Greg page 1027.

An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting

JANE COLLIER,  1714-1755

 

An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting; with Proper Rules for the Exercise of that Amusing Study…with some general instructions for plaguing all your acquaintance.

 

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“The Cat doth play,/ And after slay.”

London, A Millar, 1757.                                                       $2,900

8vo, pp [2], iii, [1], 234, etched frontispiece [of a cat tormenting a mouse, after Hogarth], bound in contemporary polished calf, spine gilt with raised bands,  spine slightly cracked and chipped at ends, but a clean sound copy,

SECOND EDITION ‘corrected’, with the ‘advertisement to the reader’ added;, one of the classic satires of the 18th Century, the work of a female friend of Samuel Richardson. Porkington Library bookplate with 19th Century signature of Mary Jane Ormsby, a much painted beauty married to the Irish MP William Ormsby-Gore.

Wickedly funny and bitingly satirical, The Art is a comedy of manners that gives insights into eighteenth-century behavior as well as the timeless art of emotional abuse. It is also an advice book, a handbook of anti-etiquette, and a comedy of manners. Collier describes methods for “teasing and mortifying” one’s intimates and acquaintances in a variety of social situations. Written primarily for wives, mothers, and the mistresses of servants, it suggests the difficulties women experienced exerting their influence in private and public life–and the ways they got round them. As such, The Art provides a fascinating glimpse into eighteenth-century daily life.swift-tormenting6.jpgAn Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting was a conduct book written by Jane Collier and published in 1753. The Essay was Collier’s first work, and operates as a satirical advice book on how to nag. It was modelled after Jonathan Swift’s satirical essays, and is intended to “teach” a reader the various methods for “teasing and mortifying” one’s acquaintances. It is divided into two sections that are organised for “advice” to specific groups, and it is followed by “General Rules” for all people to follow.

Although the work was written by Jane Collier, there are speculations as to who may have helped contribute to the content and style of the work, ranging from friends to fellow writers such as Sarah Fielding, Samuel Richardson and James Harris. There was only one edition printed during Collier’s life, but there were many subsequent revisions and republications of the work

In 1748, Collier was living with her brother Arthur in London. The conditions were not suitable, and she became the governess for Samuel Richardson’s daughter, Patty, by 1750.  Richardson was impressed by her understanding of Latin and Greek along with her ability to perform her domestic duties.   During this time, Collier was living with Sarah Fielding, and Richardson would spend time discussing writing with them.

It was under Richardson’s employment that she wrote An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting.   It has been suggested that Richardson helped Collier write the work, but Richardson’s lack of satirical skill has dispelled such ideas.

Instead, it was probably James Harris and Fielding who helped craft the satire, and all three probably helped to edit the work.  However, most of Collier’s help came from Fielding, who was a close friend and shared many of her earlier works with Collier.

The first edition was printed by Richardson for Andrew Millar in 1753.  A second edition of the Essay was published by Millar in 1757, two years after Collier’s death, but with revisions made by her shortly after its first printing.  Subsequently editions and revisions were published in 1795, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1808, 1809 and 1811.

The Essay is modelled on Jonathan Swift’s satire Instructions to Servants (1746), and even mentions Swift directly, but Collier reverses the roles in Swift’s satire and instead writes from a servant’s perspective in the first book.  All of her suggestions are to aid in the process of “teasing and mortifying”.

She begins her work with an actual “Essay on the Art of Tormenting” that serves as an introduction, before dividing the book into two parts. In this introduction, the narrator claims:

“One strong objection, I know, will be made against my whole design, by people of weak consciences; which is, that every rule I shall lay down will be exactly opposite to the doctrine of Christianity. Greatly, indeed, in a Christian country, should I fear the forces of such an objection, could I perceive, that any one vice was refrained from on that account only. Both theft and murder are forbidden by God himself: yet can anyone say, that our lives and properties would be in the least secure, were it not for the penal laws of our country?”

 

Part the First is divided into four sections: “Instructions to Masters and Mistresses, concerning their Servants”, “To the Patronesses of an Humble Companion”, “To Parents” and “To the Husband”. To the master and mistresses, the narrator claims that “you are no true lover of the noble game of Tormenting, if a good dinner, or any other convenience or enjoyment, can give you half the pleasure, as the teasing and mortifying a good industrious servant, who has done her very best to please you.”

 

Part the Second is divided into four sections: “To Lovers”, “To the Wife”, “To the Friend” and “To your Good Sort of People; being an appendage to the foregoing chapter”. To wives, she tells them to “Be out of humour when your husband brings company home: be angry, if he goes abroad without you; and troublesome, if he takes you with him.” When speaking to friends, she argues that “injuries go nearest to us, that we neither deserve nor expect”.

 

Added to the work are “General Rules for plaguing all your acquaintance; with the description of a party of pleasure” along with a “Conclusion” and “A Fable”. As a general rule, the narrator says, “By all means avoid an evenness of behaviour. Be, sometimes, extremely glad to see people; and, at other times, let your behaviour be hardly within the rules of good breeding”

 

Most of her contemporaries had only good things to say about the work. Henry Fielding complimented Collier on the work by declaring she had “an Understanding more than Female, mixed with virtues almost more than human”.  This line was part of a greater poem written by Fielding and inscribed on a copy of his favourite book of Horace.  This was one of Fielding’s last actions before he left for Lisbon, where he died shortly after.

 

Later, Betty Rizzo described the work as the “best-known generic satire written in the eighteenth century by a woman”.

Martin and Ruthe Battestin stated that Collier was “an author of wit and spirit”

Some critics find it interesting that Collier would “yoke” Richardson with those that he “felt especial antipathy” with: Swift and Fielding.

Craik describes the work as “a courageous social satire published at a time when satires were usually written by and for men”.

 

 

 

An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting

JANE COLLIER,  1714-1755

 

An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting; with Proper Rules for the Exercise of that Amusing Study…with some general instructions for plaguing all your acquaintance.

 

Art_of_Ingeniously_Tormenting2
“The Cat doth play,/ And after slay.”

London, A Millar, 1757.                                                       SOLD

8vo, pp [2], iii, [1], 234, etched frontispiece [of a cat tormenting a mouse, after Hogarth], bound in contemporary polished calf, spine gilt with raised bands,  spine slightly cracked and chipped at ends, but a clean sound copy,

SECOND EDITION ‘corrected’, with the ‘advertisement to the reader’ added;, one of the classic satires of the 18th Century, the work of a female friend of Samuel Richardson. Porkington Library bookplate with 19th Century signature of Mary Jane Ormsby, a much painted beauty married to the Irish MP William Ormsby-Gore.

Wickedly funny and bitingly satirical, The Art is a comedy of manners that gives insights into eighteenth-century behavior as well as the timeless art of emotional abuse. It is also an advice book, a handbook of anti-etiquette, and a comedy of manners. Collier describes methods for “teasing and mortifying” one’s intimates and acquaintances in a variety of social situations. Written primarily for wives, mothers, and the mistresses of servants, it suggests the difficulties women experienced exerting their influence in private and public life–and the ways they got round them. As such, The Art provides a fascinating glimpse into eighteenth-century daily life.swift-tormenting6.jpgAn Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting was a conduct book written by Jane Collier and published in 1753. The Essay was Collier’s first work, and operates as a satirical advice book on how to nag. It was modelled after Jonathan Swift’s satirical essays, and is intended to “teach” a reader the various methods for “teasing and mortifying” one’s acquaintances. It is divided into two sections that are organised for “advice” to specific groups, and it is followed by “General Rules” for all people to follow.

Although the work was written by Jane Collier, there are speculations as to who may have helped contribute to the content and style of the work, ranging from friends to fellow writers such as Sarah Fielding, Samuel Richardson and James Harris. There was only one edition printed during Collier’s life, but there were many subsequent revisions and republications of the work

In 1748, Collier was living with her brother Arthur in London. The conditions were not suitable, and she became the governess for Samuel Richardson’s daughter, Patty, by 1750.  Richardson was impressed by her understanding of Latin and Greek along with her ability to perform her domestic duties.   During this time, Collier was living with Sarah Fielding, and Richardson would spend time discussing writing with them.

It was under Richardson’s employment that she wrote An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting.   It has been suggested that Richardson helped Collier write the work, but Richardson’s lack of satirical skill has dispelled such ideas.

Instead, it was probably James Harris and Fielding who helped craft the satire, and all three probably helped to edit the work.  However, most of Collier’s help came from Fielding, who was a close friend and shared many of her earlier works with Collier.

The first edition was printed by Richardson for Andrew Millar in 1753.  A second edition of the Essay was published by Millar in 1757, two years after Collier’s death, but with revisions made by her shortly after its first printing.  Subsequently editions and revisions were published in 1795, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1808, 1809 and 1811.

The Essay is modelled on Jonathan Swift’s satire Instructions to Servants (1746), and even mentions Swift directly, but Collier reverses the roles in Swift’s satire and instead writes from a servant’s perspective in the first book.  All of her suggestions are to aid in the process of “teasing and mortifying”.

She begins her work with an actual “Essay on the Art of Tormenting” that serves as an introduction, before dividing the book into two parts. In this introduction, the narrator claims:

“One strong objection, I know, will be made against my whole design, by people of weak consciences; which is, that every rule I shall lay down will be exactly opposite to the doctrine of Christianity. Greatly, indeed, in a Christian country, should I fear the forces of such an objection, could I perceive, that any one vice was refrained from on that account only. Both theft and murder are forbidden by God himself: yet can anyone say, that our lives and properties would be in the least secure, were it not for the penal laws of our country?”

 

Part the First is divided into four sections: “Instructions to Masters and Mistresses, concerning their Servants”, “To the Patronesses of an Humble Companion”, “To Parents” and “To the Husband”. To the master and mistresses, the narrator claims that “you are no true lover of the noble game of Tormenting, if a good dinner, or any other convenience or enjoyment, can give you half the pleasure, as the teasing and mortifying a good industrious servant, who has done her very best to please you.”

 

Part the Second is divided into four sections: “To Lovers”, “To the Wife”, “To the Friend” and “To your Good Sort of People; being an appendage to the foregoing chapter”. To wives, she tells them to “Be out of humour when your husband brings company home: be angry, if he goes abroad without you; and troublesome, if he takes you with him.” When speaking to friends, she argues that “injuries go nearest to us, that we neither deserve nor expect”.

 

Added to the work are “General Rules for plaguing all your acquaintance; with the description of a party of pleasure” along with a “Conclusion” and “A Fable”. As a general rule, the narrator says, “By all means avoid an evenness of behaviour. Be, sometimes, extremely glad to see people; and, at other times, let your behaviour be hardly within the rules of good breeding”

 

Most of her contemporaries had only good things to say about the work. Henry Fielding complimented Collier on the work by declaring she had “an Understanding more than Female, mixed with virtues almost more than human”.  This line was part of a greater poem written by Fielding and inscribed on a copy of his favourite book of Horace.  This was one of Fielding’s last actions before he left for Lisbon, where he died shortly after.

 

Later, Betty Rizzo described the work as the “best-known generic satire written in the eighteenth century by a woman”.

Martin and Ruthe Battestin stated that Collier was “an author of wit and spirit”

Some critics find it interesting that Collier would “yoke” Richardson with those that he “felt especial antipathy” with: Swift and Fielding.

Craik describes the work as “a courageous social satire published at a time when satires were usually written by and for men”.

 

 

 

“Popish Midwife” Elizabeth Cellier , English Catholic Midwife 1680

741G Elizabeth Cellier
741G Elizabeth Cellier

741G   Elizabeth Cellier fl 1668-1688

Malice defeated, or, A brief relation of the accusation and deliverance of Elizabeth Cellier wherein her proceedings both before and during her confinement are particularly related and the Mystery of the meal-tub fully discovered : together with an abstract of her arraignment and tryal, written by her self, for the satisfaction of all lovers of undisguised truth.

Includes “The matchless picaro” (caption title), two leaves at end (quire N), which was also published separately in the same year as “The matchless rogue” (Wing C1662).

 

London: Printed for Elizabeth Cellier, 1680          $1,800

Folio   A-l2,[Inserted after p. 42 (L2) is a leaf (¹M1) containing “A postscript to the impartial readers,” dated 21 Aug. 1680, and signed: Elizabeth Cellier.]  , M2 (m2 is the begining of Wing C-1663)   First edition. Disbound, with generally clean, well margined leaves, though cutting into some marginal notation a bit, with some small stains on the title, some faint marginal toning.

“Popish Midwife”Cellier, who was know as the “Popish Midwife” first came into prominence through the pretended “Meal-Tub Plot” of 1680.   Nothing seems known of her life till her marriage with Peter Cellier, a Frenchman, and her conversion from Anglicanism. In 1678 the prisons were filled with Catholics in consequence of the national alarm caused by the fabricated plots of Titus Oates. Mrs. Cellier’s charity led her to visit and relieve these prisoners, and as her profession procured for her the acquaintance of many leading Catholic ladies, she often became the channel of their charity towards the prisoners. Among these ladies was the Countess of Powis, whose kindness was shown to, among others, a clever impostor, Thomas Dangerfield. Becoming aware of this man’s true character, Lady Powis ceased to assist him further, and he, in revenge, decided to denounce her to the Government as concerned in a new popish plot. His story was that he had been released from prison through the good offices of Lady Powis and Mrs. Cellier, on condition that he would assassinate the king, Lord Shaftesbury, and others. He further pretended that he was to be engaged in manufacturing false plots to be foisted on those who were known to be unfavorable to the Catholic cause. One of these shams was to be based on a document which, he alleged, was hidden in a meal-tub in Mrs. Cellier’s house. Search was made, and in a meal-tub the paper in question was found. This document charged with treason most of the leading Protestants, including the king’s natural son, the Duke of Monmouth, the Earl of Shaftesbury, and Sir Thomas Waller, who was the very official who conducted the search. In consequence of Dangerfield’s accusation founded on this document, Lady Powis and Mrs. Cellier were arrested, as well as some other Catholics, among them the Earl of Castlemain.  Mrs. Cellier’s trial took place on 11 June, 1680. She was charged with high treason, but practically the only evidence against her was that of Dangerfield himself, and she had little difficulty in proving him a witness entirely unworthy of credence. She was found not guilty, and Dangerfield himself was arrested on account of a felony, for which he had been previously outlawed. After her acquittal she published a this brief relation of the whole affair, under the title of “Malice Defeated”. This led not only to a long series of pamphlets for and against her, but also to her second prosecution. The charge this time was that of libel against the King and ministry, because she alleged that two witnesses in the Edmundbury Godfrey case had been tortured. But the real object of this prosecution, according to Roger North, was to prevent her from giving evidence in favor of the imprisoned Catholic peers.  For this she was sentenced to pay a fine of £1,000 and to stand three times in the pillory. During the reign of James II she planned the foundation of a corporation of skilled midwives and a foundling hospital. It is stated that she is buried in Great Missenden Church, Buckinghamshire. She wrote: (1) “Malice Defeated; or a brief relation of the Accusation and Deliverance of Elizabeth Cellier” (London, 1680); (2) “A scheme for the Foundation of a Royal Hospital and raising a revenue of £5000 or £6000 a year by and for the maintenance of a Corporation of skillful midwives” (London, 1687), printed in the “Harleian Miscellany” (IV, 142) and in the “Somers Tracts” (II, 243); (3) “To Dr. ______, An answer to his Queries concerning the College of Midwives” (London, 1687-88). This book was burnt by the authorities after Cellier was found guilty.

Bound with

“The matchless picaro

Wing C-1661 In this edition, the fourth line of the title ends: and du-

& bound with  C-1662

Cellier1

N.America LinkCalifornia State Library-Sutro 
LinkFolger Shakespeare 
LinkHenry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery 
LinkNorthwestern University 
LinkUniversity of Kansas, Spencer Research 
LinkUniversity of Pennsylvania Van Pelt-Dietrich 

 

Two copies of An introduction to the Skill of Musick!

628G John Playford 1623-1687

An introduction to the skill of musick : in three books: by John Playford. Containing I. The Grounds and Principles of Musick, according to the Gamut: In the most Easy Method, for Young Practitioners. II. Instructions and Lessons for the Treble Tenor, and Bass-Viols; and also for the Treble-Violin. III. The Art of Descant, or composing Music in Parts: Made very Plain and Easie by the Late Henry Purcell.

DSC_0257

London. Printed By Charles Peregrine, 1687.                                                     $ SOLD

Octavo 6 X 4 inches A-M8 (A1 , frontispiece; M8 , advertisements both present!) Bound in DSC_0262very nice neteenth-century navy morocco. Lightly rubbed. Frontispiece border shaved, just within platemark, with additional small hole. Minute wormholes to gutter margin of quire A, fore-edge margin of final four leaves. Small rust-hole to H1, just touching a single character to verso. William Henry Havergal’s copy, with his ink inscription dated 1840 along with note of purchase ‘Bought for 2/6 at the sale of the effects of Mrs Green of Poole House, Astley, in the County of Worcester’.

Henry Purcell. 1659-1695

“A pastoral elegy on the death of Mr. John Playford. By N. Tate”: verso of 8th prelim. leaf._”The order of performing the divine service in cathedrals, & collegiate chappels”: p. 53-60.Purcell’s legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music. He is generally considered to be one of the greatest English composers; no other native-born English composer approached his fame until Edward Elgar.

Playford,as a bookseller, publisher, and member of the Stationers’ Company, published books on music theory, instruction books for several instruments, and psalters with tunes for singing in churches. He is perhaps best known today for his publication of The English Dancing Master in 1651, during the period of the Puritan-dominated Commonwealth (later editions were known as ‘The Dancing Master’). This work contains both the music and instructions for English country dances. This came about after Playford, working as a war correspondent, was captured by Cromwell’s men and told that, if he valued his freedom (as a sympathiser with the King), he might consider a change of career. Although many of the tunes in the book are attributed to him today, he probably did not write any of them. Most were popular melodies that had existed for years. __ !!!In typographical technique Playford’s most original improvement was the invention in 1658 of ‘the new-ty’d note.’ (See the Title of the FOLLOWING BOOK  These were quavers or semiquavers connected in pairs or series by one or two horizontal strokes at the end of their tails, the last note of the group retaining in the early examples the characteristic up-stroke. Hawkins observes that the Dutch printers were the first to follow the lead in this detail. In 1665 he caused every semibreve to be barred in the dance tunes; in 1672 he began engravinDSC_0261g on copper plates. Generally, however, Playford clung to old methods; he recommended the use of lute tablature to ordinary violin players; and he resisted, in an earnest letter of remonstrance (1673), Thomas Salmon’s proposals for a readjustment of clefs. Playford’s printers were: Thomas Harper, 1648 1652; William Godbid, 1658 1678; Ann Godbid and her partner, John Playford the younger, 1679 1683; John Playford alone, 1684-1685 William Henry Havergal (1793-1870), one of the previous owners Anglican clergyman and composer. His compositions ranged from hymns to popular catchDSC_0259es, though Havergal’s academic studies centered on early Church music with a particular bias towards metrical psalmody.

Wing P2483

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

__________________________________________            Another Edition and a Very different book!

This edition utilizes the ayford’s most original improvement was the invention in 1658 of ‘the new-ty’d note.’

771G John Playford 1623-1687

An introduction to the skill of musick : in three books: by John Playford. Containing I. The Grounds and Principles of Musick, according to the Gamut: In the most Easy Method, for Young Practitioners. II. Instructions and Lessons for the Treble Tenor, and Bass-Viols; and also for the Treble-Violin. III. The Art of Descant, or composing Music in Parts: Made very Plain and Easie by the Late Henry Purcell.

DSC_0263

London, Printed by William Pearson, for John and Ben. Sprint … 1718             $3,900

Octavo 6 X 4 inches A-M8 (A1 , frontispiece; M8 , advertisements both present!) This copy is bound in full contemporary calf, expertly rebacked. Henry Purcell. 1659-1695

DSC_0264DSC_0267on the left is the 1687edition                                            on the right  the 1718 edition 

 

 

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