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Early modern books by women

Country House-Wife’s Garden 1631

273J William Lawson (1553/4–1635)

A nevv orchard and garden or The best way for planting, grafting, and to make any ground good, for a rich orchard: particularly in the north, and generally for the whole kingdome of England, as in nature, reason, situation, and all probabilitie, may and doth appeare. Wit the country housewifes garden for hearbes of common vse their vertues, seasons, profits, ornaments, varietie of knots, models for trees, and plots for the best ordering of grounds and walkes. As also the husbandry of bees, with their seuerall vses and annoyances all being the experience of 48. yeares labour, and now the second time corrected and much enlarged, by William Lawson. Whereunto is newly added the art of propagating plants, with the true ordering of all manner of fruits, in their gathering, carring home & preseruation.

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London: Printed by Nicholas Okes, for Iohn Harison, at the golden Vnicorne in Pater-noster-row, 1631.    $1,900

 

Quarto.A⁴ B-I⁸ K⁴ (last leaf blank).

This copy is disbound  in a folding cloth binder  There are a few woodcut illustrations.    Minor wear, one leaf cropped close with slight loss; a very nice copy.

This is an early issue of this horticultural classic, first published in 1618, and notable for the inclusion of Lawson’s Country House-Wife’s Garden, the first book on the subject specifically written for women, and one of the most delightful gardening books in the language, illustrated with the oft-reproduced cuts of knot designs.

aha2_orchardWilliam Lawson was a writer on gardening and Church of England clergyman, was probably a member of the extensive northern English gentry family of Lawson, but his parents’ names are not known. He was ordained deacon in 1580, and became vicar of Ormesby, near Teesmouth, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, in 1583. He spent the rest of his life there. His first wife, Sibille, with whom he had two children, was buried at Ormesby in 1618; on 28 April 1619 he married Emme Tailer, who survived him.  Lawson was a long-lived Yorkshire parson and a real ‘hands on’ gardener: he declares his book to be written from ‘my meer and sole experience, without respect to any former-written Treatise’. His two passions were orchards and bees and he covers all aspects of his subjects, soil management, planting and pruning, the construction of beehives, the control of various ‘nuisances’ (including birds, deer and moles) and the harvesting of fruits and honey.

Lawson refers several times to the difficulties of the local environment and warns his fellow northern gardeners to ‘meddle not with Apricockes nor Peaches, nor scarcely with Quinces, which will not like our cold parts’. He also stresses how important it is to keep bees in weatherproof accommodation using a good northern term to explain that the ‘nesh Bee can neither abide cold or wet’!  However, he writes lyrically of the pleasures of an orchard: ‘your trees standing in comely order which way soever you look … your borders on every side hanging and drooping with Feberries, Raspberries, Barberries, Currents and the roots of your trees powdred with Strawberries, red,white and green, what pleasure is this?Interestingly, in his advice to the country housewife, Lawson advises that every household should maintain two gardens, a kitchen garden and a flower garden. He suggests that the reason for this is that ‘your garden flowers shall suffer some disgrace if among them you intermingle onions, parsnips etc’.
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The woodcuts which illustrate the book are delightful (Lawson tell us that he instructed the publisher to expend ‘much cost and care … in having the Knots and Models by the best Artizan cut’) They include patterns for knot gardens (the little prancing horse and the man with a sword represent topiary designs) and images of gardeners, sporting some very jaunty headwear, digging and planting.

Lawson’s summary of the satisfaction to be gained from gardening remains as true today as it was for his seventeenth century readers: ‘whereas every other pleasure commonly fills some one of or senses, and that only, with delight, this makes all our senses swim in pleasure’.

aha2_tpcropThis is Lawson’s only book, A new orchard and garden, has a dedication to a connection of one branch of the Lawsons, Sir Henry Belasyse. It was the first published work on gardening in the north of England, and its second section, Aha2_countrytp.jpeg

The Countrie Housewifes Garden, was the first horticultural work written specifically for women (there would not be another in English for a century). The ‘sound, clear, natural wit’ manifested in it was praised by John Beale forty years later (Beale, 14), Illustrated with cuts of tools, a garden plan, and knot designs.

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ESTC S4739;  STC 15331.3; Henrey 228n, p. 160; Rohde, p. 54; British Bee Books 20; Poynter, p. 176.

Three libraries hold copies in the US!, Berkeley :University of Illinois :Yale

and now I will copy from  GLASGOW UNIVERSITY LIBRARY SPECIAL COLLECTIONS DEPARTMENT

Book of the Month

July 2006

William Lawson 

A New Orchard and Garden with The Country-Housewifes Garden for Herbs

London: 1648.     Sp Coll Ferguson Ah-a.2

Our July choice is a popular Renaissance work on gardening, A new orchard and garden by William Lawson. It was printed together with the first horticultural book written solely for women, The country housewife’s garden. Both are full of sensible and practical advice, imbued with Lawson’s charming philosophy. For Lawson, working in the orchard and garden was the ideal kind of rest and relaxation: ‘For whereas every other pleasure commonly fills some one of our senses, and that only, with delight, this makes all our senses swim in pleasure, and that with infinite variety joyned with no lesse commodity’.
William Lawson (1553/4-1635) was the vicar of Ormesby, a country parish in Yorkshire.  First and foremost a religious man who carried out his clerical duties most diligently, he was obviously also a keen gardener with considerable land. A man of some learning, he evidently read widely on agriculture and gardening, and his two works are also scattered with references to the classics. When he died he willed ‘all my latine books & mie English books of contraversie’ to his son William, which suggests that he may well have owned a relatively substantial library of books for the period.
A New Orchard and Garden and The Country Housewife’s Garden were Lawson’s only published works. They were first printed together in 1618* and proved popular enough to warrant further reprints in quick succession. The copy featured here is a later, enlarged edition from 1648, part of A Way to Get Wealth, a compilation of treatises on husbandry and other household matters by Gervase Markham.
Lawson dedicated his work to Sir Henry Belloses (Belasyse), a prominent Yorkshire baronet who was also an orchard enthusiast. In his dedication, Lawson thanks him for the profit he received from his ‘learned Discourse of Fruit trees’. However, in the preface following he is at pains to point out that his book is in fact a product of ‘my meer and sole experience, without respect to any former-written Treatise’. It is a result of forty eight years experience in working a northern garden. Occasionally in the text he refers to the difficulties of this environment. He advises his fellow northerners, for instance, to ‘meddle not with Apricockes nor Peaches, nor scarcely with Quinces, which will not like our cold parts’. This book can therefore be credited with being the first to deal with the northern garden.
Gardening had become a national passion in the Sixteenth Century. Then, as now, it was a recreation that brought peace and contentment, and Eyler suggests that it provided a welcome escape from the trials of a turbulent age. Renaissance interest was certainly sparked by the influence of Protestant refugees from the Continent, while an increase in travel abroad and geographical discovery brought back new plants and ideas. There was a subsequent demand for new knowledge and exchange of information, spurring the production of horticultural manuals such as this.
Although not published until 1618, Lawson’s work is really the product of an Elizabethan life. But it is interesting to note that in its practicality, it is also an example of the age of reason; at this time there was a growing preoccupancy with the workings of nature and science, and a burgeoning interest in subjects such as botany, concentrating on the useful qualities and medical virtues of plants. Such a utilitarian outlook was also to be found in the tenets of Puritanism: good husbandry was keenly pursued, physical toil being regarded as a form of devotion to God. It should be remembered that Lawson was a Protestant preacher, and as Thick points out, his religious convictions were broadly puritan; as he states, he had no time for ‘popery and knavery’.
The heading preceding the first chapter sums up the aim of Lawson’s New Orchard: ‘the best, sure and readiest way to make a good orchard and garden’.  He begins with the traits to be sought in a good gardener should the reader be in the position to employ one: he should be honest, and certainly not ‘an idle, or lazie lubber’. If lucky enough to have the services of such a paragon, ‘God shall crowne the labours of his hands with joyfulnesse, and make the clouds drop fatnesse upon your trees’. For those who have to roll up their own sleeves, however, Lawson has written this book and ‘gathered these rules’ together.

The work goes on to deal comprehensively with all aspects of orchard management, covering: the kind of soil required (‘blacke, fat, mellow, cleane and well tempered’) and how to improve it; the best kind of site and how to protect it with fencing, or even better, ‘quickwood, and moates or ditches of water’; how to deal with ‘annoyances’ such as animals, birds, thieves, disease and the weather (not to mention the evils of a ‘carelesse master’); how to plant, space and prune your trees; the different types of fruit trees and bushes and their qualities; and how to gather, store and preserve the fruits of your labours. As Lawson sums up, ‘skill and pains, bring fruitful gains’.
Lawson’s advice is eminently sensible. His instructions are clear and obviously draw on the considerable personal skills he accrued over his lifetime. However, it is the underlying philosophy of the author and his frequent lyricism and rhetorical eloquence that still makes this book such a pleasure to read today. This is apparent even in the most technical of chapters, where Lawson deals with topics such as raising sets, planting and grafting. A typical example is found in the section on pruning where he emphasises the need for man’s intervention by drawing a comparison with an uncultivated wood full of neglected, rotten, and dying trees, as he rails: ‘What rottennesse? what hollownes? what dead armes? withered tops? curtalled trunks? what loads of mosses? drouping boughes? & dying branches shall you see everywhere?’
 
 
But Lawson’s sentiments rarely override his practicality. For instance, he devotes a considerable section to the measures required to counteract the ‘whole Army of mischiefs’ that plague the gardener. He ruefully acknowledges that ‘Good things have most enemies’ and catalogues a whole host of enemies ranging from deer to moles (they will ‘anger you’). He even advises that sparrowhawks are useful against plundering garden birds: although he acknowledges the delight of hearing blackbirds and thrushes singing on a May morning, ‘I had rather want their company than my fruit’.
Despite his problem with flying cherry thieves, the overall impression gained from reading the book is that Lawson’s ideal garden would be a delight. As well as abundant fruit trees, there would be sweet scented flowers, humming bees (whom, he assures us, do not sting their friends), beautiful ornaments, silver sounding music, broad and long walkways, a maze, and even a bowling alley for exercise.
The satisfied gardener should ‘view now with delight the works of your owne hands, your fruit trees of all sorts, loaden with sweet blossomes, and fruit of all tasts, operations and colours: your trees standing in comely order which way soever you look … Your borders on every side hanging and drooping with Feberries, Raspberries, Barberries, Currents, and the roots of your trees powdred with Strawberries, red, white and green, what a pleasure is this?’
Having gathered in the  harvest, Lawson recommends a period of reflection: ‘Now pause with your selfe, and view the end of all your labours in an Orchard: unspeakable pleasure, and infinite commodity’. But although the yield will hopefully be profitable, the means is not all about the end: ‘For what is greedy gaine, without delight, but moyling, and turmoyling in slavery? But comfortable delight, with content, is the good of every thing, and the patterne of heaven … And who can deny but the principall end of an orchard, is the honest delight of one wearied with the works of his lawfull calling?’
The book is also loved for its woodcut illustrations. In the preface, Lawson explains that no expense was spared in producing these for the ‘common good’: much ‘cost and care’ was bestowed by the publisher in having them produced by ‘the best Artizan’.
The illustration depicting the ‘overall plan for the form of a garden’ is a simplified view of a typical late Elizabethan garden. The overall rectangular shape is split into six square sections set over three levels or terraces, negotiated via flights of stairs and intercrossing walkways. Its design demonstrates the Tudors love for symmetry and patterns. A mount (‘M’) at each corner overlooks the garden and the countryside beyond it, and a fountain plays at one of the walkway crossings. There are two still houses in the top corners (‘N’). The individual gardens within gardens are variously landscaped with trees, kitchen gardens, flowerbeds, knots, and topiary (signified by the horse and sword wielding man). A river runs at the top and bottom of the garden. The presence of water nearby is lauded as being both practical (in providing moisture for thirsty trees and in acting as a barrier) and pleasant for sport, for ‘you might sit in your mount and angle a peckled trout, sleighty eel or some other daintie fish’. According to Malcolm Thick, this garden would have been considered old-fashioned by the most fashion-conscious gentlemen of the early Seventeenth Century who were more interested in Italian influenced grand ‘Renaissance’ gardens, preferably laid out by a Continental gardeners. But is should be remembered that Lawson was hearkening back to the 1570s when writing his work, and the gardens he favoured ‘had an intimacy never regained once the impact of the high Italian Renaissance and the French grand manner reached England’ (Miles Hadfield, quoted by Thick).
The second work in Lawson’s book, The Country Housewife’s Companion, lacks the philosophical discourses of its companion volume. This is perhaps because it was written specifically for women (‘my country housewife, not skillful artists’), and its simple tone is therefore pitched at a less learned readership. Nonetheless, it frequently refers to the text of The New Orchard and it seems that the two books were intended to be read and used together.
The book is split into a series of short chapters that offer advice on a number of topics, including the soil and layout of the ideal garden, the properties of various herbs and plants, general rules for gardening, and the husbandry of bees.
Lawson suggests that each household should have two gardens: a kitchen garden and a flower garden. He explains that the distinction between the two does not have to be perfect but that ‘your garden flowers shall suffer some disgrace if among them you intermingle onions, parsnips,etc.’ The division is for both practical and aesthetic reasons: that ‘for your kitchen’s use must yield daily roots or other herbs and suffer deformity’ while ‘the herbs of both will not be both alike ready at one time either for gathering or removing’.
The flower (or ‘summer’) garden could be set out in  in squares and knots. Lawson recommends using a mix of flowers and herbs, mentioning roses, rosemary, lavendar, hyssop, sage, thyme, cowslips, peonies, daisies, clove-gilliflowers, pinks, and lilies. Several illustrations of patterns for knot gardens are provided, but Lawson concedes that for these ‘speciall formes in squares’  there are as many devices as ‘gardeners braines’ and prefers to ‘leave every house-wife to herself.’
plans for knots (pages 80-82 [ie 81])
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This work also provides detailed information about bee-keeping, covering everything from constructing a hive to extracting honey. This again was based on personal experience, Lawson telling us that he was a ‘Bee-master’ for many years. He goes against conventional wisdom in preferring a straw hive for his bees over a wooden one, but says that he recommends them for ‘nimblenesse, closenesse, warmnesse and drynesse.’ He emphasises the tenderness of bees on several occasions, saying, for example, that the ‘nesh Bee can neither abide cold or wet’.
Two short pamphlets are appended to the end of Lawson’s work: A most profitable new treatise, from approved experience of the art of propagating plants by Simon Harward (pages 109-123) and The husbandmans fruitfull orchard (pages 125-134). Harward’s work is an in-depth explanation of the methodology for layering and grafting trees. The last work is a common sense guide to picking, packing, transporting and preserving fruit.
We do not know who originally owned this copy of the book, but the volume does bear intriguing glimpses of its past life. An annotation in an Italic hand at the foot of the main title-page indicates that the book was in Durham and purchased for six shillings at some unspecified point in its history. This inscription is followed by a more obscure annotation – possibly the initials ‘J.G.’, the initials ‘I.G. also being blind stamped on the front board of the binding.
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Glasgow University Library acquired the book as part of the collection of John Ferguson, purchased in 1920. Ferguson (1838-1916) was a Professor of Chemistry at Glasgow University from 1874 to 1915. Although his library is justly renowned for its strengths in Alchemy and Chemistry, it also contains many interesting books and manuals on practical topics such as gardening, husbandry and cookery. According to a note in the front pastedown, Ferguson bought this book on 16 February, 1906.
This book will be on display in the Special Collections foyer (on level 12 of Glasgow University Library), along with a small selection of other gardening books, until the end of September 2006.

‘To conclude, what joy may you have, that you living to such an age, shall see the blessings of God on your labours while you live, and leave behind you to heirs or successors (for God will make heires) such a work, that many ages after your death, shall record your love to their Country? And the rather, when you consider to what length of time your worke is like to last’.

 

“Popish Midwife” Elizabeth Cellier , English Catholic Midwife 1680

741G Elizabeth Cellier
741G Elizabeth Cellier

741G   Elizabeth Cellier fl 1668-1688

Malice defeated, or, A brief relation of the accusation and deliverance of Elizabeth Cellier wherein her proceedings both before and during her confinement are particularly related and the Mystery of the meal-tub fully discovered : together with an abstract of her arraignment and tryal, written by her self, for the satisfaction of all lovers of undisguised truth.

Includes “The matchless picaro” (caption title), two leaves at end (quire N), which was also published separately in the same year as “The matchless rogue” (Wing C1662).

 

London: Printed for Elizabeth Cellier, 1680           Sold

Folio   A-l2,[Inserted after p. 42 (L2) is a leaf (¹M1) containing “A postscript to the impartial readers,” dated 21 Aug. 1680, and signed: Elizabeth Cellier.]  , M2 (m2 is the begining of Wing C-1663)   First edition. Disbound, with generally clean, well margined leaves, though cutting into some marginal notation a bit, with some small stains on the title, some faint marginal toning.

“Popish Midwife”Cellier, who was know as the “Popish Midwife” first came into prominence through the pretended “Meal-Tub Plot” of 1680.   Nothing seems known of her life till her marriage with Peter Cellier, a Frenchman, and her conversion from Anglicanism. In 1678 the prisons were filled with Catholics in consequence of the national alarm caused by the fabricated plots of Titus Oates. Mrs. Cellier’s charity led her to visit and relieve these prisoners, and as her profession procured for her the acquaintance of many leading Catholic ladies, she often became the channel of their charity towards the prisoners. Among these ladies was the Countess of Powis, whose kindness was shown to, among others, a clever impostor, Thomas Dangerfield. Becoming aware of this man’s true character, Lady Powis ceased to assist him further, and he, in revenge, decided to denounce her to the Government as concerned in a new popish plot. His story was that he had been released from prison through the good offices of Lady Powis and Mrs. Cellier, on condition that he would assassinate the king, Lord Shaftesbury, and others. He further pretended that he was to be engaged in manufacturing false plots to be foisted on those who were known to be unfavorable to the Catholic cause. One of these shams was to be based on a document which, he alleged, was hidden in a meal-tub in Mrs. Cellier’s house. Search was made, and in a meal-tub the paper in question was found. This document charged with treason most of the leading Protestants, including the king’s natural son, the Duke of Monmouth, the Earl of Shaftesbury, and Sir Thomas Waller, who was the very official who conducted the search. In consequence of Dangerfield’s accusation founded on this document, Lady Powis and Mrs. Cellier were arrested, as well as some other Catholics, among them the Earl of Castlemain.  Mrs. Cellier’s trial took place on 11 June, 1680. She was charged with high treason, but practically the only evidence against her was that of Dangerfield himself, and she had little difficulty in proving him a witness entirely unworthy of credence. She was found not guilty, and Dangerfield himself was arrested on account of a felony, for which he had been previously outlawed. After her acquittal she published a this brief relation of the whole affair, under the title of “Malice Defeated”. This led not only to a long series of pamphlets for and against her, but also to her second prosecution. The charge this time was that of libel against the King and ministry, because she alleged that two witnesses in the Edmundbury Godfrey case had been tortured. But the real object of this prosecution, according to Roger North, was to prevent her from giving evidence in favor of the imprisoned Catholic peers.  For this she was sentenced to pay a fine of £1,000 and to stand three times in the pillory. During the reign of James II she planned the foundation of a corporation of skilled midwives and a foundling hospital. It is stated that she is buried in Great Missenden Church, Buckinghamshire. She wrote: (1) “Malice Defeated; or a brief relation of the Accusation and Deliverance of Elizabeth Cellier” (London, 1680); (2) “A scheme for the Foundation of a Royal Hospital and raising a revenue of £5000 or £6000 a year by and for the maintenance of a Corporation of skillful midwives” (London, 1687), printed in the “Harleian Miscellany” (IV, 142) and in the “Somers Tracts” (II, 243); (3) “To Dr. ______, An answer to his Queries concerning the College of Midwives” (London, 1687-88). This book was burnt by the authorities after Cellier was found guilty.

Bound with

“The matchless picaro

Wing C-1661 In this edition, the fourth line of the title ends: and du-

& bound with  C-1662

Cellier1

N.America LinkCalifornia State Library-Sutro 
LinkFolger Shakespeare 
LinkHenry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery 
LinkNorthwestern University 
LinkUniversity of Kansas, Spencer Research 
LinkUniversity of Pennsylvania Van Pelt-Dietrich 

 

Katherine Philips 1631-1664 update

This is perhaps the most famous English collection of poems by a woman prior to 1700. P.W. Souers, in his critical biography of Katherine Philips, asserts for her the right to be historically the first English poetess—“In her, for the first time in the history of English letters, a woman was received into the select company of poets.” Jeremy Taylor dedicated to her his “Discourse on the Nature, Offices, and Measures of Friendship;” Abraham Cowley, Henry Vaughan the Silurist, Thomas Flatman, the Earl of Roscommon, and the Earl of Cork and Orrery all celebrated her talent, and Dryden could pay no higher compliment to Anne Killigrew than to compare her to Orinda.

 

933G Katherine Philips 1631-1664

Poems By the most deservedly Admired Mrs. Katherine Philips, The Matchless Orinda. To which is added Monsieur Corneilles Pompey & Horace,} Tragedies. With several other Translations out of French.

London: Printed by T.N. for Henry Herringman , 1678                                 $4,500

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Folio 11 x 7 inches.  [ ]2, A4, a-Z4, Aa-Tt4, Uu2.   Fourth edition This copy is in good condition internally. It is bound in full seventeenth century English calfskin.

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“The daughter of a London merchant, Katherine Fowler [her maiden name] was probably the first English woman poet to have her work published. She married a gentleman of substance from Cardigan, James Philips, and seems to have moved effortlessly into the literary circle adorned by Vaughan, Cowley, and Jeremy Taylor. She was best known by her pseudonym ‘Orinda’ and the name appears on the collection of her Letters, which give a useful picture of the early seventeenth-century literary world. Her translation of Corneille’s ‘Pompee’ was performed in Dublin in 1663 and a collection of her verses was published posthumously in 1664.” (Cambridge Guide to English Literature)Mrs. Philips’ poems were circulated in manuscript, and secured for her a considerable reputation. The surreptitious quarto edition produced in 1664 caused her much annoyance, and Marriott, the publisher, was obliged to withdraw it from sale, and publicly to express his regret for having issued it. Some trouble was taken, it would appear, to destroy the copies, which would account for its rarity. In the preface of the 1667 edition, reference is made to the ‘false edition,’ and a long letter from the author in relation to it is quoted. P.W. Souers, in his critical biography of Katherine Philips, asserts for her the right to be historically the first English poetess—“In her, for the first time in the history of English letters, a woman was received into the select company of poets.” Jeremy Taylor dedicated to her his “Discourse on the Nature, Offices, and Measures of Friendship;” Abraham Cowley, Henry Vaughan the Silurist, Thomas Flatman, the Earl of Roscommon, and the Earl of Cork and Orrery all celebrated her talent, and Dryden could pay no higher compliment to Anne Killigrew than to compare her to Orinda. Keats, in a letter to Reynolds in 1817, quotes her verses with approval. She died of smallpox in 1664 at the age of 33. Wing P-2035.

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It is not usual to find a printed book which gives us such a vivid depiction of the literary world for 17th century women, this is a great book and I am constantly amazed by it.

 

Please enjoy reading about it.

840g    Philips, Katherine.1631-1664

LETTERS FROM ORINDA TO POLIARCHUS

LONDON: PRINTED BY W.B. FOR BERNARD LINTOTT, 1705                       $3,500

 

OCTAVO,6.75 X 3.75 INCHES.  FIRST EDITION A-R8  BOUND IN ORIGINAL CALF recently rebaked it is a NICE ORIGINAL CONDITION COPY WITH ONLY SOME BROWNING, SPOTTING AND DAMP STAINING, IT IS A VERY GOOD COPY.

 

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This is a collection of 48 ( XLVIII) actual letters written by Philips to her patron Sir Charles Cotterell published several decades after her death, there is quit a bit of discussion of the literary culture of the seventh century in Britain. Including insite to Philips writing and reading habits. she often mentions books she is reading and plays which she is working on.

Philips was interested in the epistolary form, she founded the Society of Friendship in 1651 until 1661 was a semi-literary correspondence circle made up of mostly women, though men were also involved. The membership of this group, however, is somewhat questionable, because the authors took on pseudonyms from Classical literature (for example Katherine took on the name Orinda, in which the other members added on the accolade “Matchless.”)

It is interesting to see the relations between the female members of the circle, especially Anne Owen, who is known in Philips’s poems as Lucasia.  Half of Katherine’s poetry is dedicated to this woman. Anne and Katherine seem to have been lovers in an emotional, if not in a physical, sense for about ten years. Also significant as correspondents and lovers were Mary Awbrey (Rosania) and Elizabeth Boyle (Celimena). Elizabeth’s relationship with Katherine, however, was cut short by Philips’ death in 1664.

In  “The Sapphic-Platonics of Katherine Philips, 1632-1664”   Harriette Andreadis

Source:Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 15, no. 1 (autumn 1989): 34-60.

Ms Andreadis, in this essay nicely gives a view of Orinda’s live (and Loves) in relation to her writing by using excerpts from her poems and These letters;

 

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103gPhilips, Katherine.1631-1664

Letters from Orinda to Poliarchus

 London: printed by W.B. for Bernard Lintott, 1705                       $5,500

Octavo,6.75 X 3.75 inches.  First edition A-R8  Bound in original calf totally un-restored a very nice original condition copy with only some browning, spotting and damp staining, It is a very good copy.

It is housed in a custom Box.

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934G William Cartwright.  (1611-1643)

Comedies, Tragi-Comedies, With other Poems by Mr. William Cartwright late Student of Christ–Church in Oxford and Proctor of the University. The Ayres and Songs set by Mr. Henry Lawes Servant to His late Majesty in His Publick and Private Musick. —nec Ignes, Nec potuit Ferrum,—

London: Printed for Humphrey Moseley, and are to be sold at his Shop, at the sign of the Prince’s Arms in St Pauls Church–yard, 1651.         $4,750

[Portrait]1, [a]-b8, *14 , *8, ¶4, **8, ***14, *10, a-e8, f4, g-k8, A-T8, U3,  U8, X2, with leaf *11 in cancelled state as usual and showing the original stub. Leaves **7 and U1-3 appear to be in uncancelled state with no evidence of stubs, otherwise this collation matches that described by Evans. First Edition. DSC_0059 3This copy is bound in later green Morocco gilt spin a distinguished looking copy.

 

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“Cartwright enjoyed a considerable success among his contemporaries but posterity has been less kind and his work is only known to students of seventeenth century literature. He was educated at Westminster School and went up to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1628; he spent the rest of his short life there. He wrote four plays, intended for academic performance: The Ordinary or The City Cozener (1634) shows clearly the influence of Ben Jonson; The Lady Errant, The Royall Slave, and The Siege or Love’s Convert were published in 1651. The Royall Slave, with designs by Inigo Jones and music by Henry Lawes, was acted for King Charles I and Henrietta Maria at Oxford in 1636 and proved a great success. Cartwright took holy orders in 1638 and wrote no more plays but he became a celebrated preacher; in 1642 he became reader in metaphysics to the university. A Royalist, Cartwright preached at Oxford before the king after the Battle of Edgehill. The edition of his works published in 1651 contained 51 commendatory verses by writers of the day, including Izaak Walton and Henry Vaughan. The Plays and Poems of William Cartwright were collected and edited by G. Blakemore Evans and published in 1951. (Stapleton) This work also includes the first poem by Katherine Phillips to be printed (DNB). 

Cartwright was well liked, and many of his wide circle of friends contributed to the verses occupying the first 100 pages or so; Dr. John Fell, Jasper Mayne, Henry Vaughan the Silurist, Alexander Brome, Izaak Walton, Francis Vaughan, Thomas Vaughan, Henry Lawes, Sir John Birkenhead, James Howell and many others. 

 

Wing C-709; see also The Plays and Poems of William Cartwright by G. Blakemore Evans, pages 62-72; Hayward English Poetry Catalogue, 104; Greg page 1027.

An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting

JANE COLLIER,  1714-1755

 

An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting; with Proper Rules for the Exercise of that Amusing Study…with some general instructions for plaguing all your acquaintance.

 

Art_of_Ingeniously_Tormenting2
“The Cat doth play,/ And after slay.”

London, A Millar, 1757.                                                       $2,900

8vo, pp [2], iii, [1], 234, etched frontispiece [of a cat tormenting a mouse, after Hogarth], bound in contemporary polished calf, spine gilt with raised bands,  spine slightly cracked and chipped at ends, but a clean sound copy,

SECOND EDITION ‘corrected’, with the ‘advertisement to the reader’ added;, one of the classic satires of the 18th Century, the work of a female friend of Samuel Richardson. Porkington Library bookplate with 19th Century signature of Mary Jane Ormsby, a much painted beauty married to the Irish MP William Ormsby-Gore.

Wickedly funny and bitingly satirical, The Art is a comedy of manners that gives insights into eighteenth-century behavior as well as the timeless art of emotional abuse. It is also an advice book, a handbook of anti-etiquette, and a comedy of manners. Collier describes methods for “teasing and mortifying” one’s intimates and acquaintances in a variety of social situations. Written primarily for wives, mothers, and the mistresses of servants, it suggests the difficulties women experienced exerting their influence in private and public life–and the ways they got round them. As such, The Art provides a fascinating glimpse into eighteenth-century daily life.swift-tormenting6.jpgAn Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting was a conduct book written by Jane Collier and published in 1753. The Essay was Collier’s first work, and operates as a satirical advice book on how to nag. It was modelled after Jonathan Swift’s satirical essays, and is intended to “teach” a reader the various methods for “teasing and mortifying” one’s acquaintances. It is divided into two sections that are organised for “advice” to specific groups, and it is followed by “General Rules” for all people to follow.

Although the work was written by Jane Collier, there are speculations as to who may have helped contribute to the content and style of the work, ranging from friends to fellow writers such as Sarah Fielding, Samuel Richardson and James Harris. There was only one edition printed during Collier’s life, but there were many subsequent revisions and republications of the work

In 1748, Collier was living with her brother Arthur in London. The conditions were not suitable, and she became the governess for Samuel Richardson’s daughter, Patty, by 1750.  Richardson was impressed by her understanding of Latin and Greek along with her ability to perform her domestic duties.   During this time, Collier was living with Sarah Fielding, and Richardson would spend time discussing writing with them.

It was under Richardson’s employment that she wrote An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting.   It has been suggested that Richardson helped Collier write the work, but Richardson’s lack of satirical skill has dispelled such ideas.

Instead, it was probably James Harris and Fielding who helped craft the satire, and all three probably helped to edit the work.  However, most of Collier’s help came from Fielding, who was a close friend and shared many of her earlier works with Collier.

The first edition was printed by Richardson for Andrew Millar in 1753.  A second edition of the Essay was published by Millar in 1757, two years after Collier’s death, but with revisions made by her shortly after its first printing.  Subsequently editions and revisions were published in 1795, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1808, 1809 and 1811.

The Essay is modelled on Jonathan Swift’s satire Instructions to Servants (1746), and even mentions Swift directly, but Collier reverses the roles in Swift’s satire and instead writes from a servant’s perspective in the first book.  All of her suggestions are to aid in the process of “teasing and mortifying”.

She begins her work with an actual “Essay on the Art of Tormenting” that serves as an introduction, before dividing the book into two parts. In this introduction, the narrator claims:

“One strong objection, I know, will be made against my whole design, by people of weak consciences; which is, that every rule I shall lay down will be exactly opposite to the doctrine of Christianity. Greatly, indeed, in a Christian country, should I fear the forces of such an objection, could I perceive, that any one vice was refrained from on that account only. Both theft and murder are forbidden by God himself: yet can anyone say, that our lives and properties would be in the least secure, were it not for the penal laws of our country?”

 

Part the First is divided into four sections: “Instructions to Masters and Mistresses, concerning their Servants”, “To the Patronesses of an Humble Companion”, “To Parents” and “To the Husband”. To the master and mistresses, the narrator claims that “you are no true lover of the noble game of Tormenting, if a good dinner, or any other convenience or enjoyment, can give you half the pleasure, as the teasing and mortifying a good industrious servant, who has done her very best to please you.”

 

Part the Second is divided into four sections: “To Lovers”, “To the Wife”, “To the Friend” and “To your Good Sort of People; being an appendage to the foregoing chapter”. To wives, she tells them to “Be out of humour when your husband brings company home: be angry, if he goes abroad without you; and troublesome, if he takes you with him.” When speaking to friends, she argues that “injuries go nearest to us, that we neither deserve nor expect”.

 

Added to the work are “General Rules for plaguing all your acquaintance; with the description of a party of pleasure” along with a “Conclusion” and “A Fable”. As a general rule, the narrator says, “By all means avoid an evenness of behaviour. Be, sometimes, extremely glad to see people; and, at other times, let your behaviour be hardly within the rules of good breeding”

 

Most of her contemporaries had only good things to say about the work. Henry Fielding complimented Collier on the work by declaring she had “an Understanding more than Female, mixed with virtues almost more than human”.  This line was part of a greater poem written by Fielding and inscribed on a copy of his favourite book of Horace.  This was one of Fielding’s last actions before he left for Lisbon, where he died shortly after.

 

Later, Betty Rizzo described the work as the “best-known generic satire written in the eighteenth century by a woman”.

Martin and Ruthe Battestin stated that Collier was “an author of wit and spirit”

Some critics find it interesting that Collier would “yoke” Richardson with those that he “felt especial antipathy” with: Swift and Fielding.

Craik describes the work as “a courageous social satire published at a time when satires were usually written by and for men”.

 

 

 

An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting

JANE COLLIER,  1714-1755

 

An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting; with Proper Rules for the Exercise of that Amusing Study…with some general instructions for plaguing all your acquaintance.

 

Art_of_Ingeniously_Tormenting2
“The Cat doth play,/ And after slay.”

London, A Millar, 1757.                                                       SOLD

8vo, pp [2], iii, [1], 234, etched frontispiece [of a cat tormenting a mouse, after Hogarth], bound in contemporary polished calf, spine gilt with raised bands,  spine slightly cracked and chipped at ends, but a clean sound copy,

SECOND EDITION ‘corrected’, with the ‘advertisement to the reader’ added;, one of the classic satires of the 18th Century, the work of a female friend of Samuel Richardson. Porkington Library bookplate with 19th Century signature of Mary Jane Ormsby, a much painted beauty married to the Irish MP William Ormsby-Gore.

Wickedly funny and bitingly satirical, The Art is a comedy of manners that gives insights into eighteenth-century behavior as well as the timeless art of emotional abuse. It is also an advice book, a handbook of anti-etiquette, and a comedy of manners. Collier describes methods for “teasing and mortifying” one’s intimates and acquaintances in a variety of social situations. Written primarily for wives, mothers, and the mistresses of servants, it suggests the difficulties women experienced exerting their influence in private and public life–and the ways they got round them. As such, The Art provides a fascinating glimpse into eighteenth-century daily life.swift-tormenting6.jpgAn Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting was a conduct book written by Jane Collier and published in 1753. The Essay was Collier’s first work, and operates as a satirical advice book on how to nag. It was modelled after Jonathan Swift’s satirical essays, and is intended to “teach” a reader the various methods for “teasing and mortifying” one’s acquaintances. It is divided into two sections that are organised for “advice” to specific groups, and it is followed by “General Rules” for all people to follow.

Although the work was written by Jane Collier, there are speculations as to who may have helped contribute to the content and style of the work, ranging from friends to fellow writers such as Sarah Fielding, Samuel Richardson and James Harris. There was only one edition printed during Collier’s life, but there were many subsequent revisions and republications of the work

In 1748, Collier was living with her brother Arthur in London. The conditions were not suitable, and she became the governess for Samuel Richardson’s daughter, Patty, by 1750.  Richardson was impressed by her understanding of Latin and Greek along with her ability to perform her domestic duties.   During this time, Collier was living with Sarah Fielding, and Richardson would spend time discussing writing with them.

It was under Richardson’s employment that she wrote An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting.   It has been suggested that Richardson helped Collier write the work, but Richardson’s lack of satirical skill has dispelled such ideas.

Instead, it was probably James Harris and Fielding who helped craft the satire, and all three probably helped to edit the work.  However, most of Collier’s help came from Fielding, who was a close friend and shared many of her earlier works with Collier.

The first edition was printed by Richardson for Andrew Millar in 1753.  A second edition of the Essay was published by Millar in 1757, two years after Collier’s death, but with revisions made by her shortly after its first printing.  Subsequently editions and revisions were published in 1795, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1808, 1809 and 1811.

The Essay is modelled on Jonathan Swift’s satire Instructions to Servants (1746), and even mentions Swift directly, but Collier reverses the roles in Swift’s satire and instead writes from a servant’s perspective in the first book.  All of her suggestions are to aid in the process of “teasing and mortifying”.

She begins her work with an actual “Essay on the Art of Tormenting” that serves as an introduction, before dividing the book into two parts. In this introduction, the narrator claims:

“One strong objection, I know, will be made against my whole design, by people of weak consciences; which is, that every rule I shall lay down will be exactly opposite to the doctrine of Christianity. Greatly, indeed, in a Christian country, should I fear the forces of such an objection, could I perceive, that any one vice was refrained from on that account only. Both theft and murder are forbidden by God himself: yet can anyone say, that our lives and properties would be in the least secure, were it not for the penal laws of our country?”

 

Part the First is divided into four sections: “Instructions to Masters and Mistresses, concerning their Servants”, “To the Patronesses of an Humble Companion”, “To Parents” and “To the Husband”. To the master and mistresses, the narrator claims that “you are no true lover of the noble game of Tormenting, if a good dinner, or any other convenience or enjoyment, can give you half the pleasure, as the teasing and mortifying a good industrious servant, who has done her very best to please you.”

 

Part the Second is divided into four sections: “To Lovers”, “To the Wife”, “To the Friend” and “To your Good Sort of People; being an appendage to the foregoing chapter”. To wives, she tells them to “Be out of humour when your husband brings company home: be angry, if he goes abroad without you; and troublesome, if he takes you with him.” When speaking to friends, she argues that “injuries go nearest to us, that we neither deserve nor expect”.

 

Added to the work are “General Rules for plaguing all your acquaintance; with the description of a party of pleasure” along with a “Conclusion” and “A Fable”. As a general rule, the narrator says, “By all means avoid an evenness of behaviour. Be, sometimes, extremely glad to see people; and, at other times, let your behaviour be hardly within the rules of good breeding”

 

Most of her contemporaries had only good things to say about the work. Henry Fielding complimented Collier on the work by declaring she had “an Understanding more than Female, mixed with virtues almost more than human”.  This line was part of a greater poem written by Fielding and inscribed on a copy of his favourite book of Horace.  This was one of Fielding’s last actions before he left for Lisbon, where he died shortly after.

 

Later, Betty Rizzo described the work as the “best-known generic satire written in the eighteenth century by a woman”.

Martin and Ruthe Battestin stated that Collier was “an author of wit and spirit”

Some critics find it interesting that Collier would “yoke” Richardson with those that he “felt especial antipathy” with: Swift and Fielding.

Craik describes the work as “a courageous social satire published at a time when satires were usually written by and for men”.

 

 

 

“Popish Midwife” Elizabeth Cellier , English Catholic Midwife 1680

741G Elizabeth Cellier
741G Elizabeth Cellier

741G   Elizabeth Cellier fl 1668-1688

Malice defeated, or, A brief relation of the accusation and deliverance of Elizabeth Cellier wherein her proceedings both before and during her confinement are particularly related and the Mystery of the meal-tub fully discovered : together with an abstract of her arraignment and tryal, written by her self, for the satisfaction of all lovers of undisguised truth.

Includes “The matchless picaro” (caption title), two leaves at end (quire N), which was also published separately in the same year as “The matchless rogue” (Wing C1662).

 

London: Printed for Elizabeth Cellier, 1680          $1,800

Folio   A-l2,[Inserted after p. 42 (L2) is a leaf (¹M1) containing “A postscript to the impartial readers,” dated 21 Aug. 1680, and signed: Elizabeth Cellier.]  , M2 (m2 is the begining of Wing C-1663)   First edition. Disbound, with generally clean, well margined leaves, though cutting into some marginal notation a bit, with some small stains on the title, some faint marginal toning.

“Popish Midwife”Cellier, who was know as the “Popish Midwife” first came into prominence through the pretended “Meal-Tub Plot” of 1680.   Nothing seems known of her life till her marriage with Peter Cellier, a Frenchman, and her conversion from Anglicanism. In 1678 the prisons were filled with Catholics in consequence of the national alarm caused by the fabricated plots of Titus Oates. Mrs. Cellier’s charity led her to visit and relieve these prisoners, and as her profession procured for her the acquaintance of many leading Catholic ladies, she often became the channel of their charity towards the prisoners. Among these ladies was the Countess of Powis, whose kindness was shown to, among others, a clever impostor, Thomas Dangerfield. Becoming aware of this man’s true character, Lady Powis ceased to assist him further, and he, in revenge, decided to denounce her to the Government as concerned in a new popish plot. His story was that he had been released from prison through the good offices of Lady Powis and Mrs. Cellier, on condition that he would assassinate the king, Lord Shaftesbury, and others. He further pretended that he was to be engaged in manufacturing false plots to be foisted on those who were known to be unfavorable to the Catholic cause. One of these shams was to be based on a document which, he alleged, was hidden in a meal-tub in Mrs. Cellier’s house. Search was made, and in a meal-tub the paper in question was found. This document charged with treason most of the leading Protestants, including the king’s natural son, the Duke of Monmouth, the Earl of Shaftesbury, and Sir Thomas Waller, who was the very official who conducted the search. In consequence of Dangerfield’s accusation founded on this document, Lady Powis and Mrs. Cellier were arrested, as well as some other Catholics, among them the Earl of Castlemain.  Mrs. Cellier’s trial took place on 11 June, 1680. She was charged with high treason, but practically the only evidence against her was that of Dangerfield himself, and she had little difficulty in proving him a witness entirely unworthy of credence. She was found not guilty, and Dangerfield himself was arrested on account of a felony, for which he had been previously outlawed. After her acquittal she published a this brief relation of the whole affair, under the title of “Malice Defeated”. This led not only to a long series of pamphlets for and against her, but also to her second prosecution. The charge this time was that of libel against the King and ministry, because she alleged that two witnesses in the Edmundbury Godfrey case had been tortured. But the real object of this prosecution, according to Roger North, was to prevent her from giving evidence in favor of the imprisoned Catholic peers.  For this she was sentenced to pay a fine of £1,000 and to stand three times in the pillory. During the reign of James II she planned the foundation of a corporation of skilled midwives and a foundling hospital. It is stated that she is buried in Great Missenden Church, Buckinghamshire. She wrote: (1) “Malice Defeated; or a brief relation of the Accusation and Deliverance of Elizabeth Cellier” (London, 1680); (2) “A scheme for the Foundation of a Royal Hospital and raising a revenue of £5000 or £6000 a year by and for the maintenance of a Corporation of skillful midwives” (London, 1687), printed in the “Harleian Miscellany” (IV, 142) and in the “Somers Tracts” (II, 243); (3) “To Dr. ______, An answer to his Queries concerning the College of Midwives” (London, 1687-88). This book was burnt by the authorities after Cellier was found guilty.

Bound with

“The matchless picaro

Wing C-1661 In this edition, the fourth line of the title ends: and du-

& bound with  C-1662

Cellier1

N.America LinkCalifornia State Library-Sutro 
LinkFolger Shakespeare 
LinkHenry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery 
LinkNorthwestern University 
LinkUniversity of Kansas, Spencer Research 
LinkUniversity of Pennsylvania Van Pelt-Dietrich 

 

Two copies of An introduction to the Skill of Musick!

628G John Playford 1623-1687

An introduction to the skill of musick : in three books: by John Playford. Containing I. The Grounds and Principles of Musick, according to the Gamut: In the most Easy Method, for Young Practitioners. II. Instructions and Lessons for the Treble Tenor, and Bass-Viols; and also for the Treble-Violin. III. The Art of Descant, or composing Music in Parts: Made very Plain and Easie by the Late Henry Purcell.

DSC_0257

London. Printed By Charles Peregrine, 1687.                                                     $ SOLD

Octavo 6 X 4 inches A-M8 (A1 , frontispiece; M8 , advertisements both present!) Bound in DSC_0262very nice neteenth-century navy morocco. Lightly rubbed. Frontispiece border shaved, just within platemark, with additional small hole. Minute wormholes to gutter margin of quire A, fore-edge margin of final four leaves. Small rust-hole to H1, just touching a single character to verso. William Henry Havergal’s copy, with his ink inscription dated 1840 along with note of purchase ‘Bought for 2/6 at the sale of the effects of Mrs Green of Poole House, Astley, in the County of Worcester’.

Henry Purcell. 1659-1695

“A pastoral elegy on the death of Mr. John Playford. By N. Tate”: verso of 8th prelim. leaf._”The order of performing the divine service in cathedrals, & collegiate chappels”: p. 53-60.Purcell’s legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music. He is generally considered to be one of the greatest English composers; no other native-born English composer approached his fame until Edward Elgar.

Playford,as a bookseller, publisher, and member of the Stationers’ Company, published books on music theory, instruction books for several instruments, and psalters with tunes for singing in churches. He is perhaps best known today for his publication of The English Dancing Master in 1651, during the period of the Puritan-dominated Commonwealth (later editions were known as ‘The Dancing Master’). This work contains both the music and instructions for English country dances. This came about after Playford, working as a war correspondent, was captured by Cromwell’s men and told that, if he valued his freedom (as a sympathiser with the King), he might consider a change of career. Although many of the tunes in the book are attributed to him today, he probably did not write any of them. Most were popular melodies that had existed for years. __ !!!In typographical technique Playford’s most original improvement was the invention in 1658 of ‘the new-ty’d note.’ (See the Title of the FOLLOWING BOOK  These were quavers or semiquavers connected in pairs or series by one or two horizontal strokes at the end of their tails, the last note of the group retaining in the early examples the characteristic up-stroke. Hawkins observes that the Dutch printers were the first to follow the lead in this detail. In 1665 he caused every semibreve to be barred in the dance tunes; in 1672 he began engravinDSC_0261g on copper plates. Generally, however, Playford clung to old methods; he recommended the use of lute tablature to ordinary violin players; and he resisted, in an earnest letter of remonstrance (1673), Thomas Salmon’s proposals for a readjustment of clefs. Playford’s printers were: Thomas Harper, 1648 1652; William Godbid, 1658 1678; Ann Godbid and her partner, John Playford the younger, 1679 1683; John Playford alone, 1684-1685 William Henry Havergal (1793-1870), one of the previous owners Anglican clergyman and composer. His compositions ranged from hymns to popular catchDSC_0259es, though Havergal’s academic studies centered on early Church music with a particular bias towards metrical psalmody.

Wing P2483

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

__________________________________________            Another Edition and a Very different book!

This edition utilizes the ayford’s most original improvement was the invention in 1658 of ‘the new-ty’d note.’

771G John Playford 1623-1687

An introduction to the skill of musick : in three books: by John Playford. Containing I. The Grounds and Principles of Musick, according to the Gamut: In the most Easy Method, for Young Practitioners. II. Instructions and Lessons for the Treble Tenor, and Bass-Viols; and also for the Treble-Violin. III. The Art of Descant, or composing Music in Parts: Made very Plain and Easie by the Late Henry Purcell.

DSC_0263

London, Printed by William Pearson, for John and Ben. Sprint … 1718             $3,900

Octavo 6 X 4 inches A-M8 (A1 , frontispiece; M8 , advertisements both present!) This copy is bound in full contemporary calf, expertly rebacked. Henry Purcell. 1659-1695

DSC_0264DSC_0267on the left is the 1687edition                                            on the right  the 1718 edition 

 

 

Aristotle’s master-piece…The secrets of generation display’d

904F Aristotle pseudo Possibly by Salmon, William. 1644-1713

DSC_0005 Aristotle’s master-piece: or in all the parts thereof; Containing 1. The Signs of Barrenness. 2. The way of getting a Boy or Girl. 3. Of the likeness of Children to Parents. 4. Of the Infusion of the Soul into the Infant. 5. Of monstrous Births and the Reasons thereof. 6. Of the benefit of Marriage to both Sexes. 7. The Prejudice of unequal Matches. 8. The discovery of Insufficiency. 9. The cause and cure of the Green-Sickness. 10 A Discourse of Virginity. 11. How a Midwise ought to be qualified. 12. Directions and Cantions to Midwives. 13. Of the Organs of Generation in Women. 14. The Fabrick of the Womb. 15 The use and action of the Genitals. 16. Signs of Conception, and whether of a Male or Female, 17. To discover false Conception. 18. Instructions for Women with Child. 19. For preventing Misoarriage 20. For Women in Childbed, 21. Of ordering new-born Infants; and many other very useful Particulars, To which is added, A word of Advice to both Sexes in the Act of Copulation, and the Pictures of several Monstrens Births. Very necessary for all midwives, nurses and young-married-women.

London : printed for W.B. and to be sold by most booksellers in London and Westminster, 1704.                              $ ON HOLD

 

Duodecimo, 134X85 cm.     A1-G12 H9 (lacking final three leaves) This copy has been restored in an appropriate full sheep binding. It is now sturdy and readable.

This is a book which has experienced heavy use.     Originally (first)  published in 1684, this extremely popular work on generation and sexual reproduction was still being printed well into the 19th century. Despite it’s popularity or because of it it turns out that all early editions are rare, and there are very few pre 1741 editions in this country.  English Short Title Catalog, T83424.  Listing only one copy, of the 1704 at the  University of Minnesota with the note “MATCHERS BEWARE! another issue without hyphen between “married “and “women”. Also, end of title reads…sexes in the act of copulation. Very necessary for all…” There is another 1704 edition at Ohio State listing 135 pages (this edn is 183)  .  This  book has often been attributed to the popular medical writer William Salmon because a prefatory poem to the 2nd version (first published 1697) bears the initials “W.S.”. However, there is no evidence that Salmon had any role in the book’s composition 13 years earlier .  The work was in fact assembled from Levinus Lemnius’s The Secret Miracles of Nature (1564) and Jakob Rüff’s midwifery manual De conceptu et generatione hominis (1554). The attribution to Aristotle is totally spurious and was probably a vain attempt to give the work some measure of respectability; but although it was effectively banned until the mid-twentieth century, the prohibition didn’t keep it from circulating: it was reprinted endlessly until the early twentieth century and became one of the most notorious and widely distributed sex books in the English language, right up to the 1960s. Such enduring popularity was partly due to the practical advice on pregnancy and the care of infants, and partly to its rather sensationalised descriptions of the sexual act and forms of monstrosity.

More than a Guide for the Delivery of children, this is a true HOW-TO book on conception, as you can see from the image excerpted below it is quite graphic even by standards three hundred years advanced.

“Aristotle’s Masterpiece was the most popular book about women’s bodies, sex, pregnancy, and childbirth in Britain and America from its first appearance in 1684 up to at least the 1870s. More than 250 editions are known, but all are very rare… It was sold furtively by country peddlers and in general stores and taverns; regular booksellers seldom advertised it, though they usually had it under the counter” (The Library Company of Philadeplphia, ‘Treasures’, online catalogue).

” Aristotle’s Masterpiece, a manual of sex and pregnancy, first saw the light of day about 1680. It is not, of course, the work of the ancient Greek philosopher, but its true authorship is unclear. Other works by the same or other hands were accreted to the original “Masterpiece” until by about 1735 the four parts here published made up the canon. Banned in Britain until the 1960’s, it nonetheless has had a long but mostly clandestine career as a quasi-pornographic book. Grubby copies were produced in back-street printers, sold in rubber-goods shops or Holywell Street, and passed from hand to hand until they disintegrated. Many young boys got their first inklings of sex from it. It was also sometimes given by their mothers to women about to get married; the effect it had on the mind of a virgin bride can only be conjectured. It has been read (or at any rate mentioned) by James Joyce, William Carleton, Evelyn Waugh, Anthony Burgess and many others, and probably has had more influence than is realized.”

 

There is a wonderful article by Fissell, Mary E. (2007). “Hairy Women and Naked Truths: Gender and the Politics of Knowledge in Aristotle’s Masterpiece”. The William and Mary Quarterly 60 (1): 43–74. JSTOR 3491495., available on Jstore follow the link.

“Although little-known today, Aristotle’s Masterpiece was the go-to book for generations of British and American readers, male and female, who wanted to know about sex and making babies. Long after medical theories about reproduction and childbirth had changed, the book continued to promise readers access to hidden secrets and titillating details, a promise whose luster seems to have remained bright until almost yesterday.”

Mary Fissell teaches the history of medicine at Johns Hopkins and edits the Bulletin of the History of Medicine. She writes about the ways that ordinary people in the past understood the natural world and their bodies. Vernacular Bodies (Oxford, 2004) explored how everyday ideas about making babies mediated large scale social changes. She is currently writing a cultural history of Aristotle’s Masterpiece.”

 

904f 1

While naturally popular and cheap this is one of those books which were read into scarcity, there are very few copies listed in the holdings in libraries worldwide (see the Estc info above) and most surviving copies are just that, worn and in bad shape, the last nice copy I saw was at auction and made a considerable price.

Lot 47•
ARISTOTLE’S MASTER-PIECE
Aristoteles Master-piece, or, The Secrets of Generation diplayed in all the parts thereof…, J. How, and are to be sold next door to the Anchor Tavern in Sweethings-rents in Cornhil, 1684, THE ONLY KNOWN COMPLETE COPY OF ONE OF THE TWO EARLIEST SURVIVING EDITIONS
Sold for £22,500 (US$ 32,375) inc. premium
AUCTION 21764:
FINE BOOKS, ATLASES, MANUSCRIPTS, AND PHOTOGRAPHS
12 Nov 2014 13:00 GMT.

The copy I offer is not complete YET it is close, also it is not $32,000. It is strange indeed that this copy has not sold already.

904f 2.jpg

The publication history of the work is discussed in some detail in Roy Porter and Lesley Hall’s The Facts of Life (pp. 54-64) and Mary Fissell’s “Hairy Women and Naked Truths” (p. 47).

The Facts of Life
The Creation of Sexual Knowledge in Britain, 1650-1950
Roy Porter and Lesley Hall
03/20/95, Cloth
$65.00
ISBN: 9780300062212
Vernacular Bodies: The Politics of Reproduction in Early Modern England
 Mary E. Fissell (2007-01-18) Paperback

 

 

62 portraits of Roman empresses

783G Conti, Natale,; 1520-1582. Duval, Jean-Baptiste,; -1632. Vico, Enea, 1523-1567.

DSC_0118

Augustarum imagines aereis formis expressae : vitae quoque earundem breuiter enarratae, signorum etiam quae in posteriori parte numismatum efficta sunt, ratio explicata .

DSC_0115.jpg

Lutetiae Parisiorum : Apud Macaeum Ruette 1619. The colophon reads: “Acheué d’imprimer au mois de Ianuier M. DC. XIX. Par Fleury Bourriquant                                                                       $1,800

 

Quarto 8 preliminary leaves, 192, [4] pages :  A-Z4,Aa-Cc4 Dd2 Illustrations: with [62] full page engraved illustrations within text and numerous small woodcut illustrations.

This copy is bound in later quarter calf, it is probably a British Museum duplicate/de-acession.

This is a beautiful collection of portraits of Roman empresses, while not Vico’s best work it is still striking, The portraits are reproduced from coins, and are engraved inside fabulous architectural frames, decorated with angels, centaurs and other fabulous animals.This new edition is the first by Jean-Baptiste Duval, who reworked the plates and made substitutions and additions Progresses from Martia, grandmother of C. Julius Caesar, to Domitia, wife of Domitian. There are two plates with Hieroglyphic inscriptions on p. 120 DSC_0119and 140; DSC_0120The OCLC catalogue entry suggests that these might be the first appearance of Hieroglyphics in print, I find this unlikely even for the 1558 edition.

 

 

DSC_0117Enea Vico was, according to Vasari ” the outstanding printmaker of his generation” an Italian draughtsman and engraver and nusmaticist. He was trained in Parma and by 1541 was in Rome, where he became a pupil of Tommaso Barlacchi ( fl 1527-42). In 1541-2, in collaboration with Barlacchi, he produced his first work, a series of 24 engravings with grotesque decorations in imitation of antique paintings (B. 467-90). In Rome, Vico was also influenced by the printmakers Agostino dei Musi, Antonio Salamanca and, above all, Marcantonio Raimondi. Vasari recorded that in 1546, following a short period in Florence, where he made engravings for Grand Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici after works by Michelangelo, Vico applied to live in Venice. He remained there until 1563, when he was summoned to the court of Alfonso II d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, where he lived until his death. Vico saw engraving and drawing as intellectual pursuits and not merely craftsmanly eterprise.  This is best expressed in his print ‘The Academy of Baccio Bandinelli, 1550’ “Vico conceived the artist’s workshop not as it must have looked but rather as a gentlemanly room peopled with industrious assistants in fashionable dress. Bandinelli himself appears at the extreme right in a garment adornedhb_17.50.16-35 with a badge of knighthood, a sign of the rank he had recently received from Charles V.
By equipping the studio with books and antiquities, Vico presents the making of art as an intellectual enterprise, and by naming the studio an “academy,” he associates it with Plato’s famous school. The foreground is strewn with classical statuary and human bones appropriate for anatomical study. Brilliant lamplight and flickering firelight cast evocative shadows and illuminate the figures bent over their work”  (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.50.16-35)

 

 

This text is available online but the copy I offer has much more generous margins.https://books.google.nl/books?id=YToGo30oJPkC&printsec=frontcover&hl=nl&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

 

See also : Enea Vico’s Proposed Triumphs of Charles V, Rosemarie Mulcahy
Print Quarterly  Vol. 19, No. 4 (DECEMBER 2002), pp. 331-340
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41826318

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