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January 2016

New-England judged,Quaker persecution

778G

New-England judged, by the spirit of the Lord. In two parts. First, Containing a brief relation of the sufferings of the people call’d Quakers in New-England, from the Time of their first Arrival there, in the Year 1656, to the Year 1660. Wherein their Merciless Whippings, Chainings, Finings, Imprisonings, Starvings, Burning in the Hand, Cutting off Ears, and Putting to Death, with divers other Cruelties, inflicted upon the Bodies of Innocent Men and Women, only for Conscience-Sake, are briefly described. In Answer to the Declaration of their Persecutors Apologizing for the same, MDCLIX. Second Part, Being a farther Relation of the Cruel and Bloody Sufferings of the People call’d Quakers in New-England, Continued from anno 1660, to anno 1665. Beginning with the Sufferings of William Leddra, whom they put to Death. Formerly published by George Bishop, and now somewhat abreviated. With an appendix, Containing the Writings of several of the Sufferers; with some Notes, shewing the Accomplishment of their Prophecies; and a Postscript of the Judgments of God, that have befallen divers of their Persecutors. Also, An Answer to Cotton Mather’s Abuses of the said People, in his late History of New-England, Printed anno 1702. The whole being at this time Published in the said Peoples Vindication, as a Reply to all his Slanderous Calumnies

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Consisting of: New-England judged, not by man’s, but the spirit of the Lord’ with a separate titlepage dated 1702/3; ’Truth and innocency defended; .. In answer to Cotton Mather’ with separate titlepage dated 1702 and pagination; ’An appendix to the book, entituled, New-England judg’d’ and ’New England judged. The second part’ have separate title pages dated 1702; 1702/3.)

 

London: printed and sold by T. Sowle, in White-Hart-Court in Gracious-Street 1702/3     $Sold

Second edition, Octavo 7 1/2 X 4 1/2 inches ,[10],113,112-141,152-498,212,[14]p.. this is a beautiful copy bound in nineteenth century red morocco.

 

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This is one of the most important works relating to the Quaker persecution in New England. After reading its contents, Charles II was moved to order the cessation of the persecution. “After three Quakers had been hanged, the colony, under date of Dec. 19, 1660, sent an ‘Humble Petition and Address of the General Court unto the High and Mighty Prince Charles the Second,’ (see lot 106) defending their conduct. This was presented February 11, and printed, and was replied to by Edward Burrough in an elaborate volume, which contains a full account of the first three martyrs (see lot 107). This was followed this year, 1661, by a yet more important volume, by George Bishope, called New England Judged, in which the story of the Quaker persecution from the beginning is told. Bishope lived in England, and published in a first volume the accounts and letters of the sufferers sent over to him. A second volume was published in 1667, containing the narrative of the sufferings and of the hanging of William Leddra, in March, 1661” (Winsor). Bishop’s work is almost journalistic in its detail, tracing the travels and experiences of many individuals penalized for the religious convictions in the New World. The martyrdoms of Dyer, Leddra, Stephenson and Robinson are included, along with details of the whippings and imprisonments of common people and prominent Quakers. Of great interest are the sections detailing the troubles encountered by Quakers who had moved to Long Island to escape New England tyranny, and New England natives who encountered persecution while conducting business in New Amsterdam. VERY RARE: according to American Book Prices Current only the 1703 reprint has appeared at auction in at least thirty years.    The last copy of the first edition recorded at auction is the Harmsworth copy, sold in 1949.

 

Alden & Landis 661/16-17 and 667/8; Church 571 and 598; Howes B-481 (“Most exhaustive contemporary indictment of God-fearing Puritans”); JCB (3) III:52; Sabin 5628, 5629 and 5630; Smith Friends I:279 and 282; Stevens, Nuggets, I:280-281; Wing B-3003, R-1721 and B-3004; Winsor, 3:358.

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a book from the outside in, The Life of Spinola!

DSC_0182Polybiblion: Revue Bibliographique Universelle, Volume 76 – states (in French) that Docteur Bouland publishes a brochure adorned with beautiful engravings: The Foundation of Father Joachim Faucher and Vex-libris of PP. Jesuits of Avignon (Macon, imp. Protat, gr. in-8 4 p. Extract of the journal French Society of bookplate collectors). The author provides information on Fr. Joachim Faucher, born in Bollène February 12, 1606, died at Shore deGênes April 24, 1650, and the donation that he made in 1639 to the Jesuits of Avignon , using an inheritance given by his father, for a sum of three thousand pounds, whose interests were intended to sustain their library. For one hundred twenty-five years, from 1644-1768, all the books purchased by the Jesuit house Avignon were affixed with the commemorative book plate which is on this book: Ex fundatione RP Joachimi Bolennensis Faucher, Societ. lesu ab anno 1644.

So maybe this book wasn’t at Avignon as I might like to think, but there is more!

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To me we can place the book at Aven..at 1688.. But that is 60 years after the book was published?

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up on close inspection, it looks as if a previous owners name has been trimmed off the top of the title and at the bottom too, or at least covered on the bottom ..

The binding is early and cDSC_0184ertainly seventeenth century, a very nice but worn and chewed revers alum tawed skin dyed green! so probably the first owner is lost to time .

Vita del P. Carlo Spinola della  Compagnia di Giesù morto per la santa fede nel Giappone : del P. Fabio Ambrosio Spinola dell’istessa  compagnia.

In Roma : Appresso Francesco Corbelletti, 1628  $1,600

a4 A-O8.(this copy is lacking the  Engraved port Spinolaas well as the folded plan of the prison in which Father Spinola was imprisoned in Nagasaki.)

Debacker-Sommervogel vol VII, col 1448 no.2; Streit, R. Bib. missionum,; v. V, no. 1407

 

This is a First edition of the Biography Of Carlo Spinola which was written six years after his death by his cousin  Fabio Ambrosi  Spinola, 1593-1671.

Carlo Spinola was born in January 1564 in Madrid, Spain, the son of Ottavio Spinola, Count of Tassarolo. He was educated in Spain and in the Jesuit school in Nola, where he lived with his uncle, Philip Cardinal Spinola, Bishop of Nola. He entered the noviatiate in December 1584, and studied in Naples, Milan, and Rome. He was ordained a priest in 1594, and assigned to serve parishes in Cremona. In 1596, he received a letter appointing him to the missions in Japan. His journey was marked by shipwrecks and delays, which included captivity in England, and he reached his destination only in 1602, six years later. The first ship he took from Genoa struck a rock and was forced to return to Genoa for repairs. Setting out again, he arrived in Barcelona and made his way on foot to Lisbon.   Spinola and his companions set from Lisbon on 10 April 1596. A violent wind damaged the ship’s rudder and they were forced to make for DSC_0185Brazil, where they landed on the 15 July.  After five months they left Brazil, but a severe storm drove them Puerto Rico, arriving on 24 March 1597. The missionaries found the genera
l state of morality among the Spanish sugar plantations deplorable, and Spinola considered their arrival providential. Based in San Juan, he and the small band of Jesuits preached and taught catechism, visiting outlying settlements. On one occasion, Spinola was nearly drowned when his horse lost its footing crossing a river. Setting sail from Puerto Rico on 21 August 1597, Spinola’s ship was captured by English pirates off the Azores and the Jesuits arrived in Yarmouth on 5 November.
He studied Japanese before going to Miyako (Kyoto) where he was minister at the Jesuit College, and a teacher of mathematics and astronomy.  For twelve years, he worked at ministering to the growing Christian community in Japan. In 1614, all foreign missionaries were banished so Spinola went into hiding, eluding capture for four years. After being arrested in 1618, he, together with Brother Ambrose Fernandes and their catechist, John Chogoku, were imprisoned for four years in a birdcage-like confinement under harsh conditions.  He was burnt at the stake at Nagasaki on 10 September 1622.  Charles was declared Blessed in 1867, along with 30 other Jesuits, over half of whom were Japanese.

see Bl. Charles Spinola”, jesuit.org.sg; accessed 1 March 2014.

 

 

 

There is a useful page about Jesuit martyrs at :

http://www.jesuit.org.sg/html/companions/saints.martys/september/spinola.kimura.html

“In Sep 1622 the nine prisoners were taken to Nagasaki and felt martyrdom would soon be theirs. Before they left, Fr Spinola accepted the vows of his seven novices. On Sep 9, the nine Jesuits together with twenty-four other prisoners at Suzuta, each with a rope round his neck, and the Jesuits in their cassocks were led to Martyrs’ Hill escorted by 400 soldiers. There they waited for another thirty-three prisoners from the city. When the 2 groups met, they embraced. Fr Spinola recognized Isabel Fernandez among them, the wife of Dominic Jorjes, his host, and her four-year-old son Ignatius. The religious, with exception of John Chugoku were condemned to death by slow fire, the Christians and Chugoku were to be beheaded.

When fastened to his stake, Fr Spinola intoned the psalm, Praise the Lord, All You Nations, and the martyrs joined in a song of thanksgiving to God. The fires were lit but the wood was so arranged to prolong the victims’ suffering. Fr Spinola died within half an hour belonged he was greatly weakened after four years of imprisonment. Fr Kimura, endured his martyrdom for three hours and was the last to die, during which time he remained immobile with his arks outstretched in the form of a cross.

The nine martyrs died on Martyrs’ Hill on Sep 10, 1622 but when Pope Pius IX beatified the 205 Japanese martyrs on May 7, 1867, Bro Ambrose Fernandes, who had died in prison, was also included”

 

 

 

What Lies Inside

Source: What Lies Inside

The Jesuit Ordeal II: Satire and Suppression

John J. Burns Library's Blog

Portrait of the Marquis of Pombal, owned by the Museu Nacional de Soares dos Reis. Portrait of the Marquis of Pombal, owned by the Museu Nacional de Soares dos Reis.

In 1759, the Prime Minister of Portugal, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo (later the Marquis of Pombal), convinced his king to expel the Jesuits. Carvalho justified his actions through continued attacks on the Jesuits in a string of French publications, printed in Paris.

Meanwhile, half a world away on the Caribbean island of Martinique, a French Jesuit named Père Antoine La Valette faced mounting debts, his investments lost in the ongoing Seven Years War. As La Valette’s financial struggles became an increasingly public problem, a desperate struggle ensued over the reputation the Jesuit Order.

Carvalho found a ready audience for his invective in France because he attacked the propriety of one of the Jesuits’ most prized memories, their missionary successes among the Guaraní of Paraguay. Although Carvalho’s accusations were being published in French no later than 1758, the French literati

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Decimus Juvenalis & Persius Translated and Illustrated

737G                        Juvenal and Persius        trans. Barten Holyday 1593-1661            

Decimus Junius Juvenalis, And Aulus Persius Flaccus Translated and Illustrated, As well with Sculpture as Notes. By Barten Holyday, D.D. and late Arch-Deacon of Oxon.       

Oxford: Printed by W. Downing, for F. Oxlad Senior, J. Adams, and F. Oxlad Junior. Anno Dom. 1673.                                       $1,950

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Folio 11 ½ X 7 ½ inches . [π]2, a-b2, B-Z4, Aa-Xx4 (lacking Xx4 blank.)

First edition; first complete edition of all the Satires of Juvenal in English. This copy is bound in full calf reabacked in the early 19th century a nice copy which an early owner has inserted an extra set of plates from the 1726 Dryden edition octavo edition.   DSC_0169  The Illustrations in this book include full-paged maps, portraits of the two authors, games, household objects, plants, DSC_0171animals, architectural styles, city views, and other things the commentator thought a seventeenth century English reader would need to see illustrated in order to better understand the Satires. This is a deftly executed edition with admirable plates. The completeness and breadth of illustrations is impressive, greatly contributing to an English reader’s enjoyment of the Satires.

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“The present volume may be called sumptuous, for it boasts three full-paged illustrations [i.e., four] and forty-eight smaller [engravings and woodcuts] in the text. […] The [engravings] are nearly all by David Loggan, but unsigned. There is a liberal use of ornaments in which the Sheldonian Press was markedly deficient at this time. […] The Oxford publishers may have wished to show that they could hold their own in the face of the University Press.” (Madan)DSC_0172.jpg

Holyday was a dramatist, translator, and divine. Holyday, sometime chaplain to Charles I, was archdeacon of Oxford and the author of Technogamia, or the Marriages of the Arts, a notable academic comedy in English which was acted at Christ Church in 1618. Among friends who helped supply ‘diverse excellent Manuscripts’ of Juvenal were Selden and ‘my dear friend’ Ben Jonson, who ‘sent-in … an ancient manuscript partly written in the Saxon character’. In turn Holyday contributed commendatory verses to Jonson’s Q. Horatius Flaccus His Art of Poetry.    This posthumous edition was issued by his step son. It is a line for line translation, devoid of poetry, but rich with learned annotations and interesting illustrations.    Samuel Johnson said in Idler 69 that his translations were those of “only a scholar and a critick” not a poet.    He was subject of a derisory poem called ‘Whoop Holiday’, published in 1625 by Peter Heylin.

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“Juvenal, satirist of Roman vices under the empire. Of his life little is known, although most early accounts agree that he spent some time in military service and ended his life in exile for having criticized a popular stage performer who was a special favorite of the emperor Domitian. He is the author of sixteen satires, divided traditionally into five books. In these biting attacks on public manners and morals. Juvenal shows himself to have been a sharp observer of his fellow men. ‘Whatever men do,’ he announces in his first satire, ‘their devotion, their fear, their rage, their pleasure, their joys, their conversations —all these will make up the potpourri of my little work;’ DSC_0179.jpgand he fulfills his pledge with the bitter gusto of an inspired cynic. Unlike Horace, the other great satirist of Roman letters, Juvenal seldom places himself among the foolish, the corrupt, and the frustrated; and while Horace’s satires are conversational in tone and meter, Juvenal’s are tight, rhetorical, and finely polished. He excels in sketching memorable vignettes and small portraits etched in vitriol. His satires abound in witty observations and terse proverbs, among which is the motto mens sana in corpore sano, ‘a sound mind in a sound body.’” (Sandys HCS)

DSC_0175.jpgPersius discovered his vocation as a sDSC_0177.jpg
atirist through reading the 10th book of Lucilius. He wrote painstakingly, and his book of sati
res was still incomplete at his premature death. The book, edited by his friends Cornutus and Caesius Bassus, was an immediate success. The six satires, amounting to 650 lines, are
in hexameters; but what appears as a prologue, in which Persius (an extremely wealthy man) ironically asserts that he writes to earn his bread, not because he is inspired, is in choliambics. The first satire censures literary tastes of the day, reflecting the decadence of national morals. The remaining books are philosophical discussions on themes often treated by Seneca, such as what may rightly be asked of the gods, the necessity of self-knowledge for public men, and the Stoic doctrine of freedom.

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Wing J-1276; Madan 2979.

 

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The Theologia, Brierley & the Grindletonians

Source: The Theologia, Brierley & the Grindletonians

Saint Augustin, his dialogic monologue

394G                        Saint Augustine                 tr. John Floyd 1572 – 1649

The meditations, soliloquia, and manual of the glorious doctor St. Augustine. Translated into English.                

 

London : printed for Matthew Turner at the Lamb in High-Holbourn, 1686.        $1,100

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394G St. Augustine

DSC_0165Octavo  A-T12   5 3/4 X 3 1/4 inches.       This is the second edition of the Floyd translation. This copy is bound full original calf beautifully rebacked.

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John Floyd was an English Jesuit, known as a controversialist. He was known both as a preacher and teacher, and was frequently arrested in England. He was born in Cambridgeshire in 1572. After studying in the school of the English Jesuits at Eu, Normandy, he was admitted on 17 March 1588 to the English College, Reims, where he studied humanities and philosophy. Next he went to the English College, Rome, admitted there 9 October 1590, and joined the Society of Jesus on 1 November 1592. On 18 August 1593 Floyd received minor orders at Reims or Douai, and on the 22nd of the same month he was sent back to the English College at Rome with nine companions, where he taught philosophy and theology, and became known as a preacher. In 1609 he became a professed father of the Jesuit order. He worked for a long time on the English mission. Having visited Edward Olscorne in Worcester gaol in 1606, he was detained, and he was unable either by entreaties or bribes to escape Sir John Popham. After a year’s imprisonment he was sent into exile with forty-six other priests, and he went to St. Omer where he composing controversial works. Then he returned to England, where he was often captured, and frequently contrived to pay off the pursuivants.

This selection of extracts from Saint Augustine’s Meditations and his Manual, the two together are considered a single work. It is a hand-sized devotional work, meant for pious reflection and inspiration. “A dialogic monologue, the Soliloquia are usually read as representing Augustine’s personal testimony, a more intimate witness than the dialogues to his state of mind between conversion and baptism. That they are a personal witness is patent, but the first book in particular should also be read as programmatic, reflecting Augustine’s mind at the beginning of his country retreat, as he set out not only to analyze his spiritual and intellectual aspirations but to begin to fulfill them. Recalling the one constant of the last decade, during which all had been in flux except the desire for intellectual integrity, Soliloquia 1 sets the agenda for the dialogues but does not anticipate their conclusions.DSC_0162
Wing A4212A
See also Allison & Rogers #306; Clancy 43; deBacker-Sommervogel III col 814 no 8

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The Papal Bull suppressing the Jesuits.

 

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643G Clement PPXIV

643G               Clement PP XIV         1769-1774 (born 1705) (Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli)

 

Clemens PP. XIV. ad perpetuam rei memoriam : Dominus ac redemptor noster Jesus Christus
   [bound with]
Clemens PP. XIV. ad futuram rei memoriam : Gravissimis ex causis        

 

(both) Romæ ex Topographia Rev. Cam. Apostolicæ 1773                         $SOLD
ad 1)21 July ad 2) 13 August.

 

Quarto 10 X 7 ¾ inches.     ad 1) a-c4 d2 (28 numbered pages) ad 2) *2 (4 numbered pages ) One of four editions of 1773 ( This one matches the Library of Congress and Georgetown copies which assert that theu are First Editions) This is a completely untrimmed copy with deckel edges through out it has early sewing which is still very much intact, there is evidence that onec it was stab stiched. It has bound in an age aproporate Italian stile binding of boards of pressed paper.

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643G Clement PP XIV The Dominus ac Redemptor in Latin and Italian

This is the Bull suppressing the Jesuits.

The Jesuits had been expelled from Brazil (1754), Portugal (1759), France (1764), Spain and its colonies (1767) and Parma (1768). Though he had to face strong pressure on the part of the ambassadors of the Bourbon courts, Pope Clement XIII always refused to yield to their demands to have the Society of Jesus suppressed. The issue had reached such a crisis point, however, that the question seems to have been the main issue determining the outcome of the conclave of 1769 that was called to elect a successor to Clement XIII. Giovanni Cardinal Ganganelli, a Conventual Franciscan friar, was elected and took the name of Clement XIV.

For a few years Clement XIV tried to placate the enemies of the Jesuits by treating them harshly: he refused to meet the Superior General, Lorenzo Ricci, ordered them not to receive novices, etc., to no avail. The pressure kept building up to the point that Catholic countries were threatening to break away from the Church. Clement XIV ultimately yielded “in the name of peace of the Church and to avoid of secession in Europe” and suppressed the Society of Jesus by the brief Dominus ac Redemptor on 21 July 1773.

The Dominus ac Redemptor is in Latin and Italian. The document is forty-five paragraphs long. In the introductory paragraph Clement XIV gives the tone: Our Lord has come on earth as “Prince of peace”. This mission of peace, transmitted to the apostles is a duty of the successors of Saint Peter, a responsibility the pope fulfils by encouraging institutions fostering peace and removing, if need be, others that impede peace. Not just if guilty, even on the broader ground of harmony and tranquillity in the Church, it may be justified to suppress a religious order. What follows is a long section in which Clement XIV reviews the reasons which, in his judgment, are calling for the ‘extinction’ of the Society of Jesus. A long list of charges against the Society is enumerated (but no judgment is passed on the validity of the charges).nHe recalls that, in its history, the Society encountered severe criticism (but he remains silent on whether the criticism is justified). The distress occasioned to earlier popes by clashes among Catholics with regard to Jesuit doctrine is evoked (but the Society is not explicitly blamed for that). In a final, more technical section Clement XIV pronounces the actual sentence of suppression of the Society of Jesus. Some provisions are dictated for the implementation of the brief.

In effect, the brief suppresses the Society without condemning it.

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643G Clement PP XIV (second brief)

The second brief Gravissimis ex causis (16 August) (leaves *1-2) established a commission of five cardinals entrusted with the task of informing the Jesuits and handling the many practical problems caused by the suppression. Two days later, a letter of the Cardinal president of the commission ordered all bishops of the Church to proclaim, and publish the brief in every Jesuit house, residence, or school, in the presence of the assembled community of Jesuits. This unusual approach created a good number of problems. Non-catholic countries such as Prussia and Russia forbade the bishops to promulgate the brief and ordered the Jesuits to carry on their academic activities just as if nothing had happened.

DSC_0157Both bulls are signed (printed) by Cardinal (Andrea) Negroni,Secretary of the Chancery of Apostolic Briefs   (1767-1775)

ICCU\IEIE\004893 and TO0E\153945. OCLC 22239891 (five copies in USA).

Ignatius his conclave. John Donne

DonneParadoxes-Ignatius_EssayesIMAGES copy

001H Donne, John (1573-1631)

Paradoxes, Problemes, Essayes, characters, written by Dr Donne Dean of Pauls: to which is added a book of epigrams: written in Latin by the same author; translated into English by J: Maine, D.D. As also Ignatius his Conclave, a satyr, translated out of the originall copy written in Latin by the same author; found lately amongst his own papers.

London: printed by T:N: for Humphrey Moseley at the Prince’s Armes in St Pauls Churchyard, 1652

Bound with

Essayes in divinity; by the late Dr Donne, Dean of St Paul’s. Being several disquisitions, interwoven with meditations and prayers: before he entred into holy orders. Now made publick by his son J.D. Dr of the civil law.

London : printed by T.M. for Richard Marriot, and are to be sold at his shop in St Dunstan’s Church-yard Fleet-street, 1651                 $ Sold
Duodecimo: 6 x 3 1/2 inches . Two volumes bound as one: ad 1 A8, B-K12, L4 (with blanks L3-4); ad II. [A]6 (-A2-6, cancelled as usual, see note below), chi2 (-chi2 blank), B-K12, L4
THIRD EDITION, FIRST ISSUE, and FIRST EDITION, respectively. Bound in contemporary calf, page3image256covers ruled in blind with blind-tooled fleuron cornerpieces, early paper label on spine, plain endpapers, red-sprinkled edges; extremities rubbed, spine with some minor repair but unusually well-preserved.The front hinge is tender. The topmost cord is snapped but it is still pretty sound.

“Ignatius his Conclave. Or, his Inthronisation in a late election in Hell” has a separate title page dated 1653; signatures and pagination are continuous. The last two leaves of Ignatius his conclave are blank. “Essayes in divinity” has separate title page, with the imprint “printed by T.M. for Richard Marriot, … 1651”, its own pagination, and register.

“When the younger Donne decided to make Juvenilia more respectable by adding the Essayes in Divinity he felt he must try to suppress his dedication to Sir Henry Vane the younger with confusing results. … It seems probably that the address to Vane, republican and regicide, came to be regarded as impolitic when he was dedicating the composite volume to Francis Lord Newport, a consistent royalist” (Keynes, p. 126). The present volume retains the dedication to Newport, but the one to Vane (A2–6) is cancelled, as usual.

page2image256Ignatius his Conclave: Donne’s Scathing Satire Against the Jesuits:

Donne’s ‘Ignatius his Conclave’, a damning, satirical exposé of the Jesuits and the order’s founder, Ignatius of Loyola, appeared one year after his ‘Pseudo-Martyr’, a work of deadly seriousness in which Donne argued that English recusants, rather than risking martyrdom in refusing the oath of allegiance, risked suicide instead. “Pseudo-Martyr” was a work of serious controversial literature; “Ignatius”, while still revealing its author’s erudition, is rich in comedic –if biting- episodes.
Donne begins by telling us that his “little wandring sportful Soule” went traveling through the universe while he lay in an “extasie,” until he “saw all the rooms of Hell open to my sight.” In Hell, he watched as the souls of six learned men contended for the title of Greatest Innovator, that is one “which had so attempted any innovation in this life, that they gave an affront to all antiquitie, and induced doubts, and anxieties, and scruples, and after, a libertie of beleeving what they would; at length established opinions, directly contrary to all established before.”

Each approached Lucifer to make his case, and in each instance Lucifer consulted Ignatius of Loyola, who had made his way up to the side of Lucifer’s throne. For Ignatius, seeing that his position of authority in Hell was at risk “opposed himselfe against all others. He was content they should bee damned, but not that they should governe.”

The six contestants are, in order of appearance, Copernicus, Paracelsus, Machiavelli, Columbus, Pietro Aretino, and Filippo Neri. Copernicus makes his case first, explaining that his heliocentric theory (which “lowers” the Sun and “raises” the Earth) has had the effect of raising poor Lucifer from the lowest position in the heavens to the highest. Lucifer, in a quandary, calls upon Ignatius for his opinion. Ignatius (who by that time had learned a great deal about astronomy from the Jesuit scientists who showed up almost daily in Hell) and, while admitting that Copernicus’ theory is correct, tells Lucifer that Clavius, the great Jesuit astronomer who staunchly denied heliocentrism in defense of the incorrect doctrine of geocentrism, deserves a spot before Copernicus.

Ignatius also rejects the physician-alchemist Paracelsus, telling Lucifer that the Jesuits, who practice medicine even though they are untrained, can kill off just as many people as Paracelsus can with his quackery. Paracelsus also transmutes metals found in Lucifer’s domain, metals that may be better used to fashion expensive gifts for Lucifer’s confrère, the pope. He therefore advises Lucifer to appoint Paracelsus as head of the “Legion of homicide-phisitians.”
The next contender, Machiavelli, addresses Ignatius (Lucifer’s “beloved son”) directly, in an effort to plant suspicion in Lucifer’s mind. Machiavelli praises the followers of Ignatius for bringing equivocation into the world, an art learned from “The secretest Records of Hell itselfe: that is out of the minds of Lucifer, the Pope, and Ignatius (persons truly equivocal).” Although Machiavelli admits that the Jesuits have wrought far greater death and confusion on Earth than he could ever have hoped to, he prides himself on having given the Jesuits an alphabet upon which to build, and having taught them “perfidiousness and dissembling of religion.” He excites such suspicion in Lucifer’s mind that the devil plans to keep Machiavelli on board as a to foil Ignatius, of whom the devil has grown suspicious. But Ignatius, ever the more cunning disputant, reminds Lucifer that Machiavelli does not even believe in the Devil. Moreover, Machiavelli refused to give the popes due credit for their spectacular sins. Ignatius then launches into a long catalogue of the most notorious of those sins, a list so long that Donne, the narrator, remarks, “Truely, I thought this Oration of Ignatius overlong, and I began to thinke of my body which I had so long abandoned, lest it should putrefy, or grow mouldy, or bee buried.”
Ignatius also dispatches Columbus and Aretino yet the pope awards the title of Greatest Innovator to Saint Filippo Neri. Still, Lucifer realizes that he cannot leave out Ignatius all together. His plan to exalt Ignatius is as follows: He will write to the pope and have him order Galileo to lasso the moon, bringing it sufficiently close to Earth that the Jesuits will all be able to sail there together, with Ignatius as their ruler. For while Lucifer cannot die, and therefore Ignatius cannot inherit his throne, he reassures Ignatius that on the moon, he may “beget and propagate many Hells, and enlarge your empire, and so come nearer unto the high seat (i.e. Heaven) which I left at first.”

In the final scene, Pope Boniface appears on throne next to Lucifer’s own. Terrified that Ignatius will take his own place, Lucifer helps the Jesuit depose the pope and hurl him from his seat. Remarking on this final episode, Donne tells the reader, “after I had seene a Jesuit turne the Pope out of his Chaire in Hell, I suspected that that Order would attempt as much at Rome.”

The Juvenilia:
“Donne’s ‘Juvenilia’ are clever and entertaining trifles, most of which were probably written before or soon after 1600 during his youth. His own opinion of them was expressed in a letter written probably to Sir Henry Wotton in 1600:‘Only in obedience I send you some of my paradoxes; I love you and myself and them too well to send them willingly for they carry with them a confession of their lightness & your trouble & my shame. But indeed they were made rather to deceive tyme than her daughter truth: although they have been written in an age when anything is strong enough to overthrow her: if they make you to find better reasons against them they do their office: for they are but swaggerers: quiet enough if you resist them. If perchance they be pretyly guilt, that is there best for they are not hatcht: they are rather alarums to truth to arme her then enemies: & they have only this advantadg to scape from being caled ill things that they are nothings: therefore take heed of allowing any of them least you make another.’
“Owing to their rather free nature they could not be published during Donne’s lifetime, but in 1632, shortly after his death, part of them was licensed by Sir Henry Herbert. …It is not known through what channels the publisher, Henry Seyle, obtained possession of the text, which had been circulating for over thirty years in a number of manuscripts, but it is probable that the publication was quite unauthorized.”(Keynes)

In this edition, Donne’s son added an additional paradox (XII. below), seven additional problems (XI – XVII below), two “Characters”: “The Character of a Scot at First Sight” and “The True Character of a Dunce”. To these were appended an “Essay of Valour” and Maine’s translation of some of Donne’s Latin epigrams. The twelve “Paradoxes” are as follows: I. A Defence of Womens Inconstancy. II. That Women Ought to Paint. III. That by Discord things increase. IV. That Good is More Common Than Evill. V. That all things kill themselves. VI. That it is possible to find some vertue in some Women. VII. That Old men are more fantastike than Young. VIII. That Nature is our worst guide. IX. That only Cowards dare dye. X. That a Wise man is known by much laughing. XI. That the gifts of the Body are better than those of the Minde. XII. That Virginity is a vertue. These are followed by seventeen “Problemes”: I. Why have Bastards best Fortunes? II. Why Puritans make long Sermons? III. Why did the Divell reserve Iesuites till the latter Dayes? IV. Why is there more Variety of Greene, than of any other Colour? V. Why do Young Lay-men so much study Divinity? VI. Why hath the Common Opinion afforded Women Soules? VII. Why are the Fairest falsest? VIII. Why Venus Starre only doth cast a shadow? IX. Why is Venus Starre Multinominous, called both Hesperus and Vesper? X. Why are new officers least oppressing? XI. Why doth the Pox undermine affect so much to undermine the Nose? XII. Why die none for love now? XIII. Why do women delight much in Feathers? XIV. Why doth not Gold soyle the fingers? XV. Why do Greate men of all dependants, choose to preserve their little Pimps? XVI. Why are courtiers sooner Atheists than men of other conditions? XVII. Why are statesmen most incredulous?
Essayes in Divinity:

“Donne’s ‘Essayes in Divinity’ is an attempt by a profoundly philosophical mind to grasp the meaning of time and eternity and the link between the two. In this quest, ‘Essayes’ is ostensibly a commentary upon the first verse of Genesis and of Exodus, but in fact it is an exegesis composed in the manner of the recent humanists of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-centuries that takes the reader well beyond biblical explication. Like the humanists, Donne treats any piece of ancient learning or contemporary scientific thinking as a fair source for speculation, and, like them again, he brings his exegesis to bear equally on personal and general philosophical issues. Marked by this humanism, the exegetical commentary of the first of the two parts of ‘Essayes’ dealing with Genesis seeks to explain the emanation of time out of the infinite, against the background of a universe whose received concept had just been called into question. The exegesis of Exodus that follows in the second part of the work attempts to elucidate how the human consciousness sojourns through time, today as well as yesterday, and succeeds in understanding its destiny during the passage of its days, years and decades. As such, ‘Essayes’ marks an end to more than a decade of personal upheaval in Donne’s life, and, with its clarity of philosophical purpose, it introduced him to the last and great period of his production that confirmed his place in literary history.”(Anthony Raspa, “Essayes in Divinity”, Introduction, p. xiii)

Wing D1861, cf. D1867; ESTC R1266, R209209; Grolier/Donne 28 (this copy); Grolier/ Wither to Prior 297, 295; Keynes, Donne 46, 50; Thomason Tracts 179:E.1359[2], E.1362[1]

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