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A discussion of interesting books from my current stock A WordPress.com site

Month

October 2017

One of the most wonderful books I’ve read! An history of the wonderful things of nature!

DSC_0151

985G Joannes Jonstonus 1603-1675

An history of the wonderful things of nature: set forth in ten severall classes. Wherein are contained I. The wonders of the heavens. II. Of the elements. III. Of meteors. IV. Of minerals. V. Of plants. VI. Of birds. VII. Of four-footed beasts. VIII. Of insects, and things wanting blood. IX. Of fishes. X. Of man. Written by Johannes Jonstonus. And now rendred into English, by a person of quality.

 

London: printed by John Streater, living in Well-Yard near the Hospitall of St. Bartholomew’s the Lesse, and are to be sold by the booksellers of London, 1657                        SOLD

DSC_0148

Folio ∏2 A4 (a)4 B-2X4 2Y2. First Edition Bound in full calf, original covers, rebacked with a new spine and gilt lettered label, new endpapers. Binding rubbed, covers have some scuffs and small repairs to worm damage, corners repaired, shelf wear to edges, heavy unsightly browning to 56 pages, all text Unknownlegible, (the heavy browning affects the first part of the book) the rest of text has pale age-browning and spotting, an occasional ink splash, small loss to 1 lower corner, neat ink name on endpaper, otherwise an acceptable working copy, good copy only.

The first (and only?) translation, by John Rowland, of: Jonstonus, Joannes. Thaumatographia naturalis. It is a collection of observations and references of natural marvels, retrieved from all ancient and contemporary literature, and organized by the author into a series of distinct sections. Jonston organizes the text into ten classes that describe: the heavens, the elements, meteors, minerals, plants, birds, quadrupeds, insects and bloodless animals, fish and men. The fourth on fossils and minerals is quite extensive with references to Albertus Magnus, Pliny and Theophrastus. A section within the class of plants, discusses tobacco and includes early references to nature in America.DSC_0150
Some of the subjects covered include : Creation of the World; Stars, Planets, Heavens, Sun, Moon, New Stars; Fires in the Waters, Fires under the Earth; Minerall Baths, Navigation in the Sea, Salt of the Sea, Miracles of some Countries, Mountains; Earth-Quakes, Dew Manner and Honey, Rainbow; Loadstone,The fourth class describing minerals, stones and fossils occupies pages 91-126, Jewels found in the Bodies of Living Creatures, Gold, Silver, Emeralds, Topaz; Plants: Tobacco, Vine, Palm-Trees etc; Birds: Eagle, Hawkes, Owls, etc; Animals: Elephants, Horse, Crocodile, Bear, Unicorn, Divers Serpents, Camel, Beaver etc; Silk-Worms, Bees, Spanish Fly, Glo-Worms Locusts, Oysters, Pearls, Scorpions, Tarantula etc; Whale, Pike, Sea-Serpents, Salmon, Sword-Fish etc; Gyants, Pigmies, Monstrous Births, Walkers in the Night, Dreams, the Wonderful Strength and Agility of some People etc. MORE …..An Appendix follows the Eighth Classis: Wherein there is contained the observation of Andreas Libavius, a most famous Physitian, concerning SILK-WORMS, a singular History, Anno 1599, at Rotenburgh.

DSC_0149Wing J1017; Gibson, R.W. Francis Bacon,; 453; NLM 17th cent.,; 6272; ESTC (RLIN),; R001444;Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1221

DSC_0147

 

THE DESCRIPTION OF Wonders in Nature.

OF Naturall VVonders.

OF THE DESCRIPTION Of Naturall VVonders.

Some of my favorite parts! (transcribed)

CHAP. XIIII. Of Juices that grow into stones.

I had allmost forgot juyces that harden like stones. Nature hath wonderfully spoted herself in them, sometimes it hardens be∣fore it touch the ground, and somtimes when it is fallen down. Both these ways are seen at Amberga, where there are white pillars made by it. Agricol. l. de effl. ex terra. What ever drinks it in, is made a stone, if it be but porous. Hence you shall find stony Fountaines▪ and Wood and Bones that are dug up. When the workmen in time of Warr fled into the Mines of Lydia, about Pergamus, the entrance be∣ing shut up, they were strangled, the den was afterwards made clean, and there were found Vessels of stone fill’d with a stony juyce. About the Coast of Elbog, there are great-firr Trees, with their barks, in the cracks whereof a fire stone of a Golden colour growes. About Cracovia in Bohemia, there are Trees with boughes, out of which there are Whet-stones with corners; which was a Present▪ sent from the Lords of Columbratium, to Ferdinand the first. Hildesham hath beames laid upon heaps; the heads of these somtimes stick forth, these being stricken with Iron or with another stone, not unlike the marble at Hildesham, they smell like the sent of burnt horn. There is also Wood changed into a stone, and in the cracks of it there is Ebony dug forth, which Teophrastus was not ignorant of, that it lay hid scattered in the hollow o other stones. Looking Glasses, rubbing Cloths, Garments, Shoos, being brought into a quarrey in Assus of Troas become stones, Mucianus. But stones that congele from juyce are commonly soft and brittle. In the hot Baths of Charlsthe 4th, many stones together are found, hollow like Hives, half Globe figu∣red, so great as peae, they grow from the drops of the hot waters falling down. But those earthen Vessells that are found in the Earth; were Pichers for dead mens bones, because in all of them covered with lids, there were ashes, and in some Rings were found, wee saw such a one in the Library Thoruniense. It was the fashion of the Antients, as all know, to burn and lay up their ashes. In Italy also some urns were found of glasse. Caesar Carduinus had foure found in the fields of Naples: but what hapned at Verona, see Bertius in desci. agri Veronen.

 

MEteors are made of Exhalations, the Sun and the rest of the Stars draw them forth; and the subterraneall fire is the worker of very many of them. We shall speak nothing of them. These are some hurtfull, some safe, as may be proved by many Examples. At the foot of the Mountain Tritulum Halveatum, there are waters you must ascend by 43 degrees; to a place of sweating, It is in length three miles, the more you are lifted up above them, the hotter you are; the more you descend into them, the cooler. Those draw flegme from the parts, and cure distillations from the head. There is a hot Bath near the hot waters that run forth of the Lake Agnanum; The ditches are covered with Turves of grasse, and stones being removed, a hot vapour is sent out, that makes them sweat that receive it. Out of Avernus a Lake of Campania, before Agrippa had cut down the Woods that covered it, and laid it open, the Exhalations were so thick that came forth, that the birds were killed that flew over it. At the Lake of Agnanum in Italy, there is a Mountain, in which there is a narrow Cave, it declines moderately downwards, being 8 foot long; if you touch the earth of it with your foot or hand, it feels hotter than the rest, it choaks any living creature that is cast in by the venomous blast, deprives them of sense and motion, though you pull it out pre∣sently; but cast the same presently into the next Lake, it is a wonder how it restores their life again, Camer. Cent. 7. Mirab mem. 50. In the Island Ebusus, Exhalations do so infect the ground, that if they fall upon places where Serpents are, the pestilent Creatures cannot endure them. In the great places of refreshment at Baianum there is a ditch, the water whereof sends forth such hot vapours, that wax Candles will melt, & be put on by them; and they are so pernicious, that men fall down dead therewith. In Babylon there is a Cave also, out of which riseth such a pestilent vapour, that it kills all that draw it in. Also Pluto∣nium in a little hill of a Mountainous Country hath so moderate a mouth, that it can receive but one Man, but it is wonderfull deep: It is compassed about with square pales, and that so many as would compasse in half an Ace, which are so full of clowdy thick dark∣nesse, that the ground can hardly be seen. The Ayr hurts not those who come to the outside of the pales, as being clear from that dark∣nesse, when the winds blow not; If a living Creature goes in, he dies immediately. Bulls brought in fall down, and are drawn forth dead. Lastly, at Hierapolis in Syria, as Dio in the Life of Trajan writes, there is a den of a filthy and deadly smell; what living creature sucks it in, is destroyed by it; Only Eunuchs are free from the venom and hurt of it, Scaliger, Exerc. 277. Sect. 4.

CHAP. XIX. Of the Salmon, and the Turdus.

A Salmon about Colen is two cubits long, and they are greater amongst the Miseni; and at Dessavia, neere the River Albis, from 24, to 36, pounds weight. In Helvetianeere Tigurus they are ta∣ken somtimes above 36, pound weight. Albertus saith, the intestine of it, is divided into many parts like to fingers. Gesner writes, that he observed two passages from the very throat of one that he dissected: they stretched downward, one to the Maw by the Wezand, and the other was namelesse. In the River Mulda neere to Dessavia, if the Sal∣mon striving to overcome the precipice of the water, be frustrated at the second or third leap, he swims to the foard, and there he will lye hid under stones and gravel, and pine away: he is full of brasse co∣lour’d spots, and his beck is bent like a great hook. In Scotland in Autumn they meet in little Rivers or places fordable, where they joyne bellies, and lay eggs, and cover them in the gravel▪ at which time the male is so spent, spending his milt and seed, and the female with her spawn, that they are nothing but bones and prickels and skin. That leannesse is infectious, for they will infect all the Salmons they come neere. It is an argument thereof, that oft times they are taken, and one side is consumed, the other not so. From their eyes covered in the sand, little fishes breed the next spring that are so soft, that untill they be no bigger than a mans finger, if you presse them with your fingers, they will run as from congeled moysture. Then first, as Nature leads them, they hasten to the Sea, and in 20, days, or a little more, it is incredible how great they will grow, when they come from the Sea, against a River that runs thither, they shew a wonder. For the Rivers that are straightned with Rocks, and Banks, on every side, and therefore run down swiftly, when they fall with a great fall, the Salmons do not presently swim forth by the Channel, but they fling themselves up crooked by force of the water, and so are carried in the Ayre, before they fall. That they are live∣ly, is seen by their heart taken forth. Robertus Constantinus testifies that he saw the heart of a Salmon that was unbowelled, that was wet with a moyst sanies, and it lived after it was taken forth above a day. There are some different kinds of Turdi. Some have as it were some skiny yellowish Apophyses hanging down from their lower chop▪ somtimes they vary, and are all for the most part Gold colour, or colour of the Amethyst or blew. Their eyes are extreme great, and a black circle goes about a Golden Apple▪ a Golden circle about the black, and lastly a black circle goes about them all. The fins by the gills are wholly Gold colour, but of the brest they are all blew, except their nervs that are Gold colour’d. The fin that is from the anus, and that which is on the back, and taile, where they are joyn’d to the rump, are Gold colour’d, but sprinkled with little red blood spots, the rest are blew.

 

and so much More…

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo/A46234.0001.001/1:9.1?rgn=div2;view=toc

 

 

 

One of the most wonderful books I’ve read! An history of the wonderful things of nature!

DSC_0151

985G Joannes Jonstonus 1603-1675

An history of the wonderful things of nature: set forth in ten severall classes. Wherein are contained I. The wonders of the heavens. II. Of the elements. III. Of meteors. IV. Of minerals. V. Of plants. VI. Of birds. VII. Of four-footed beasts. VIII. Of insects, and things wanting blood. IX. Of fishes. X. Of man. Written by Johannes Jonstonus. And now rendred into English, by a person of quality.

 

London: printed by John Streater, living in Well-Yard near the Hospitall of St. Bartholomew’s the Lesse, and are to be sold by the booksellers of London, 1657                        $3,200

DSC_0148

Folio ∏2 A4 (a)4 B-2X4 2Y2. First Edition Bound in full calf, original covers, rebacked with a new spine and gilt lettered label, new endpapers. Binding rubbed, covers have some scuffs and small repairs to worm damage, corners repaired, shelf wear to edges, heavy unsightly browning to 56 pages, all text Unknownlegible, (the heavy browning affects the first part of the book) the rest of text has pale age-browning and spotting, an occasional ink splash, small loss to 1 lower corner, neat ink name on endpaper, otherwise an acceptable working copy, good copy only.

The first (and only?) translation, by John Rowland, of: Jonstonus, Joannes. Thaumatographia naturalis. It is a collection of observations and references of natural marvels, retrieved from all ancient and contemporary literature, and organized by the author into a series of distinct sections. Jonston organizes the text into ten classes that describe: the heavens, the elements, meteors, minerals, plants, birds, quadrupeds, insects and bloodless animals, fish and men. The fourth on fossils and minerals is quite extensive with references to Albertus Magnus, Pliny and Theophrastus. A section within the class of plants, discusses tobacco and includes early references to nature in America.DSC_0150
Some of the subjects covered include : Creation of the World; Stars, Planets, Heavens, Sun, Moon, New Stars; Fires in the Waters, Fires under the Earth; Minerall Baths, Navigation in the Sea, Salt of the Sea, Miracles of some Countries, Mountains; Earth-Quakes, Dew Manner and Honey, Rainbow; Loadstone,The fourth class describing minerals, stones and fossils occupies pages 91-126, Jewels found in the Bodies of Living Creatures, Gold, Silver, Emeralds, Topaz; Plants: Tobacco, Vine, Palm-Trees etc; Birds: Eagle, Hawkes, Owls, etc; Animals: Elephants, Horse, Crocodile, Bear, Unicorn, Divers Serpents, Camel, Beaver etc; Silk-Worms, Bees, Spanish Fly, Glo-Worms Locusts, Oysters, Pearls, Scorpions, Tarantula etc; Whale, Pike, Sea-Serpents, Salmon, Sword-Fish etc; Gyants, Pigmies, Monstrous Births, Walkers in the Night, Dreams, the Wonderful Strength and Agility of some People etc. MORE …..An Appendix follows the Eighth Classis: Wherein there is contained the observation of Andreas Libavius, a most famous Physitian, concerning SILK-WORMS, a singular History, Anno 1599, at Rotenburgh.

DSC_0149Wing J1017; Gibson, R.W. Francis Bacon,; 453; NLM 17th cent.,; 6272; ESTC (RLIN),; R001444;Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1221

DSC_0147

 

THE DESCRIPTION OF Wonders in Nature.

OF Naturall VVonders.

OF THE DESCRIPTION Of Naturall VVonders.

Some of my favorite parts! (transcribed)

CHAP. XIIII. Of Juices that grow into stones.

I had allmost forgot juyces that harden like stones. Nature hath wonderfully spoted herself in them, sometimes it hardens be∣fore it touch the ground, and somtimes when it is fallen down. Both these ways are seen at Amberga, where there are white pillars made by it. Agricol. l. de effl. ex terra. What ever drinks it in, is made a stone, if it be but porous. Hence you shall find stony Fountaines▪ and Wood and Bones that are dug up. When the workmen in time of Warr fled into the Mines of Lydia, about Pergamus, the entrance be∣ing shut up, they were strangled, the den was afterwards made clean, and there were found Vessels of stone fill’d with a stony juyce. About the Coast of Elbog, there are great-firr Trees, with their barks, in the cracks whereof a fire stone of a Golden colour growes. About Cracovia in Bohemia, there are Trees with boughes, out of which there are Whet-stones with corners; which was a Present▪ sent from the Lords of Columbratium, to Ferdinand the first. Hildesham hath beames laid upon heaps; the heads of these somtimes stick forth, these being stricken with Iron or with another stone, not unlike the marble at Hildesham, they smell like the sent of burnt horn. There is also Wood changed into a stone, and in the cracks of it there is Ebony dug forth, which Teophrastus was not ignorant of, that it lay hid scattered in the hollow o other stones. Looking Glasses, rubbing Cloths, Garments, Shoos, being brought into a quarrey in Assus of Troas become stones, Mucianus. But stones that congele from juyce are commonly soft and brittle. In the hot Baths of Charlsthe 4th, many stones together are found, hollow like Hives, half Globe figu∣red, so great as peae, they grow from the drops of the hot waters falling down. But those earthen Vessells that are found in the Earth; were Pichers for dead mens bones, because in all of them covered with lids, there were ashes, and in some Rings were found, wee saw such a one in the Library Thoruniense. It was the fashion of the Antients, as all know, to burn and lay up their ashes. In Italy also some urns were found of glasse. Caesar Carduinus had foure found in the fields of Naples: but what hapned at Verona, see Bertius in desci. agri Veronen.

 

MEteors are made of Exhalations, the Sun and the rest of the Stars draw them forth; and the subterraneall fire is the worker of very many of them. We shall speak nothing of them. These are some hurtfull, some safe, as may be proved by many Examples. At the foot of the Mountain Tritulum Halveatum, there are waters you must ascend by 43 degrees; to a place of sweating, It is in length three miles, the more you are lifted up above them, the hotter you are; the more you descend into them, the cooler. Those draw flegme from the parts, and cure distillations from the head. There is a hot Bath near the hot waters that run forth of the Lake Agnanum; The ditches are covered with Turves of grasse, and stones being removed, a hot vapour is sent out, that makes them sweat that receive it. Out of Avernus a Lake of Campania, before Agrippa had cut down the Woods that covered it, and laid it open, the Exhalations were so thick that came forth, that the birds were killed that flew over it. At the Lake of Agnanum in Italy, there is a Mountain, in which there is a narrow Cave, it declines moderately downwards, being 8 foot long; if you touch the earth of it with your foot or hand, it feels hotter than the rest, it choaks any living creature that is cast in by the venomous blast, deprives them of sense and motion, though you pull it out pre∣sently; but cast the same presently into the next Lake, it is a wonder how it restores their life again, Camer. Cent. 7. Mirab mem. 50. In the Island Ebusus, Exhalations do so infect the ground, that if they fall upon places where Serpents are, the pestilent Creatures cannot endure them. In the great places of refreshment at Baianum there is a ditch, the water whereof sends forth such hot vapours, that wax Candles will melt, & be put on by them; and they are so pernicious, that men fall down dead therewith. In Babylon there is a Cave also, out of which riseth such a pestilent vapour, that it kills all that draw it in. Also Pluto∣nium in a little hill of a Mountainous Country hath so moderate a mouth, that it can receive but one Man, but it is wonderfull deep: It is compassed about with square pales, and that so many as would compasse in half an Ace, which are so full of clowdy thick dark∣nesse, that the ground can hardly be seen. The Ayr hurts not those who come to the outside of the pales, as being clear from that dark∣nesse, when the winds blow not; If a living Creature goes in, he dies immediately. Bulls brought in fall down, and are drawn forth dead. Lastly, at Hierapolis in Syria, as Dio in the Life of Trajan writes, there is a den of a filthy and deadly smell; what living creature sucks it in, is destroyed by it; Only Eunuchs are free from the venom and hurt of it, Scaliger, Exerc. 277. Sect. 4.

CHAP. XIX. Of the Salmon, and the Turdus.

A Salmon about Colen is two cubits long, and they are greater amongst the Miseni; and at Dessavia, neere the River Albis, from 24, to 36, pounds weight. In Helvetianeere Tigurus they are ta∣ken somtimes above 36, pound weight. Albertus saith, the intestine of it, is divided into many parts like to fingers. Gesner writes, that he observed two passages from the very throat of one that he dissected: they stretched downward, one to the Maw by the Wezand, and the other was namelesse. In the River Mulda neere to Dessavia, if the Sal∣mon striving to overcome the precipice of the water, be frustrated at the second or third leap, he swims to the foard, and there he will lye hid under stones and gravel, and pine away: he is full of brasse co∣lour’d spots, and his beck is bent like a great hook. In Scotland in Autumn they meet in little Rivers or places fordable, where they joyne bellies, and lay eggs, and cover them in the gravel▪ at which time the male is so spent, spending his milt and seed, and the female with her spawn, that they are nothing but bones and prickels and skin. That leannesse is infectious, for they will infect all the Salmons they come neere. It is an argument thereof, that oft times they are taken, and one side is consumed, the other not so. From their eyes covered in the sand, little fishes breed the next spring that are so soft, that untill they be no bigger than a mans finger, if you presse them with your fingers, they will run as from congeled moysture. Then first, as Nature leads them, they hasten to the Sea, and in 20, days, or a little more, it is incredible how great they will grow, when they come from the Sea, against a River that runs thither, they shew a wonder. For the Rivers that are straightned with Rocks, and Banks, on every side, and therefore run down swiftly, when they fall with a great fall, the Salmons do not presently swim forth by the Channel, but they fling themselves up crooked by force of the water, and so are carried in the Ayre, before they fall. That they are live∣ly, is seen by their heart taken forth. Robertus Constantinus testifies that he saw the heart of a Salmon that was unbowelled, that was wet with a moyst sanies, and it lived after it was taken forth above a day. There are some different kinds of Turdi. Some have as it were some skiny yellowish Apophyses hanging down from their lower chop▪ somtimes they vary, and are all for the most part Gold colour, or colour of the Amethyst or blew. Their eyes are extreme great, and a black circle goes about a Golden Apple▪ a Golden circle about the black, and lastly a black circle goes about them all. The fins by the gills are wholly Gold colour, but of the brest they are all blew, except their nervs that are Gold colour’d. The fin that is from the anus, and that which is on the back, and taile, where they are joyn’d to the rump, are Gold colour’d, but sprinkled with little red blood spots, the rest are blew.

 

and so much More…

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo/A46234.0001.001/1:9.1?rgn=div2;view=toc

 

 

 

“Donkey dung, introduced by the devil.”

page19image1896907G Johannes de Verdena  (d.1437)

Sermones Dormi secure vel dormi sine cura de t[em]p[or]e.

              [bound with]

Sermones Dormi secure de tempore et de sanctis.

Nuremberg : Anton Koberger, 12 Mar. 1498
Nuremberg : Anton Koberger, 5 Jan. 1494                                     
$12,000

 

page18image11432Folio 11 X 8 inches A (-A1)-F8 G6 [bound with] ae8 f6 gk8 I10

The first works lacks title slug. The second work is complete. These two books are rubicated in red and blue throuout. It has a manuscript index on the verso of the final leaf. It is bound in blind stamped original calf over wooden boards,nicely rebacked. With heavy blind stamped ornaments on both boards and a faint title of the front board. The two parts of the famous preaching collection of the Franciscan monk Johannes de Verdana, who, besides Johann von Minden and Heinrich von W erl, belonged to the three best known German preachers of the thirties of the fifteenth century .

The “Sermones Dormi secure” is a command to calm the preacher who can keep his sermons on Sundays and holidays (de tempore et de sanctis) without his having so stay up all night composing your own texts. Compiled by a Franciscan friar, this collection of 71 sermons was intended to provide sample texts for those preachers who could not create their own. The nickname of the collection, “dormi secure” (“sleep soundly”), may have implied jokingly that its users were too ignorant or lazy to compose new sermons on short deadlines.

Although it was a highly successful book, appearing in dozens of editions, Martin Luther dismissed it as:

“Donkey dung, introduced by the devil.”

(oh Luther)

This practical preaching document was particularly popular and was printed between 1476 and 1500 in more than 30 editions in Germany , France, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Numerous other editions were printed until the 17th century .

 

DSC_0085

ad1)  De tempore: Goff J468; HC 15977; Walsh 759; Pr 2120; BMC II

ad2)De sanctis: Goff J470; HC 15979 Walsh 736; Pr 2087; BMC

(Goff and ISTC showing only two copies in the US :Harvard  & St Bonaventure Univ)

DSC_0089

Holland’s Pliny: 1601 one of the Most Important Elizabethan Science Books

881G     Gaius Plinius Secundus. (23-79); trans. Philemon Holland Pliny the Elder 1552-1637

The Historie Of the World: Commonly called, the Natvrall Historie of c. Plinivs Secvndvs. Translted into English by Philemon Holland Doctor of Physicke. The first [and second] Tome[s].

 

London: Adam Islip,1601                                                                                     $11,000

DSC_0020

DSC_0019Folio 11 3/4 X 8 inches. [π]6, ¶4 a-b6 A8 B-3I6 3K4; A-3G6 3H4 3I-3O6 3P8 (lacking blank leaves 1 and 3P8) First edition second issue. Title pages to both volumes both with a large woodcut device. This copy is bound in contemporary English calfskin, ruled in blind, rebacked with an appropriate gilt spine.it is an impressive copy.. A generally excellent, crisp, bright copy with very minor faults: repaired  tears on the corners of leaves Aii-Avii in the second book with loss of a few words on each page  A few signatures with very light marginal dampstains. Occasional rust spots, marginal tears, or marginal natural paper flaws.

An impressive book

DSC_0022

“All [of Pliny’s] works have been lost, except for the ‘Naturalis Historia.’ An atmosphere of excess surrounds the work. We know that Pliny claims never to have read a book so bad as not to have any value at all; and Pliny was constantly reading, taking notes, and indexing. The final result was a work in thirty-seven books, intended to inventory the total knowledge possessed by man. The indefatigable Pliny worked his way through impressive numbers: 34,000 notices, 2,000 volumes read, from 100 different authors, and 170 dossiers of notes and preparatory files (‘I have not knowingly omitted any piece of information, if I have found it anywhere.’).“Pliny remained popular in the Renaissance. He was one of the most frequently consulted authorities on many subjects for Valla and many other humanists; there were at least forty-six editions of his work by 1550; and he was translated in Italian by Landino (published in 1501) and into English by Philemon Holland (1601). But gradually the intense philological work of humanist scholars on the one hand and the new discoveries of the scientific revolution on the other began to throw doubt upon Pliny’s reputation as an infallible authority, and in the end his reputation could not even be rescued by blaming the manuscripts. Yet as Pliny has lost his practical value as a reference handbook for the modern period, he had gained in historical importance for the information he transmits concerning ancient art, science, folklore, religion, and material culture. It is precisely Pliny’s intellectual defects—his bland indifference to theoretical rigor, his refusal to engage in systematic analysis and selection—that make him so precious for modern scholars interested in the ancient world. Unlike scholars who had greater intelligence, more self-confidence, or simply more time at their disposal, he preserves everything and passes it on to us.” (Conte)

DSC_0021“Along with the patriotic aims of an Englishman and a literary voyager Holland [the English translator of this volume of Pliny] has a theory of his art, though only hints of it are given in his prefaces. What he calls his ‘meane and popular stile’ might be taken as a generic representative of the best early seventeenth century writing. Holland’s unusual learning and care chastened his prose without robbing it of colloquial energy, concrete amplitude, and metaphorical color. His slight but frequent additions are made in the interest of complete and vivid clarity and emotional effect. And the whole tone of his work reflects his Elizabethan veneration for, and sense of contemporaneous intimacy with, the great men and events and the ethical wisdom of antiquity. Pliny’s philosophy gave him some qualms, but these were satisfactorily quieted. In his life and in his work Holland was a fine example of the Christian humanist.” (Bush)

This is one of the Most Important Elizabethan Science Books.

The Natural History of Pliny the Elder is more than a natural history: it is an encyclopaedia of all the knowledge of the ancient world It comprises 37 books with mathematics and physics, geography and astronomy, medicine and zoology, anthropology and physiology, philosophy and history, agriculture and mineralogy, the arts and letters The Historia soon became a standard book of reference; abstracts and abridgements appeared by the third century. Bede owned a copy, Alcuin sent the early books to Charlemagne, and Dicuil, the Irish geographer, quotes him in the ninth century. It was the basis of Isidore’s Etymologiae and such medieval encyclopedias as the Speculum Majus of Vincent of Beauvais and the Catholicon of Balbus. One of the earliest books to be printed at Venice, the centre from which so much of classical literature was first dispensed, it was later translated into English by Philemon Holland in 1601, and twice reprinted (a notable achievement for so vast a text) Over and over again it will be found that the source of some ancient piece of knowledge is Pliny. (PMM 5) .

Holland’s first book, the first complete rendering of Livy into English, was published in 1600 when he was nearly fifty. It was a work of great importance, presented in a grand folio volume of 1458 pages, and dedicated to the queen.  The Livy was followed in the next year by an equally huge translation, of the elder Pliny: The Historie of the World, Commonly called, the Naturall Historie. This encyclopaedia of ancient knowledge about the natural world had already had a great indirect influence in England, as elsewhere in Europe, but had not been translated into English before, and would not be again for 250 years. (ODNB)

Pforzheimer, 496; STC (2nd ed.), 20029.5

An history of the wonderful things of nature!

985G Joannes Jonstonus 1603-1675

An history of the wonderful things of nature: set forth in ten severall classes. Wherein are contained I. The wonders of the heavens. II. Of the elements. III. Of meteors. IV. Of minerals. V. Of plants. VI. Of birds. VII. Of four-footed beasts. VIII. Of insects, and things wanting blood. IX. Of fishes. X. Of man. Written by Johannes Jonstonus. And now rendred into English, by a person of quality.

Unknown-1

London: printed by John Streater, living in Well-Yard near the Hospitall of St. Bartholomew’s the Lesse, and are to be sold by the booksellers of London, 1657                        $3,200

Folio ∏2 A4 (a)4 B-2X4 2Y2. First Edition Bound in full calf, original covers, rebacked with a new spine and gilt lettered label, new endpapers. Binding rubbed, covers have some scuffs and small repairs to worm damage, corners repaired, shelf wear to edges, heavy unsightly browning to 56 pages, all text Unknownlegible, (the heavy browning affects the first part of the book) the rest of text has pale age-browning and spotting, an occasional ink splash, small loss to 1 lower corner, neat ink name on endpaper, otherwise an acceptable working copy, good copy only.

The first (and only?) translation, by John Rowland, of: Jonstonus, Joannes. Thaumatographia naturalis. It is a collection of observations and references of natural marvels, retrieved from all ancient and contemporary literature, and organized by the author into a series of distinct sections. Jonston organizes the text into ten classes that describe: the heavens, the elements, meteors, minerals, plants, birds, quadrupeds, insects and bloodless animals, fish and men. The fourth on fossils and minerals is quite extensive with references to Albertus Magnus, Pliny and Theophrastus. A section within the class of plants, discusses tobacco and includes early references to nature in America.
Some of the subjects covered include : Creation of the World; Stars, Planets, Heavens, Sun, Moon, New Stars; Fires in the Waters, Fires under the Earth; Minerall Baths, Navigation in the Sea, Salt of the Sea, Miracles of some Countries, Mountains; Earth-Quakes, Dew Manner and Honey, Rainbow; Loadstone,The fourth class describing minerals, stones and fossils occupies pages 91-126, Jewels found in the Bodies of Living Creatures, Gold, Silver, Emeralds, Topaz; Plants: Tobacco, Vine, Palm-Trees etc; Birds: Eagle, Hawkes, Owls, etc; Animals: Elephants, Horse, Crocodile, Bear, Unicorn, Divers Serpents, Camel, Beaver etc; Silk-Worms, Bees, Spanish Fly, Glo-Worms Locusts, Oysters, Pearls, Scorpions, Tarantula etc; Whale, Pike, Sea-Serpents, Salmon, Sword-Fish etc; Gyants, Pigmies, Monstrous Births, Walkers in the Night, Dreams, the Wonderful Strength and Agility of some People etc. MORE …..An Appendix follows the Eighth Classis: Wherein there is contained the observation of Andreas Libavius, a most famous Physitian, concerning SILK-WORMS, a singular History, Anno 1599, at Rotenburgh.

Wing J1017; Gibson, R.W. Francis Bacon,; 453; NLM 17th cent.,; 6272; ESTC (RLIN),; R001444;Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1221

Some of my favorite parts! (transcribed)

CHAP. XIIII. Of Juices that grow into stones.

I had allmost forgot juyces that harden like stones. Nature hath wonderfully spoted herself in them, sometimes it hardens be∣fore it touch the ground, and somtimes when it is fallen down. Both these ways are seen at Amberga, where there are white pillars made by it. Agricol. l. de effl. ex terra. What ever drinks it in, is made a stone, if it be but porous. Hence you shall find stony Fountaines▪ and Wood and Bones that are dug up. When the workmen in time of Warr fled into the Mines of Lydia, about Pergamus, the entrance be∣ing shut up, they were strangled, the den was afterwards made clean, and there were found Vessels of stone fill’d with a stony juyce. About the Coast of Elbog, there are great-firr Trees, with their barks, in the cracks whereof a fire stone of a Golden colour growes. About Cracovia in Bohemia, there are Trees with boughes, out of which there are Whet-stones with corners; which was a Present▪ sent from the Lords of Columbratium, to Ferdinand the first. Hildesham hath beames laid upon heaps; the heads of these somtimes stick forth, these being stricken with Iron or with another stone, not unlike the marble at Hildesham, they smell like the sent of burnt horn. There is also Wood changed into a stone, and in the cracks of it there is Ebony dug forth, which Teophrastus was not ignorant of, that it lay hid scattered in the hollow o other stones. Looking Glasses, rubbing Cloths, Garments, Shoos, being brought into a quarrey in Assus of Troas become stones, Mucianus. But stones that congele from juyce are commonly soft and brittle. In the hot Baths of Charlsthe 4th, many stones together are found, hollow like Hives, half Globe figu∣red, so great as peae, they grow from the drops of the hot waters falling down. But those earthen Vessells that are found in the Earth; were Pichers for dead mens bones, because in all of them covered with lids, there were ashes, and in some Rings were found, wee saw such a one in the Library Thoruniense. It was the fashion of the Antients, as all know, to burn and lay up their ashes. In Italy also some urns were found of glasse. Caesar Carduinus had foure found in the fields of Naples: but what hapned at Verona, see Bertius in desci. agri Veronen.

MEteors are made of Exhalations, the Sun and the rest of the Stars draw them forth; and the subterraneall fire is the worker of very many of them. We shall speak nothing of them. These are some hurtfull, some safe, as may be proved by many Examples. At the foot of the Mountain Tritulum Halveatum, there are waters you must ascend by 43 degrees; to a place of sweating, It is in length three miles, the more you are lifted up above them, the hotter you are; the more you descend into them, the cooler. Those draw flegme from the parts, and cure distillations from the head. There is a hot Bath near the hot waters that run forth of the Lake Agnanum; The ditches are covered with Turves of grasse, and stones being removed, a hot vapour is sent out, that makes them sweat that receive it. Out of Avernus a Lake of Campania, before Agrippa had cut down the Woods that covered it, and laid it open, the Exhalations were so thick that came forth, that the birds were killed that flew over it. At the Lake of Agnanum in Italy, there is a Mountain, in which there is a narrow Cave, it declines moderately downwards, being 8 foot long; if you touch the earth of it with your foot or hand, it feels hotter than the rest, it choaks any living creature that is cast in by the venomous blast, deprives them of sense and motion, though you pull it out pre∣sently; but cast the same presently into the next Lake, it is a wonder how it restores their life again, Camer. Cent. 7. Mirab mem. 50. In the Island Ebusus, Exhalations do so infect the ground, that if they fall upon places where Serpents are, the pestilent Creatures cannot endure them. In the great places of refreshment at Baianum there is a ditch, the water whereof sends forth such hot vapours, that wax Candles will melt, & be put on by them; and they are so pernicious, that men fall down dead therewith. In Babylon there is a Cave also, out of which riseth such a pestilent vapour, that it kills all that draw it in. Also Pluto∣nium in a little hill of a Mountainous Country hath so moderate a mouth, that it can receive but one Man, but it is wonderfull deep: It is compassed about with square pales, and that so many as would compasse in half an Ace, which are so full of clowdy thick dark∣nesse, that the ground can hardly be seen. The Ayr hurts not those who come to the outside of the pales, as being clear from that dark∣nesse, when the winds blow not; If a living Creature goes in, he dies immediately. Bulls brought in fall down, and are drawn forth dead. Lastly, at Hierapolis in Syria, as Dio in the Life of Trajan writes, there is a den of a filthy and deadly smell; what living creature sucks it in, is destroyed by it; Only Eunuchs are free from the venom and hurt of it, Scaliger, Exerc. 277. Sect. 4.

CHAP. XIX. Of the Salmon, and the Turdus.

A Salmon about Colen is two cubits long, and they are greater amongst the Miseni; and at Dessavia, neere the River Albis, from 24, to 36, pounds weight. In Helvetianeere Tigurus they are ta∣ken somtimes above 36, pound weight. Albertus saith, the intestine of it, is divided into many parts like to fingers. Gesner writes, that he observed two passages from the very throat of one that he dissected: they stretched downward, one to the Maw by the Wezand, and the other was namelesse. In the River Mulda neere to Dessavia, if the Sal∣mon striving to overcome the precipice of the water, be frustrated at the second or third leap, he swims to the foard, and there he will lye hid under stones and gravel, and pine away: he is full of brasse co∣lour’d spots, and his beck is bent like a great hook. In Scotland in Autumn they meet in little Rivers or places fordable, where they joyne bellies, and lay eggs, and cover them in the gravel▪ at which time the male is so spent, spending his milt and seed, and the female with her spawn, that they are nothing but bones and prickels and skin. That leannesse is infectious, for they will infect all the Salmons they come neere. It is an argument thereof, that oft times they are taken, and one side is consumed, the other not so. From their eyes covered in the sand, little fishes breed the next spring that are so soft, that untill they be no bigger than a mans finger, if you presse them with your fingers, they will run as from congeled moysture. Then first, as Nature leads them, they hasten to the Sea, and in 20, days, or a little more, it is incredible how great they will grow, when they come from the Sea, against a River that runs thither, they shew a wonder. For the Rivers that are straightned with Rocks, and Banks, on every side, and therefore run down swiftly, when they fall with a great fall, the Salmons do not presently swim forth by the Channel, but they fling themselves up crooked by force of the water, and so are carried in the Ayre, before they fall. That they are live∣ly, is seen by their heart taken forth. Robertus Constantinus testifies that he saw the heart of a Salmon that was unbowelled, that was wet with a moyst sanies, and it lived after it was taken forth above a day. There are some different kinds of Turdi. Some have as it were some skiny yellowish Apophyses hanging down from their lower chop▪ somtimes they vary, and are all for the most part Gold colour, or colour of the Amethyst or blew. Their eyes are extreme great, and a black circle goes about a Golden Apple▪ a Golden circle about the black, and lastly a black circle goes about them all. The fins by the gills are wholly Gold colour, but of the brest they are all blew, except their nervs that are Gold colour’d. The fin that is from the anus, and that which is on the back, and taile, where they are joyn’d to the rump, are Gold colour’d, but sprinkled with little red blood spots, the rest are blew.

 

 

A very good explanation of book formats!

In this blog post, we will be looking at the variety of formats of Hunter’s printed books, and uncover the technical terms, which are commonly used to describe the books’ formats.

via William Hunter’s Library: the Shapes of Books — University of Glasgow Library

An history of the wonderful things of nature!

985G Joannes Jonstonus 1603-1675

An history of the wonderful things of nature: set forth in ten severall classes. Wherein are contained I. The wonders of the heavens. II. Of the elements. III. Of meteors. IV. Of minerals. V. Of plants. VI. Of birds. VII. Of four-footed beasts. VIII. Of insects, and things wanting blood. IX. Of fishes. X. Of man. Written by Johannes Jonstonus. And now rendred into English, by a person of quality.

Unknown-1

London: printed by John Streater, living in Well-Yard near the Hospitall of St. Bartholomew’s the Lesse, and are to be sold by the booksellers of London, 1657          SOLD

Folio ∏2 A4 (a)4 B-2X4 2Y2. First Edition Bound in full calf, original covers, rebacked with a new spine and gilt lettered label, new endpapers. Binding rubbed, covers have some scuffs and small repairs to worm damage, corners repaired, shelf wear to edges, heavy unsightly browning to 56 pages, all text Unknownlegible, (the heavy browning affects the first part of the book) the rest of text has pale age-browning and spotting, an occasional ink splash, small loss to 1 lower corner, neat ink name on endpaper, otherwise an acceptable working copy, good copy only.

The first (and only?) translation, by John Rowland, of: Jonstonus, Joannes. Thaumatographia naturalis. It is a collection of observations and references of natural marvels, retrieved from all ancient and contemporary literature, and organized by the author into a series of distinct sections. Jonston organizes the text into ten classes that describe: the heavens, the elements, meteors, minerals, plants, birds, quadrupeds, insects and bloodless animals, fish and men. The fourth on fossils and minerals is quite extensive with references to Albertus Magnus, Pliny and Theophrastus. A section within the class of plants, discusses tobacco and includes early references to nature in America.
Some of the subjects covered include : Creation of the World; Stars, Planets, Heavens, Sun, Moon, New Stars; Fires in the Waters, Fires under the Earth; Minerall Baths, Navigation in the Sea, Salt of the Sea, Miracles of some Countries, Mountains; Earth-Quakes, Dew Manner and Honey, Rainbow; Loadstone,The fourth class describing minerals, stones and fossils occupies pages 91-126, Jewels found in the Bodies of Living Creatures, Gold, Silver, Emeralds, Topaz; Plants: Tobacco, Vine, Palm-Trees etc; Birds: Eagle, Hawkes, Owls, etc; Animals: Elephants, Horse, Crocodile, Bear, Unicorn, Divers Serpents, Camel, Beaver etc; Silk-Worms, Bees, Spanish Fly, Glo-Worms Locusts, Oysters, Pearls, Scorpions, Tarantula etc; Whale, Pike, Sea-Serpents, Salmon, Sword-Fish etc; Gyants, Pigmies, Monstrous Births, Walkers in the Night, Dreams, the Wonderful Strength and Agility of some People etc. MORE …..An Appendix follows the Eighth Classis: Wherein there is contained the observation of Andreas Libavius, a most famous Physitian, concerning SILK-WORMS, a singular History, Anno 1599, at Rotenburgh.

 

Wing J1017; Gibson, R.W. Francis Bacon,; 453; NLM 17th cent.,; 6272; ESTC (RLIN),; R001444;Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1221.

Marinus Becichemus Scodrensis

982G Marino Becichemo 1468-1526

Hoc libro continentur haec opera Becichemi : Panegyricus serenissimo principi Leonardo Lauretano et illustrissimo Senatui Veneto dictus. Centuria epistola[rum] quaestionu[m] eide[m] principi atq[ue] senatui dicata: in qua su[n]t capita plura ad arte[m] oratoria[m] & ad artificiu[m] orationu[m] Ciceronis spectantia. Item sunt castigationes multae in asinu[m] aureu[m] & in multa alio[rum] aucto[rum] opa. Castigationes in totum victorinum. Castigationes in totum opus rhe. de inuentione. Castigationes in omnes libros rhe. ad herennium. Castigationes in tres libros de oratore. Castigationes in quattuor libros floridorum Apuleii. Itam sunt artes. De componenda epistola. De componendo dialogo. De imitatione. De componenda funebri orationes. De componenda nuptiali oratione. Expecta lector propediem secundam centuriam.

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Venetiis : A Bernardino Veneto de uitalibus, VIII. Idus octobris 1506                                                                $3,800

Folio 12 1/4 X 8 1/2 Inches.    A-E6 ; a4 ,b4, c–x6 Y-Z4z4 verso blank SECOND Edition The first was printed in Brescia 1504 by Angelo e Giacomo Britannico.   Bound in a nice 20th century full dark brown calf binding,BY JON ROBBINS. The first leaf has had its margins strengthened but in no way obtrusivly, The peper is very thick and this copy has good margins with some deckel edges. The typography is rather crude for an Italian book of this time .
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Marin Beçikemi (aka Latin: Marinus Becichemus Scodrensis or Becichemi, Bicichemo, Becichio, Bezicco)  {there are a lot of searches here…} was an Albanian 15th and 16th century humani s{t, orator, and chronist. Born in Shkodër he had seen 26 out of his 30 family members die in the Siege of Shkodra from the Ottoman Empire. In 1503 he published a panegyric to the Venetian Senate concerning the siege.  He wrote commentaries on Cicero, Pliny the Elder and other classical philosophers. He was a professor of rhetoric at the University of Padova.
Panzer VIII, 383
In OCLC I could find one copy ILLINOIS
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More about Beçikemi : “In 1492 (according to S. Gliubich,  Illustrious Men of Dalmatia , Vienna-Zara 1856, p. 25) B. was called by the Senate of the Republic of Ragusa as rector of the schools. During his stay in this city, and precisely in 14951 he dedicated to the Senate his Castigationes et observationes in Virgilium , Ovidium , Ciceronem , Servium et Priscianum . It turns out that at the beginning of October 1496 he was in Naples as secretary of the Venetian patrician Melchiorre Trevisan, a Venetian fleet administrator who came to the aid of King Ferrandino.  Beçikemi had obtained this assignment for the Manin family’s intervention (according to Gliubich), and it may well have been a public office. While serving Trevisan he went to France, probably in 1499; in September Trevisan was appointed general administrator with the task of occupying that part of the duchy of Milan assigned to the Venetians, and it seems likely B. has been his secretary during the campaign.
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In the year 1500, when Beçikemi took Venetian citizenship, marks a radical change in his life. Probably at the end of the year he opened a school of human letters in Venice (perhaps his letter mentioned in Sanuto, Diarii , III, 786,  Sept. 15, reports the request), rivaling with Raffaele Regio, and including among his students Vittore Cappello, Gian Ludovico Navagero, Marc Anthony Contarini and Augustine Beaziano. On 28 Nov. 1500 he pronounced the funeral prayer for Giambattista Scita in Venice in front of a large audience, probably Pietro Bembo, who estimated the Scita, for whom he wrote an epitaph at this time. At an uncertain date, but probably between 1500 and 1502, he competed in the convent of St. Stephen in Venice with the Regio on the excellence of Cicero or Quiatiliano. He had meanwhile had close relations with Venetian patriots and literate, such as Girolamo Donato, Marco Dandolo, Antonio Condulmer, Giorgio Emo and Bernardo Soranzo.

DSC_0133Perhaps during the early months of 1501 Beçikemi transferred his school to Padua, but in November he accepted a three-year course for the Brescia Study Chair, with the annual salary of 112 ducats (a wage higher than others were paid)  . At the same time he had received a request from Vicenza to teach in the public school of that city, but he chose Brescia perhaps because the salary was higher and because Brescia was the city where he had studied. He pronounced the public proclamation in the Brescia study on July 30, 1503. Meanwhile, John Calfurnio, a rector of the Padua Study (January 1503), uttered a communion of funeral prayer. The Paduan Rectors recommended him for the succession of Calfurnio, but he obtained the seat of the Regio.

During the period when Beçikemi taught in Brescia he prepared a collection of works for printing, and the privilege granted on September 26. 1505 seems to have already been ready: Collectanea in Plinium , Artificium Orationum Ciceronis , Centuriae tres Variarum Observationum , Adnotationes Virgilianae , Observations in Livium et Fabium , Commentaries in Persium , In Libros de Oratore et Rethoricos Ciceronis .

Not all of these works have been handed down to us, and perhaps they were never even finished by the author. At this time Beçikemi had already printed the V ariarum observationum collectanea , Brescia 1504 (see Brunet, Manuel …, I, 730), gathering his works already edited. It is believed in Brescia perhaps in 1503, in Primum Plinii observationum librum collectanea (see the catalog of the British Museum) and perhaps the first edition of Praelectio in C. Plinium … Collectane in Primum Naturalis Historiae librum ( cum epistula nuncupatoria , Brixiae year 1503 conscripta ); Other editions of the latter work are: Oratio qua Brix . Senatui praelectio in C. Plinium , Ferrariae 1504 (in Oxford’s Bodleian ) and Oratio here the most flourishing Senate Brix . gratias agit … [Venetiis or Brixiae 1504?] (in the Vatican). Subsequently several reprints reproduce the. B.’s observations with works on the same topic by Niccolò Perotti and Cornelio Vitelli: Marini Bechichemi… Elegans ac doced in C. Plinium praelectio . Eiusdem Plini praefatio in libros Historiae naturalis diligenter ac cum iudicio recognita . Eiusdem Scodrensis collectane in primum Plinii … Luteciae 1519. It seems that the year 1504 is the first edition of the Panegyricus serenissimo principi Leonardo Lauretano and illustrious Senatus Veneto dictus [Brixiae 1504] (see catalog of the Vatican ). In 1505 Panegyricus was re- published with Epistolicarum Quaestionum : Centuria first , curated by British Angel [Brixiae 1505]. B. complained that this edition was printed with too many errors, and therefore gave the manuscript of the text to Antonio Moretto for a reprint that appeared as: Marinus Bechichemus … Opera … Panegyricus … Centuria epistolicarum quaestionum … Castigationes multae . .. Artes de componenda epistola , de composendo dialogo , de imitatione , de componenda funebri oratione , de componenda nuptiali oratione , Venetiis, Bernardo de ‘Vitali, 1506 (also this is full of typographical errors). Following this literary production, it is not surprising that in November 1505 Beçikemi’s conduct was renewed by the Senate Brescia for three years and with the same salary. In June 1508 he asked for a temporary visit to Rome for a visit made necessary by the fact that his father’s father had given a son of Beçikemi (Marco, a boy of twelve) a canonician of the Brescia Church. It seems that, having obtained a regular license, he would no longer return to teach in Brescia: certainly at the end of 1508, Francesco Arigoni was appointed to his post. The three most distinguished students of Beçikemi in Brescia were Filippo Donato, son of Girolamo, Pietro Soardo and Gian Antonio Cattaneo.

From Rome, Marinus Becichemus Scodrensis moved to Venice, perhaps due to some friction he was concerned with at the time of the Cambrai League. In the middle of July 1509, he was appointed a reader of humanity for the students of the Chancellery, holding the school with Girolamo Calvo of Vicenza and reading Pliny, Cicero and Virgil: “do lection the matina et poi disnar, demum la evening play together, which is nice to see “, according to Marin Samito ( Diarii , XII, Col. 296).

In May 1514, Beçikemi da Venezia was looking for a place as a professor at Mantua and it was related to Isabella d’Este, who wrote: “Messer Marino is not a suspect person in account, before being retired against his will in Venice the Venetians, then to be the man waiting in letters without impassing of others “(letter of 16 May 1514 to the Count of Caiazzo, published by A. Luzio and R. Renier, in Culture and Literature by Isabella d ‘ Este , in Gior . Stor . Of letter italia , VII [1901], p. 226). On May 19, 1514, Isabella sent to Beçikemi a custodian, but he remained in Venice, perhaps because of a cause pending in that city. Later he was busy writing a poem (now lost), in which he praised the Marquis, the Marquess and all the writers of the Mantuan circle: perhaps for this he obtained a copy of the Chronicle of Mantua by Mario Equicola by Gian Giacomo Calandra, secretary of Isabella. The 6th gen. 1515 wrote to Calandra that he was looking for a protector to dedicate the poem. In March.following his son Marco, canonical, “docto and accustomato”, was killed in Venice (see Sanuto, Diarii , XVIII, 166, XL, 778), and Beçikemi, addressed the marquise of Mantua in a  letter in which he  said that he would soon be to Mantua carrying two of his works worthy of being published. However, he appears to have stayed in Venice, retaining his position as a teacher at the Chancellery.”

 

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