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October 2014

Wonderful prodigies of judgment and mercy…

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631G  Crouch, Nathaniel 1632?-1725?, Robert Burton = Nathaniel Crouch, the compiler..

       Wonderful prodigies of judgment and mercy, discovered in near three hundred memorable histories: containing I. Dreadful Judgments upon Atheists, perjur’d Persons, Blasphemers, Swearers, Cursers and Scoffers. II. The miserable Ends of divers Magicians, Witches, Conjurers, &c. with several strange Apparitions. III. Remarkable Presages of approaching Death, and of Appeals to Divine Justice. IV. The wicked Lives, and woful Deaths of wretched Popes, Apostares, and desperate Persecutors. V. Fearful Judgments upon cruel Tyrants, Murderers, &c. with the whole discovery of Murders. VI. Admirable Deliverances from Imminent Dangers, and Deplorable Distresses at Sea and Land. Vii. Divine Goodness to Penitents: With the dying Thoughts of several Famous Men concerning a Future State after this Life. Collected from Antient and Modern Authors. And Illustrated with Pictures. By Robert Burton

London:Printed for A. Bettesworth at the Red-Lyon, and J. Batley at the Dove, in Pater-noster-Row,1729IMG_0014
$ SOLD

Octavo, . Eighth edition A-H12 This copy is bound in later quarter calf, part of the leather from the spine is missing but it is very solid.

OK so here I go:  Seamen in great distress eat one another ,A bloudy villain murders 3 children, and, A Virgin destroyed by venemous Serpants. A Blasphemer turned into a black dog   And ….

A Woman torn in peices by the Devil. “. At Oster, a Village in Germany, there happened a most strange and fearful judgement upon a Woman who gave her self to the Devil, both Body and Soul, and used horrible Cursings and Oaths against her self and others, which detestable Custom she practised upon all occasions, but more especially at a Marriage in that Village upon St. John Baptist’s day; and though the whole company exhorted her to leave off that monstrous Villany, yet she would not be perswaded , but continued therein till all the People were set at Dinner, and very merry; when the Devil having got full possession of her, suddenly appeared, and taking her away before them all, transported her into the Air with most horrible out-cries and roarings; and in that manner he carried her round about the Town, so that the Inhabitants were ready to die for fear; and soon after tore her body into four pieces, leaving a quarter of her in the four several high-wayes, that all who came by might be witnesses of her punishment; and then returning to the Marriage, he threw her bowels upon the Table before the mayor of the Town, with these words; Behold these Dishes of Meat belong to thee, whom the like destruction awaiteth, if thou dost not amend thy wicked life.
The Reporters of this History were John Herman, the Minister of that Town, with the Mayor himself, and all the Inhabitants, they being desirous to have it known for Examples sake.

 

Further on, no image of this one per se
It was unnatural Lust which brought down Vengeance upon Sodom and Gomorrah, who burning with Fire from Hell, the Almighty burnt them up with Fire from Heaven, and even in this last Age we find dreadful Instances of God’s Wrath for that horrid Abomination. For in the Adventures of Mr. T. S. an English Merchant taken Prisoner by the Turks of Algiers, and carried into the Inland Countries of Africa, we find this wonderful Relation. That near Tezrim, a Town in that Country, in a Meadow, this Gentleman saw the perfect Statue of a Man Buggering his Ass; which was so lively, that at a little distance he thought it to be real, but when he came near, saw they were of perfect Stone; he enquired why the Moors or Arabs that naturally hate all Representations, should shew their Skill by making such beastly Figures, odious to Nature; he was informed tht ths was never made by Man, but that some Person had been turned into that Image with the Ass in the very Moment of the Act, by the mighty Power of God, the fleshly Substance of the Man and Ass being changed into firm Stone, as an eternal Reproach to Mankind. Upon further search he found the Stone to represent not only the perfect Shape, but also the Colour of eveery part of the Man and Beast, with the Sinews, Veins, Eyes, Mouth, in such a lively manner that no Artist could express it better; he endeavoured to move it, but the Company said, Some that had laboured to carry away that Monument of Man’s shameful Lust, could never do it, but either their Persons or Cattle were struck dead in the attempt upon the place, Divine Justice not suffering them to be hid or destroy’d which was placed there for an Example; it being necessary that the Moors should have such signal Testimonies [p.143] of God’s Displeasure always before their Eyes, who commit such filthy Actions more frequently than other Nations. This Gentleman was informed, That at there is a Prodigy of Divine Wrath, five Days Journey from that Town, amongst the Mountains of Gubel, more remarkable than this. Some English Merchants had the Curiosity to go thither, and protest that in the place aforesaid, their is a whole Town full of these Stones in the shape of all manner of Creatures belonging to a City, with Houses, Inhabitants, Beasts, Trees, Walls, and Rooms, distinctly formed: They entered the Houses, and found a Child in a Cradle of Stone, a Woman in a Bed of Stone, a Man at the Door looking Lice of Stone; Camels of several postures of Stone, Cats, Dogs, Mice, &c. of perfect Stone, and so well expressing the several Shapes, Posturs, and Passions, which the Inhabitants were seen at that time, that no Engrave could do the like. All our Merchants and Traders that have been in Tripoly, agree in the Confirmation thereof; the Moors report, That this Town was once very Populous and Fruitful, as may appear by the Trees of Stone of several sorts of Fruit planted round about it, and in the places that retain the forms of Gardens and Orchards; but the Inhabitants being given to all manner of Vice and beastly Lust, to the scandal of human Nature, God Almighty in a Moment stopped all their Actions, and turned their Bodies into firm Stone, that future Ages might see and learn to dread his Power. At Athens is a Stone, representing two Men buggering one another. I know not why we should doubt of these Relations, if we consider the Almighty power of God, who can change Things as it seems good to his Divine Wisdom: Or, if we consider the necessity of such notable Examples of God’s Justice to perpetuate his Displeasure in this dreadful Mannere to future Ages, especially in this Country, where the People are [p.144] addicted to Villanies, which Nature abhors: They being like that of Lot’s Wife, turned into a Pillar of Salt, which some ancient Historians affirm to have been remaining in their Days, many hundred Years after. (Adventures of T. S. p. 238.)
To conclude, innumerable are the Examples in all Ages of divine Vengeance against those crying Sins of Cruelty, Murder, and lust, that Men might fear the Lod, because of the Judgments which he executeth.

 

]BURTON, ROBERT or RICHARD (1632?-1725?), miscellaneous author, whose real name was Nathaniel Crouch, was the author of many books, attributed on the title-page to R. B., to Richard Burton, and (after his death) to Robert Burton. He was born about 1632, and was the son of a tailor at Lewes. Nathaniel was apprenticed on 5 May 1656 for seven years to Livewell Chapman, and at the close of his apprenticeship became a freeman of the Stationers’ Company. He was a publisher, and compiled a number of small books, which, issued at a shilling each, had a great popularity. ‘Burton’s books’ so they were called-attracted the notice of Dr. Johnson, who in 1784 asked Mr. Dilly to procure them for him, ‘as they seem very proper to allure backward readers.’ John Dunton says of him: ‘I think I have given you the very soul of his character when I have told you that his talent lies at collection. He has melted down the best of our English histories into twelve penny books, which are filled with wonders, rarities, and curiosities; for, you must know, his title-pages are a little swelling.’ Dunton professed a ‘hearty friendship for him, but objects that Crouch ‘has got a habit of leering under his hat, and once made it a great part of his business to bring down the reputation of “Second Spira”‘ (a book said to be by Thomas Sewell, published by Dunton). Crouch was also, according to Dunton, ‘the author of the “English Post,” and of that useful Journal intituled “The Marrow of History.”‘ ‘Crouch prints nothing,’ says Dunton, ‘but what is very useful and very diverting.’ Dunton praises his instructive conversation, and says that he is a ‘phoenix author (I mean the only man that gets an estate by writing of books).’ As the name of Thomas Crouch, presumably his son, appears on the title-page of one of Burton’s books in 1726, it may be assumed that he died before that date.

[Records of the Stationers’ Company, obligingly examined for this article by Mr. C. R. Rivington, the clerk; John Dunton’s Life and Errors; Catalogue of the Grenville Collection; Lowndes’s Bibliographer’s Manual; Hawkins’s History of Music, xi. 171; Chalmers’s Biog. Dict.; Book-Lore, 1866.]


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Anthropometamorphosis: = man transform’d: or, the artificiall changling

So,a day doesn’t go by in which I don’t see a tattoo or an interesting piercing or some one with ‘gauges’ It is reassuring to see that this expressive use of ones personal body while, ancient and maybe even natural , is still worthy of sustained interrogation, while Cultural Anthropologists are tickled pink to do cross cultural analysis of body marking and manipulation, John Bulwer certainly made a Great and amusing  kick off to this project!

619G   Bulwer, John (active 1648-1654)

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Anthropometamorphosis: = man transform’d: or, the artificiall changling historically presented, in the mad and cruell gallantry, foolish bravery, ridiculous beauty, filthy finenesse, and loathsome loveliness of most nations, fashioning and altering their bodies from the mould intended by nature; with figures of those transfigurations. To which artificiall and affected deformations are added, all the native and national monstrosities that have appeared to disfigure the humane fabrick. With a vindication of the regular beauty and honesty of nature. And an appendix of the pedigree of the English gallant. Scripsit J.B. cognomen to chirosophus. M.D

London: Printed by W[illiam]. Hunt, 1653                                       Sold

 

Quarto: 18 x 13.8 cm. [52], 559, [31] p., [3] added leaves (Engraved t.p., engraved portrait, woodcut leaf).

Collation: A⁴; [-]2 (engraved t.p. and portrait); *-4*⁴; 5*1; B-S4; [-]1 (inserted after S2); T-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-

Zzz4, Aaaa-Gggg4. Complete.

 

SECOND EDITION. THE FIRST ILLUSTRATED EDITION. The first edition of 1650 was a duodecimo with an engraved frontispiece only. This copy is bound in 18th century mottled calf, ruled in gold, the spine richly gilded, lacking spine label. Leather of joints a little cracked. Wear to outer edge of the top board, discreet repair to head of spine. The contents are in very good condition with only a few insignificant stains, one natural paper flaw with no loss, and one woodcut lightly crossed out. The engraved frontispiece signed: T. Cross sculpsit” and the portrait is signed: “W: Faithorne sculp.” An unsigned leaf bound after S2 contains woodcut illustrations on both sides. The text is illustrated with many woodcut images showing the various types of body modifications and mutilations performed by diverse cultures worldwide (see below). The illustrations are striking in their bizarreness lending the already captivating text a more profound impact.IMG_9135

“’Anthropometamorphosis’ was one of the first early modern works of what now might be termed comparative cultural anthropology, and an early study of the body as social metaphor.”(Montserrat, “Changing Bodies, Changing Meanings”) “The subject and abundant illustrations make it a desideratum in any collection of curiosa, for it describes and illustrates every conceivable alteration of the human body by man’s design or by nature.”(Pforzheimer)

“John Bulwer’s ‘Anthropometamorphosis’ is widely recognized as the first cross-cultural history of body modification. In a series of chapters dedicated to the variety of ways in which the parts of the body – the head, hair, facial features, limbs, and genitals- can be transformed, Bulwer’s text provides a comparative overview of a wide range of modification practices, including tattooing, piercing, shaving, painting, branding, and scarification. Describing his study as a work of ‘Corporall Philosophy’, Bulwer’s approach to his material ranges form the ethnographic –for instance, his chapter on the modification of genitalia (‘the privy parts,’) the longest in the book, contains detailed accounts of genital piercing, testicular implants, circumcision, [female genital mutilation, and castration amongst ‘primitive’ cultures- to the folkloric, including popular and apocryphal stories about ‘monstrous’ races culled from ancient sources. The chapter on ‘Auricular Fashions’ is typical of the latter aspect of the book, citing Solinus’ description of the inhabitants of Fanesii, ‘whose ears are dilated to so effuse a magnitude, that they cover the rest of their bodies with them, and have no other cloathing.’ (p. 141).

IMG_9132“Bulwer’s book is a landmark publication in two ways. Firstly, it reflects an epochal shift in the dominant mode of thinking about bodily change. Whereas earlier texts like Paré’s ‘Des Monstres et Prodiges’ (1564) primarily considered transformation as something that happened spontaneously and unpredictably to people, Bulwer’s focus is on acts of intentional modification, on practices of self-making that are deliberately undertaken by the subject him/herself. Secondly, the book is the first text, as far as I am aware, to incorporate descriptions of contemporary English fashion alongside exoticized representations of historically historically or geographically distant cultures. In his appendix on ‘The English Gallant’, for instance, Bulwer undertakes a comparative analysis of contemporary English fashions and ‘primitive’ forms of body modification, comparing codpieces to penis gourds (p. 540) and arguing that the 17th century style of the tall ‘sugar-loafe’ hat, with its conical shape, is motivated by the ‘same conceit’ as that found among the Macrones of Pontus and the Macrocephali, ‘among whom they were esteemed the best gentleman who had the highest heads’ (p. 531).

 

“In the century previous to Bulwer’s, an earlier medieval understanding of the monster as a divine warning or religious omen to be deciphered had gradually transformed into a newly secularized concept of the monster as a figure of unnaturalness and deformity… Whereas monsters in the Middle Ages were represented as ‘elsewhere’, the early modern period relocated monsters from the margins to the middle of culture, both reflecting and precipitating a transformation in their cultural function and significance… “For Bulwer, self-formation is by definition deformation, a transfiguration and disfigurement, because it produces a deviation from the natural shape of the body. When English ‘gallants’, like the peoples of primitive cultures, presumptuously take the shape of the body into their own hands, they render their bodies artificial and unnatural, and it is precisely this that makes them monstrous in Bulwer’s eyes.”

(Elizabeth Stephens, “Queer Monsters: Technologies of Self-Transformation in Bulwer’s

‘Anthropometamorphosis’ and Braidotti’s ‘Metamorphoses’” in “Somatechnics: Queering the Technologisation of Bodies”, 2009)

The Homunculus: Bulwer includes a short discourse on Paracelsus’ assertion that it is possible to produce “homunculi” (artificial people) by alchemical means: “They say that Rhases and Albertus had invented a way to get little men by Art. Paracelsus boasts that he had received this secret of secrets from God: affirming, that if the Sperm of a man do purrifie in a sealed Goard, to the highest putrifaction of Horse-dunge, forty dayes, or so long untill it begin to live and to move and be stirred, which is easie to be seen, after that it will be in some time like unto a man, yet pellucid and without a Body: Now if afterwards, it be daily and warily and prudently nourished and fed with the secret of mans bloud, and conserved for forty weeks in a perpetual and equal heat of Horse-dung; it will thence become a true Infant, having members as those which are begot on women; but it will be farre lesse; Then it is diligently brought up, untill it grow a Tripling, and begin to understand and be wise.”(p. 490)

 

Krivatsy/NLM 1928 (1653 ed.); Norman 372 (1650); Wellcome II, p. 270; ESTC R3856; Wing (2nd ed.,

1994) B5461; Pforzheimer 115; Grolier, Wither to Prior, I, iii. Hoe Cat. I (1903) 165

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Drawing with a Camera Lucida

This is neat, and I will discuss Durer, Vermeer and Kircher soon!

Echoes from the Vault

Back before the days of photography, society relied on the ‘artist’s impression’ to see people they would never meet or places they would never go. Artists used drawing aids such as mirrors, prisms, lenses, and camera obscuras (Latin for dark room, although strictly speaking the plural should be camerae obscurae) to fine-tune their craft. In 1808 William Wollaston invented and patented the camera lucida which became very popular, very quickly. The camera lucida (Latin for light room), is simply a brass stand with a prism and a few lenses.

The camera lucida is still being used today, albeit by a select few who can get their hands on one (see note below). While seeking inspiration for yet another blog, I happened to stumble upon (not literally of course) ‘Forty Etchings, from sketches made with the Camera Lucida, in North America, in 1827 and 1828’ by Captain Basil Hall…

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A narrative of the miseries of New-England, by reason of an arbitrary government erected there.

It Has been a while (maybe two weeks) since I’ve been so excited by a Book in my stock!610G Increase Mather
610G Increase Mather

Like so many books, this is a bit of a sleeper, reading really pays off in this case. I had heard of ‘The famous Andros tracts’ and even had an idea what they were about but I had never really read them with in any sort of serious context. This ‘little tract’ is so short and so concentrated that I am going to post the whole text here, first though I will explain what has so inspire me.

I should have been alerted by the phrase “Arbitrary Government” alas it took a little more to peak my curiosity.

So Here is a little about the Context: {but first allow me a short digression: recently I have spending a lot of time contemplating the ramifications of evolutionary theory. Firstly because I am wondering why there are sparse if any discovery of fossil or other early (pre 1840) evidence of proto Homo Sapiens. Further there is an ‘equalizing’ or even democratic effect of the notion that,more or less we All share a Common ancestry, thus undermining the the theo-economic concept of ‘divine rule’. So it seems to me that in a sense the irrepressible striving for freedom, self-determination and individual relation with God, had in fact set the stage for investigation into the nature of ‘human’ origins} Now back to context. It goes without saying, or it should, that one of the main reasons that Europeans ended up  fleeing Europe was because the wanted to be left alone. By Alone  I mean to  stretch the chains of the social/religious chains to the point of breaking them. This chain was manifest in the “Charters” of the “Dominion”.

These words although innocent looking at first are in fact rather loaded with theological and political assumptions.  The Political Control of the eastern seaboard, English North America was placed in the hands of Sir Edmund Andros, who by inheritance was Named the Colional administrator of North America . 610GWP-4He was also appointed by the Duke of York to be the first proprietary governor of the Province of New York. The province’s territory included the former territories of New Netherland, ceded to England by the Treaty of Westminster, including all of present-day New Jersey, the Dutch holdings on the Hudson River from New Amsterdam (renamed New York City) to Albany, as well as Long Island, Martha’s Vineyard, and Nantucket. In 1664 Charles II had granted James all of this territory, as well as all of the land in present-day Maine between the Kennebec and St. Croix Rivers, but with the intervening Dutch retaking of the territory, Charles issued a new patent to James. Andros arrived in New York harbor in late October, and negotiated the handover of the Dutch territories with local representatives and Dutch Governor Anthony Colve, which took place on 10 November 1674. Andros agreed to confirm the existing property holdings and to allow the Dutch inhabitants of the territory to maintain their Protestant religion.

In July 1676 Andros established a haven for the Mahicans and other Indian war refugees at Schaghticoke. Although the conflict came to an end in southern New England in 1676, there continued to be friction between the Abenakis of northern New England and English settlers. These prompted Andros to send a force to the duke’s territory in Maine, where they established a fort at Pemaquid (present-day Bristol). Andros annoyed Massachusetts fishermen by restricting their use of the duke’s land for drying fish.

In November 1677 Andros departed for England,] where he would spend the next year. During this visit he was knighted as a reward for his performance as governor, and he sat in on meetings of the Lords of Trade in which agents for Massachusetts Bay defended its charter, and gave detailed accounts of the state of his colony. This is where it becomes Quite interesting.

In 1686 he was appointed governor of the Dominion of New England. He arrived in Boston on 20 December 1686, and immediately assumed the reins of power.

His commission called for governance by himself, with a council. The initial composition of the council included representatives from each of the colonies the dominion absorbed, but because of the inconvenience of travel and the fact that travel costs were not reimbursed, the council’s quorums were dominated by representatives from Massachusetts and Plymouth. The Lords of Trade had insisted that he govern without an assembly, something he expressed concern over while his commission was being drafted.

The Dominion initially consisted of the territories of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (including present-day Maine), Plymouth Colony, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire, and was extended to include New York, and East and West Jersey in 1688.

Shortly after his arrival, Andros asked each of the Puritan churches in Boston if its meetinghouse could be used for services of the Church of England. When he was rebuffed, he demanded and was given keys to Samuel Willard’s Third Church in 1687.

Services were held there under the auspices of Reverend Robert Ratcliff until 1688, when King’s Chapel was built. These actions highlighted him as pro-Anglican in the eyes of local Puritans.

His council engaged in a lengthy process to harmonize dominion and English laws. This work consumed such a great amount of time that Andros in March 1687 issued a proclamation stating that pre-existing laws would remain in effect until they were revised. Since Massachusetts had no pre-existing tax laws, a scheme of taxation was created that would apply to the entire dominion. Developed by a committee of landowners, the first proposal derived its revenues from import duties, principally alcohol. After much debate, a different proposal was abruptly proposed and adopted, essentially reviving previous Massachusetts tax laws. These laws had been unpopular with farmers who felt the taxes on livestock were too high. In order to bring in immediate revenue, Andros also received approval to increase the import duties on alcohol.

The first attempts to enforce the revenue laws were met by stiff resistance from a number of Massachusetts communities. Several towns refused to choose commissioners to assess the town population and estates, and officials from a number of them were consequently arrested and brought to Boston. Some were fined and released, while others were imprisoned until they promised to perform their duties. The leaders of Ipswich, who had been most vocal in their opposition to the law, were tried and convicted of misdemeanor offenses.

The other provinces did not resist the imposition of the new law, even though, at least in Rhode Island, the rates were higher than they had been under the previous colonial administration. Plymouth’s relatively poor landowners were hard hit because of the high rates on livestock, and funds derived from whaling, once sources of profit for the individual towns, were now directed to the dominion government.
One consequence of the tax protest was that Andros sought to restrict town meetings, since these were where that protest had begun. He therefore introduced a law that limited meetings to a single annual meeting, solely for the purpose of electing officials, and explicitly banning meetings at other times for any reason. This loss of local power was widely hated. Many protests were made that the town meeting and tax laws were violations of the Magna Carta, which guaranteed taxation by representatives of the people. It has been observed that those who made this complaint had, during the colonial charter, excluded large numbers of voters through the requirement of church membership, and then taxed them.[65]
Andros had been instructed to bring colonial land title practices more in line with those in England, and introduce quit-rents as a means of raising colonial revenues.[66] Titles previously issued in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine under the colonial administration often suffered from defects of form (for example, lacking an imprint of the colonial seal), and most of them did not include a quit-rent payment.

Since all of the existing land titles in Massachusetts had been granted under the now-vacated colonial charter, Andros essentially declared them to be void, and required landowners to recertify their ownership, paying fees to the dominion and becoming subject to the charging of a quit-rent.

Andros attempted to compel the certification of ownership by issuing writs of intrusion, but large landowners who owned many parcels contested these individually, rather than recertifying all of their lands.

And this brings us to The miseries of New-England:

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610G  Mather , Increase. 1639-1723

A narrative of the miseries of New-England, by reason of an arbitrary government erected there. 

(Bound as part X of)

A collection of papers relating to the present juncture of affairs in England

London, printed, for Richard Janeway in Queen╒s-Head-Court, in Pater Noster-Row;1689                       $7,500

Quarto,7 ? X 6 inches .   A1,B-E4 This copy is bound in 19th century quarter calf.

 

Here “we have Increase Mather’s account of his actions as Agent for the Colony, and by the course of public feeling here, this account was made as a vindication of himself. Notwithstanding the great service he had rendered in obtaining a new Charter, so disappointed and unreasonable were the colonists, that Mather was violently censured for not achieving impossibilities, by obtaining a renewal of the old Charter. In this pamphlet we find a clear and frank statement of the difficulties he encountered, and it is evident to the readers at the present time, that the very important successes obtained by the Agents were chiefly due to the ability of Mather. The wonder is not that he obtained so little, but that he secured such favorable terms for his constituents.

A great portion of this tract has been embodied by Cotton Mather in his “Remarkables of Dr. Increase Mather.” The additions are chiefly in the reports of the interviews between William and Mary and Mather.

It will be noticed, that though it was not advisable to mention many names at the time, Cotton Mather afterwards revealed them. Prominent among those who aided Mather at William’s court, were Lord Wharton, Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury, Bishop Burnet, Lady Sutherland, and Somers.

As an interesting evidence of Burnet’s sympathy with the colonists, and his belief that they had been greatly oppressed, we transcribe the following from his Sermon preached before the House of Commons on the 31st of January, 1688-9. His text was, “That there be no breaking in, nor going out, nor complaining in our Streets.”

“Injustices; when no Man’s Fence was strong enough to resist precarious Judges and suborned Juries; when adhering to Law and Religion was become a Crime, and when prerogative which is only a power to preserve the People on extraordinary occasions, was made the great Engine to destroy them: in a word, when no man was false in his innocence, nor secure in his Property ; and when the owning the concerns of the Nation in this great Body, was accounted a Crime to be expiated by the best Blood that was in it; when I say all these things were done, then was our Fence not only broken down, but,╤as if it were not enough to pluck up Park-pales without knocking down the Owners with them,╤so Laws, Justice and Trials were become the Words of Form, to be made use of for destroying us by Rule and Method, and were only the Solemnities and Ceremonies of cur Ruin.” . [William Henry Whitmore,]

Holms Increase Mather No.79-B; Church 714;Sabin 81492; JCB 1675-1700,page 215; Wing C5169B  

 

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Ferguson, Henry (1894). Essays in American History: Sir Edmund Andros. New York: J. Pott. OCLC 3916490.

Lustig, Mary Lou (2002). The Imperial Executive in America: Sir Edmund Andros, 1637–1714. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 978-0-8386-3936-8. OCLC 470360764.

Whitmore, William Henry (ed). The Andros Tracts: Being a Collection of Pamphlets and Official Papers Issued During the Period Between the Overthrow of the Andros Government and the Establishment of the Second Charter of Massachusetts (1868–1874). Boston: The Prince Society. OCLC 1842576.

 

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