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A survey of the cities of London and Westminster

“Because I know that time is always time

And place is always place and only place

And what is actual is actual only for one time

And only for one place”

Ash Wednesday T.S. Eliot. 1930

 

Before giving a description of such a momentous book, I feel a bit of framing is due. Much has been written about this wonderful huge book, yet I feel it is necessary to state that this book is indispensable for anyone doing research on any subject relating to Early Modern London. Stow’s initial foray into the subject set the bar high for detailed description of the physical and social environment of London. This edition, by far the best is the work of three generations of Antiquaries, the catalogues of books, records and manuscripts excerpted is impressive in its own right and would be an irreplaceable library on its own. But this work is manifest of cultural shifts and maintains differing scholars approaches to understanding of the recording and preserving of cultural heritage, the list of subscribers depicts the capital invested in this undertaking.

 

947G      John Stow   1525-1605

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A survey of the cities of London and Westminster: containing the original, antiquity, increase, modern estate and government of those cities. Written at first in the year MDXCVIII. By John Stow, citizen and native of London. Since reprinted and augmented by A.M. H.D. and other. Now lastly, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged: and the survey and history brought down from the year 1633, (being near fourscore years since it was last printed) to the present time; by John Strype, M.A. a native also of the said city. Illustrated with exact maps of the city and suburbs, and of all the wards; and likewise of the out-parishes of London and Westminster: together with many other fair draughts of the more eminent and publick edifices and monuments. In six books. To which is prefixed, the life of the author, writ by the editor. At the end is added, an appendiz of certain tracts, discourses and remarks, concerning the state of the city of London. Together with a perambulation, or circuit-walk four or five miles round about London, to the parish churches: describing the monuments of the dead there interred: with other antiquities observable in those places. And concluding with a second appendix, as a supply and review: and a large index of the whole work.

 

London: printed for A. Churchill, J. Knapton, R. Knaplock, J. Walthoe, E. Horne, B. Tooke, D. Midwinter, B. Cowse, R. Robinson, and T. Ward, 1720                  $18,000  

 

Two Folio volumes 15 1/4 X 9 inches.

vol I :Map of London, π2, (B)-(D)2,(a)-(d)4,(e)-(f)2 Q2, A-Z4, Aa-Pp4,Qq2,[end of first book]  B-Z4, Aa-Dd4,[end of second book] A-Z4, Aa-mm4,Nn3 [end of 3rd book]

vol II : π1,A-P4, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa- Lll4, Mmm2 [end of book V] A-Z4, Aa-KK4, Ll-Rr2.  Each of the 6 ’books’ has its own pagination, and is introduced by a drop-head title.

There are 70 full Page (and 30 of those folding) Maps and Plates .

The Fold-out of “Elizabethan London ” is lacking as in many copies,  otherwise these two volumes are complete and almost in perfect condition, The Large foldout map of the city of London  DSC_0245has been reinforced on the back and there are a few pages with margin repairs not touching the text. All the pages are crisp and clean. It is truly a stunning copy.

This copy is beautifully and expertly bound in modern quarter calf, over marbled boards, quite a Stately set of volumes indeed! . The binding is in fine working order.

“In the century following Stow’s death, however, the Tudor capital so lovingly depicted and recorded in Stow’s Survey was dramatically transformed. The huge growth of the metropolis, the devastation wrought by the Great Fire of 1666 and the subsequent rebuilding of the City made an updating of the Survey highly desirable. It was to answer this need that John Strype (1643-1737), the ecclesiastical historian and biographer, published a new, hugely expanded version of Stow’s Survey of London in 1720.”

First Issue with “1698” for 1598 on the title page (?) John Stow’s Survey of London, first published in 1598, brims with amusing descriptions and anecdotes as well as highly detailed accounts of the buildings, social conditions and customs of the time, based on a wide range of classical and medieval historical literature, public and civic records, and Stow’s own intimate knowledge of the city where he spent his life. “The reader of A Survey travels with Stow through each of the city’s wards and the adjoining city of Westminster, learns about the wall, bridges, gates, and parish churches . . . DSC_0232 2[Stow] also records the negative aspects of urban growth, in the shape of unsightly sprawl, filth, the destruction of ancient monuments, and above all poverty. His book approaches the thoroughness of an encyclopaedia . . . It is noteworthy that while Camden’s Britannia was written in Latin for the educated élite, Stow’s Survey was composed in the language of his fellow countrymen.” This edition, of 1720, greatly expanded with interpolated amendments by John Strype, is considered the best and most desirable.

DSC_0235 “Throughout his life at Low Leyton, Strype crossed the River Lea into London each week to meet and converse with his antiquarian friends and to call on his contacts in the book trade. . . . The Survey had been repeatedly revised and enlarged in order to keep up with the changing aspect of the post-fire city, now much expanded and altered in its religion and other ways. . . . Although Strype had arranged most of the work by 1707, and the engravings had been prepared, it was set aside after the publication of Edward Hatton’s New View of London in 1708, which seemed to cover much the same ground and was considerably smaller and cheaper. . . . Finally, once the defects of Hatton’s book were acknowledged another agreement in November 1716 led to the Survey’s publication at the end of 1720. . . . The print run was probably more than 500 copies . . . To quote Merritt, ‘By this stage the Survey has a multiple personality, switching with little warning from nostalgic Elizabethan antiquary [Stow] . . . to diligent post-Restoration recorder of events [Strype] and back again’ (Merritt, 87).” (ODNB).

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Richard Grafton] had the audacity to enter into historical controversy (impar congressus) with the great John Stow. This ‘merry old man,’ footing it over England in search of Antiquities because he could never learn to ride, sometimes suspected by Government of being insufficiently Protestant, now begging with a basin in the street, now spending £200 a year on his library, holds a very high place in the history of learning. Even those who, like Camden, distrusted his judgment, allowed his industry. His Chaucer (1561) was his first but by no means his best work: he helped to swell the Chaucerian apocrypha. His Summary of English Chronicles (1565) looks at first like a retrogression from Hall; we are back at the annalistic form and the London tradition with its lists of bailiffs and mayors. But the important thing is that Stow is not a mere compiler but (as we call it) a ‘researcher.’ He uses the literary sources but he adds ‘paynfull searche’ into records, and ‘diligent experience.’ He collected not only books but charters and legal documents. He bought up the collections of others, and his own assisted both Speght and Parker. In 1580 came the Chronicle of English from Brute unto this present year, re-issued in 1592 as the Annals. The Survey of London (1598) was re-issued in 1603 and afterwards enlarged by other hands.

DSC_0238Its modern editor finds this work ‘instinct with’ a ‘life’ which the Annals lack. It is a treasure–house of old customs, old splendors, old gaieties and hospitalities, already vanished or vanishing when the author wrote. Stow had no stylistic ambitions; his works were, as he said ‘written homely.’ His prose varies between mere note–making (see the account of printing under year 1458 in the Summary) and tolerably vivid narrative. In general it is just such an unobtrusive medium as keeps our attention on the facts, and therefore good for its purpose; recte olet ubi nihil olet.” (page 298-299, English Literature in the Sixteenth Century, C.S. Lewis)
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 Maslen & Lancaster. Bowyer ledgers, 584; Lowndes V, 2526. Gibson’s Library, p. 258. ESTC Citation No. T48975.

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Strype’s Survey of London

J.F.Merritt

University of Nottingham

The creation of the 1720 edition

If John Stow’s Survey of London is probably the most famous single work ever written about England’s capital, then the enlarged and updated edition of the same book published some 120 years later by the famous ecclesiastical historian John Strype surely stands as one of the most remarkable works of scholarship ever produced about the city, and is regarded even today as a standard and invaluable work of reference for historians of the capital. Just as London’s boundaries and population had vastly expanded in the years between Stow and Strype’s works, so Strype’s edition dwarfs Stow’s original work. In two stout folio volumes, Strype’s monumental composition provides not just an updated account of the City that brings it down to the early eighteenth century, but also vastly extends the work’s range both geographically (to take in the sprawling suburbs of the metropolis) and thematically (to discuss a panoply of new subjects, from the Great Fire and the provision of water and public health to workhouses and the Bank of England). This is combined with a famous collection of ward and parish maps, and a fine set of plates of prominent buildings. The whole is appropriately preceded by the first detailed life of John Stow, with a full-page reproduction of his funeral monument. 1

The Survey of London is a work which has attracted many different editors in its history, and Strype’s own remarkable edition cannot be used effectively without an understanding of its relationship to the original and subsequent texts of this remarkable work.

John Stow’s own Survey of London was first published in 1598. But he did not intend this to be his last word on the subject. In 1603 he published a new edition with many important corrections and additions, and he clearly intended to embark on further elaborations and refinements, prevented only by his death in 1605. Work on a new edition of the Survey began not long after Stow’s death. His first posthumous editor was the incorrigible Anthony Munday — playwright, pageant-writer, polemicist, and (apparently) a spy reporting against both puritans and Catholics. Munday claimed of Stow that, while still alive, ‘much of his good mind he had formerly imparted to me, and some of his best collections lovingly delivered me, prevailing with mee ? to proceed in the perfecting of a Worke so worthy’. 2 Munday’s new edition of the Survey, published in 1618, sought to update Stow’s text in a number of ways. Another edition, published in 1633 after Munday’s death, took things further, including a substantial new section entitled ‘A Returne to London’, which sets out to document a resurgence in London church repair, rebuilding and beautification, undertaking a parish-by-parish survey of the capital’s churches. A further bizarre appendix presents an accumulation of miscellaneous, almost random, material, under the title ‘The Remaines or Remnants of Divers Worthy Things which should have had their Due Place and Honour in this Worke, if Promising Friends had Kept their Words’. 3

The unwieldy sprawl of Munday’s 1633 edition showed that Stow’s work clearly required a more effective editor. Nevertheless, no further editions of Stow were attempted. Instead, the text of the Survey (usually the 1633 edition) was raided by later authors for material that they could insert into their own works on London. This was the case in James Howell’s Londinopolis (1657) and Thomas de Laune’s The Present State of London (1681; 2nd ed 1690). In 1694 a concerted attempt was made by Richard Blome (who had produced a new edition of William Camden’s Britannia in 1673) to complete a new edition of Stow’s Survey ‘with large additions and improvements’. While new maps and much new text were generated, however, the edition itself was never published. 4

In 1702, two of the publishers involved in the abortive 1694 edition of the Survey drew up an agreement to edit the Survey with one of those writers who had initially been approached to provide materials for the 1694 edition. This was John Strype. Strype is best known to us as an ecclesiastical historian, but also enjoyed fame as an accomplished editor of texts and historical documents, including an immensely popular account of Ceylon (and indeed, his ecclesiastical annals and biographies were often essentially compendia of extracts of transcribed documents). His edition of the Survey was apparently completed by November 1707, but Strype and his publishers then found that booksellers would not accept the work because of the simultaneous publication of a much slimmer and cheaper rival — Edward Hatton’s New View of London — which used significant amount of materials from Stow (although self-consciously abandoning Stow’s structure and methodology). Like Blome’s edition, Strype’s 1708 Survey was therefore aborted. Nevertheless, the deficiencies of Hatton’s work meant that the demand for a scholarly updating of Stow’s Survey were undiminished, and by the second half of 1716 the edition was back on track, and Strype’s edition of the Survey was finally published in December 1720. The work, in two folio volumes, was priced at a princely six guineas, and somewhere between 500 and 700 copies were published, with 271 subscribers listed in the work itself. 5

The drawn-out process by which Strype’s edition emerged can help to explain some of the peculiarities of the text as it was finally published. Strype clearly had access to the text and other materials of Blome’s abortive 1694 edition. He scrupulously indicates all Blome’s additions to the original Survey with the marginal note ‘R.B.’ —but this means that some of these sections stop abruptly in 1694. The maps in Strype’s edition are also essentially taken from Blome’s 1694 edition, although with some minor alterations made in 1707 (although, unlike the text, Blome’s name is unceremoniously removed from the maps). Strype also does not seem to have altered the main body of the text that he completed for the 1708 edition, so that changes occurring between 1708 and 1720 are often missed. The written account of the city therefore essentially describes London as it was in 1708. 6 Even the list of stage coaches and carriers is dated 1707. Strype did, however, add a number of new and supplementary sections to the work.

The earlier history of the Survey under the editorship of Stow and Munday can also explain some other gaps and anomalies in the coverage of Strype’s edition. For example, the entries for different London parishes provide plentiful information on Jacobean church-building, because Strype has taken the separate, consolidated account of early Stuart church-building–which Munday appended to the 1633 edition–and redistributed this material within the overall entries on each individual parish. But Strype’s edition contains virtually no reference to any church-building or decoration in London parishes during the Laudian campaign of the 1630s and surprisingly little on the later seventeenth century. There had, of course, been no shortage of such building, but there had been no Munday around to record it, and Strype made no use of parochial documents to investigate these matters further. 7

Other anomalies of the edition’s coverage can be explained by the practicalities of the gathering of material. The chance enthusiasm of certain clergy and parish officials, for example, seems to explain why some parishes, such as St James Clerkenwell and St Botolph Aldgate, are far more fully documented than others, especially for the later seventeenth century. 8 It is also not surprising to find that Strype’s own parish of Low Leyton receives more attention than its suburban location might otherwise have afforded it, as does the parish of Hackney, where he held a lectureship. While Strype does not seem to have consulted parish records such as churchwardens’ accounts (so that his accounts of parochial donors are dependent on the tables and monuments visible in churches when he and his assistant ‘I.W.’ visited them), nevertheless the support of Bishop Compton of London meant that Strype had access to diocesan materials of a type which neither Stow nor Munday had available. Strype relied heavily on the recent 1693 episcopal visitation returns to update the perambulation portion of the Survey, while information from an earlier visitation of 1636 helped to fill in gaps about the pre-Fire character of certain parishes.

Some omissions in the edition also reflect simple time constraints. As late as October 1719, it was noted that information on nine livery companies was still missing, and in the final version three livery companies are bereft of a brief history, with only their coat of arms provided (II.v.247). Yet by July 1720 Strype was still supplying new material for the appendices, much to the consternation of the booksellers who begged him to ‘put a stop to the great Enlargements which we perceive are like to be made in the second Appendix for We have Exceeded by 80 sheets of Our first Computation already’. 9

While we may note its many omissions, however, it is just as important to emphasize the enormous amounts of new material which Strype introduced to the Survey. It should also be recognized that Strype did not merely add new material by describing recent events and institutions, but also drew on medieval and Tudor sources to expand significantly the coverage of the period before Stow wrote his first edition. For example, Strype’s account of the parish of St Martin in the Fields, Westminster is enriched by his use of Burghley’s papers for an account of an enclosure riot in 1592 (II.vi.79-80). 10

 

Strype and the 1720 Survey

If it is important for the reader of Strype’s edition to understand how the work stands within the series of continuations of Stow’s original work, it is equally important to appreciate how John Strype’s own preoccupations played a vital role in shaping the 1720 edition.

Strype’s experience as an editor clearly led him to take a keen interest in identifying Stow’s original text. He explains in his preface that he wished to return to the uncorrupted Stow because ‘since the Author’s Death there having crept in a great number of Errors, as it happens in After-Editions’. Contemporaries had increasingly tended to conflate the versions of the Survey produced by Stow and Munday. Strype therefore made it a priority to disentangle the publishing history of the Survey by introducing a system of marginal annotations, so that Stow’s original text could be identified. This partly reflected Strype’s conviction that Munday was greatly inferior to Stow as a scholar, but also his esteem for Stow himself. Not the least notable addition to the Survey that Strype introduced was the ‘Life of Stow’ which prefaces the whole work, along with a full-page reproduction of Stow’s funeral monument. Strype’s ‘Life of Stow’ marks a significant moment in the rehabilitation of Stow’s reputation. Strype presents him as a paragon of honest and intuitive scholarship, compassionate to the poor, and specifically refutes charges that he was overly credulous or unscholarly in his working methods. He makes no attempt to hide Stow’s Catholic sympathies, but explains them in terms of a response to the sacrilege of the early Reformation, and offers a rounded, realistic and above all sympathetic account of his trials and tribulations.

Strype clearly admired Stow as a fellow scholar and editor. But for all his editorial scruples, his concern to follow Stow’s method, and the practical pressures that significantly shaped the content of the book, Strype’s edition of the Survey is not entirely lacking in evidence of Strype’s own religious and intellectual preoccupations. 11

The son of a Dutch immigrant silk merchant, John Strype grew up in a family with strong non-conformist links. This was particularly true of the family of his mother, Hester van Strype, who is known to have sheltered non-conformist ministers in her London house during the 1665 plague. After the death of his father, the young Strype also came under the influence of his brother-in-law John Johnson, a dedicated Presbyterian minister. It was Johnson who in 1663 arranged for Strype to transfer from Jesus College, Cambridge to the more amenable Catherine Hall, where John Lightfoot (who had earlier supported Presbyterianism at the Westminster Assembly) was master. Despite this background, however, Strype ultimately decided to position himself firmly within the ranks of the established church — a decision which alienated him from most of his close-knit family for many years. 12 The influence of some of this background may be glimpsed in his treatment of the stranger communities in the pages of the Survey. While condemning the naturalization of alien merchants, Strype still does his best to defend the rights of the stranger communities to be exempted from the requirements of religious conformity. In part, he does this by emphasizing, not their shared membership of an international Protestant community (as puritans had traditionally done) but rather the degree to which their behaviour echoes that of the established church. Thus he notes how French Protestants at St Anne Soho use the English liturgy in French translation, with episcopally-ordained ministers officiating and sometimes wearing Anglican garb (II.v.294-305; II.vi.85).

Strype was closely involved in the religious politics of his day. He served as minister at Low Leyton, just outside London, from 1668 until his death, and it was from here that he supported Henry Compton, bishop of London, even when the latter was suspended by James II in 1686. Strype was also involved in clandestine publications criticizing James’ religious policies. Thereafter, Strype’s strong support for the Glorious Revolution led to his formal institution as rural dean of Barking by the grateful Bishop Compton, and he was additionally rewarded with a lectureship at the nearby parish of Hackney. In the years that followed, Strype’s position as dean of Barking extended beyond a merely pastoral one, as he also participated in electioneering for the Essex Church-Tory party. 13

Strype’s religious sentiments — fiercely anti-Jacobite and anti-Catholic, disapproving of Dissenters, and passionately committed to the established church — can also be seen to have found outlets in sections of the Survey. Thus, while Strype follows Stow in including Fitzstephen’s encomium of Thomas Becket at the end of the medieval account of London, he adds a stinging editorial addition that this was written by ‘a Monk, the Pope’s sworn Creature ? in the very Depth of Popery’ (II.Appendix, p.15). It is also notable that, while later eighteenth-century editors of the Survey felt obliged to denounce the anti-Catholic inscriptions on the Great Fire Monument, Strype was comfortable merely to report these additions to the Monument without comment. 14

The Survey also bears witness to Strype’s profound concern with the moral life of the City, encapsulated in his enthusiasm for such contemporary organizations as the Society for the Reformation of Manners. He introduces a new section to the Survey that is specifically concerned with ‘the late Endeavours used in the City for the restraining of Vice’, which describes ‘in what State Religion and Good Manners stand here at present’, partly by an approving overview of the various Societies (II.v.30-52). Like Munday and Stow, Strype gives an account of charities and almshouses, but this is no mere catalogue of good works — this is clearly a topic that excites Strype’s particular interest. He gives a meticulous account of the workhouse in Bishopgate Street, with case studies of its successes (I.i.197-202). This concern with the instruments of social control and moral reform is very much of its time, and conspicuously different from the world of Stow and Munday, where the very fact of the founder’s charity claimed most attention.

Needless to say, this preoccupation with the need to maintain social order means that Strype makes little space in his edition of the Survey for the discussion of sports and pastimes. As a diligent editor he reproduces Stow’s account of ‘the customary Sports used in the City’, but rather than supplementing this with an updated account of such pursuits, Strype rather oddly chooses to append a bloodcurdling account of ‘some of their customary Punishments in former Times, of Shame or Pain, or both, for divers Sorts of Crimes and Misdemeanours: Such were Pillorizing, Carting, Riding, Whipping.’ (I.i.257-8). The association of the two topics in Strype’s mind seems clear. It is hardly surprising that virtually the only allusion that Strype makes to theatrical drama in the capital focuses on the City’s attempts under Elizabeth to regulate potentially dissolute players and the ‘lewd Matters of plays’ (II.v.244-6).

Strype’s edition also breathes the spirit of its age in its provision of statistical information. Strype’s modish fascination with political arithmetic shines through in page upon page of statistics and tables charting matters such as the volume of livery company charity, amounts spent yearly on the diet of the poor, numbers received into and discharged from the capital’s workhouses, and a lengthy account of fire insurance rates, complete with charts to calculate premiums. Similarly, the state of contemporary London’s wealth and income, and its role at the centre of overseas trade, are celebrated, along with lengthy discussions of trading companies and the Bank of England (e.g. II.v.256-73, 404-8, 445-7).

Strype’s edition of the Survey of London is, then, a remarkable compendium of information about the capital. For all of its omissions, the anomalous chronological range of some sections, and the idiosyncrasy of others, its editor still manages to muster a huge amount of material gathered from an extraordinary range of sources. The two hefty volumes may lack the immediate personal touch and focus of Stow’s own Survey, but this is not because Strype himself was simply a dispassionate observer of events. As we have seen, he had his own agenda and beliefs as well. The unwieldiness of the Survey partly reflects the task that Strype set himself — to preserve Stow’s original text and the essential structure of Stow’s work, but also to integrate the additions of Munday, Blome and Strype himself within the same framework. What it gains in comprehensiveness, it loses in coherence. Not the least bewildering aspects of the book is the cacophony of editorial voices. The authorial ‘I’ can be found reporting events witnessed in the 1540s, conversations in the 1620s, or visiting Westminster Hall in the 1650s in order to see the standards seized at the Battle of Worcester (I.ii.66; I.iii.16; II.vi.49). The Survey of Strype’s edition has a multiple personality, switching with little warning from nostalgic Elizabethan antiquary to triumphalist Jacobean pageant-writer to diligent post-Restoration recorder of events and back again. Instead of a perambulation where Stow takes the reader by the hand through London’s streets, it is now a huge boisterous party — with Munday, Blome, Strype and others all coming along, interrupting one another, hailing the new and the old using the same authorial ‘I’ — an ‘I’ that is sometimes nostalgic and regretful, sometimes enthusiastic and forward-looking.

It emphatically does not conform to our modern sense of a scholarly edition of a celebrated work. Nevertheless, Strype’s sprawling edition creates an altogether richer melange of materials. Rather than being frozen in the past, the Survey of London lives in Strype’s present, speaking of new developments as well as recording old ones. Moreover, as a repository of the knowledge, ideas and manuscript discoveries of this most indefatigable of antiquaries, Strype’s Survey of London still represents a treasure trove for the historian of London.

END

Footnotes

  1. Much of the following text is adapted from J.F. Merritt, ‘The reshaping of Stow’s Survey’, in J.F. Merritt (ed.), Imagining Early Modern London. Perceptions and Portrayals of the City from Stow to Strype, 1598-1720 (Cambridge, 2001), pp. 52-88.
  2. Munday, Survey (1618), ‘The Epistle Dedicatory’, sig. 2.
  3. For a fuller discussion see Merritt, ‘Reshaping’, pp. 54-67.
  4. Ibid., pp. 67-73.
  5. John J. Morrison, ‘Strype’s Stow: the 1720 Edition of ‘A Survey of London’’, London Journal 3 (1977), pp. 42-7, 54 n.68.
  6. Ibid., pp. 41, 47.
  7. Merritt, ‘Reshaping’, p. 86.
  8. Ibid., p. 84 n.114.
  9. Ibid., pp. 85-6; Morrison, ‘Strype’s Stow’, p. 47.
  10. See also J.F. Merritt, The Social World of Early Modern Westminster (Manchester, 2005), pp. 202-5.
  11. For a fuller discussion see Merritt, ‘Reshaping’, pp. 76-84.
  12. John J. Morrison, ‘John Strype: historian of the English Reformation’, PhD thesis, University of Syracuse (1976), pp. 21-8, 37.
  13. Ibid., pp. 33, 67, 70-3, 284, 287-97.
  14. I.ii.181; Survey (1754), I.ii.501-2.

And to bring us no now, one of my favorite things to do in London is to follow the Old wall, much of which s marked on the sidewalk roads and Walls themselves, Of course Stow did this and there is an Appendix to this edition giving you as guided tour

 

 

 

 

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“Truth consists of an adequation between the intellect and a thing”

930G Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274. editor Theodoricus de Susteren.

Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris s[an]cti Thome Aquinatis. que olim … me[n]dis scatebat. Nouissime iam per … magistru[m] nostru[m] Theodericum de Susteren co[n]uentus Coloniens[is] fratru[m] predicatoru[m] regentem … laboriose reuisa … feliciter incipit.

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930G Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274

Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris s[an]cti Thome Aquinatis. que olim … me[n]dis scatebat. Nouissime iam per … magistru[m] nostru[m] Theodericum de Susteren co[n]uentus Coloniens[is] fratru[m] predicatoru[m] regentem … laboriose reuisa … feliciter incipit.

Cologne : Heinrich Quentell, 7 Mar. 1499                                        $11,500

Folio 10 1/2 X 8 inches 2°: A-Z6,Aa-Gg6; {signature Dd signed De)   Third Edition/The final 15th century edition.

Blind-tooled front and back covers (including some blind-tooled letters), full calf on DSC_0122thick boards. Clasps missing, catchplates present. Foxing throughout, with some red and green ink dots along edges. Front pastedown shows slight signs of water damage. Occasional small red stains on text block (e.g. E3v and Q5), likely from the books’ rubricator, but otherwise a clean text block. “Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris sancti Thome Aquinatis…”First written around 1256, Thomas Aquinas’ “Disputed Questions on Truth” defends “the view that truth consists of an adequation between the intellect and a thing… Most importantly, he develops a notion of truth of being (what might be called “ontological truth”) along with truth of the intellect (what might be called “logical truth”)” (Wippel, 295)

DSC_0126Sections include: Truth; God’s Knowledge; Ideas; The Divine Word; Providence; Predestination; The Book of Life; The Knowledge of Angels; The Communication of Angelic Knowledge; The Mind; The Teacher; Prophecy; Rapture; Faith; Higher and Lower Reason; Synderesis; Conscience; The Knowledge of the First Man in the State of Innocence; Knowledge of the Soul After Death; The Knowledge of Christ; Good; The Tendency to Good and the Will; God’s Will; Free Choice; Sensuality; The Passions of the Soul; Grace; The Justification of Sinners; and The Grace of Christ.

For each topic, Aquinas reviews the topic’s Difficulties, and then responses with ‘To the Contrary’ and ‘Reply’. Aquinas concludes each topic with an “Answers to Difficulties” section, demonstrating his typical insightful worldview and readable literary style.“Everything is a being essentially. But a creature is good not essentially but by participation. Good, therefore, really adds something to being (“Good” [U1v]

translation from   http://dhspriory.org/thomas/QDdeVer21.htm).

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Goff T181;(Columbia University, Union Theological Seminary;HEHL; LC ;Massachusetts Historical Society;YUL)  ;  BMC I, 289/90; Only one Copy in The British Isles (BL)

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Impressa Agrippine. opera atq[ue] impe[n]sis p[ro]uidi viri Henrici Quentell. ciuis eiusdem. Anno salutis humane nonagesimonono supra millesimumquadringentesimu[m] Ipso die celebritatis autoris cursu felici ad finem vsq[ue] perducta.

 

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Physica Curiosa 1662 Gaspar Schott

563G Gaspar Schott 1608-1666

{Parts One and Two in two bindings } (Only three complete copies of this massive opus have come to auction in the last thirty-five years)

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P. Gasparis Schotti Regis Curiani E Societate Jesu, Olim in Panormitano Siciliæ, nunc in Herbipolitano Franconiæ Gymnasio ejusdem Societatis Jesu Matheseos Professoris, Physica Curiosa, Sive Mirabilia Naturæ Et Artis Libris XII. Comprehensa, Quibus pleraq;, quæ de Angelis, Dæmonibus, Hominibus, Spectris, Energumenis, Monstris, Portentis, Animalibus, Meteoris, &c. rara, arcana, curiosaq; circumferuntur, ad Veritatis trutinam expenduntur, Variis ex Historia ac Philosophia petitis disquisitionibus excutiuntur, & innumeris exemplis illustrantur. Ad Serenissimum Ac Potentissimum Principem Carolum Ludovicum, S.R.I. Electorem, &c. Cum figuris æri incisis, & Privilegio.

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Herbipolus [i.e., Wurzburg]: Sumptibus Johannis Andreæ Endteri & Wolffgangi Jun. Hæredum. Excudebat Jobus Hertz Typographus Herbipol, 1662                   $8,500

 

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Two Quarto  volumes. 203 x 163 mm{[28] l., 770 pages ., [1] l., pages. 771 – 1583, vol.I.   [a]-g4 A-5D4 5E1                              vol. II: [ ]1, Eeeee2-4, 5F-5Z4, 6A-6Z4, 7a-7Z4, 8A-8Z4, 9A-9R4. 1583 pages. This volume contains plates I to LVII two of which are folding ( 56 of 57 plates (lacking plate VI) Plate X is trimed and mounted with no loss. See image below.

Physicæ curiosæ pars I.

: I. Mirabilia angelorum ac dæmonum.                                     II. Mirabilia spectrorum.                          III. Mirabilia hominum.                             IV. Mirabilia energumenorum.                   V. Mirabilia monstrorum.                          VI. Mirabilia portentorum.

   

 

 

Physicæ curiosæ pars II.:

VII. Mirabilia animalium in genere.                                                                                        VIII. Mirabilia animalium terrestrium.                                                                                              IX. Mirabilia animalium volatilium.                                                                                                X. Mirabilia animalium aquatilium.                                                                                                XI. Mirabilia meteorum.                                                                                                                   XII. Mirabilia miscellanea.

First edition. Both volumes are bound in contemporary vellum.

Physica Curiosa is an encyclopedia of the natural sciences of the age. In keeping with Schott’s character, it compiles many of the illustrations and literature previously published. As with many natural history publications of the era, it depicted fantastical creatures alongside real ones. Divided into twelve books, the first six books are devotedDSC_0238
to “miraculous” subjects, including Demons and Angels, spectres, demonic possessions, human and beastly monsters, and portents. Part I is mainly a treatise on demonology, huge encyclopedia of wonder and the occult.Chapters are devoted to angels and demons and their relationships with wizards, ghosts,vampires, incubi and succubi, In great detail, it is followed by depictions of Physical anomalies ( with many interesting images

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DSC_0251DSC_0249DSC_0248DSC_0247The last six books deal with the “marvels” of nature – real creatures from exotic locales, such as elephants and rhinos.dsc_0098

 

Descriptions of remarkable animals, including the American sloth, armadillo, & anteater, the first with the musical notes illustrating its strange song (which also fascinated Harsdörffer); one folding plate illustrates Diego de Gozon killing the dragon of Rhodes, 1345, the last two show the famous linden trees & antiquities of Neustadt am KocherPhysica Curiosa’s target audience was other scholars, educators, and the rich nobility of the time, as this was the demographic that could afford the publication.

Many other creatures presented by Schott exemplify the practice of misrepresenting real creatures, or imposing religious elements on natural entities. dsc_0104

“Gaspar Schott, German physicist, born 5 February, 1608, at Konigshofen; died 12 or 22 May, 1666, at Augsburg. He entered the Society of Jesus 20 October, 1627, and on account dsc_0118of the disturbed political condition of Germany was sent to Sicily to complete his studies. While there he taught moral theology and mathematics in the college of his order at Palermo. He also studied for a time at Rome under the well known Athanasius Kircher. He finally returned to his native land after an absence of some thirty years, and spent the dsc_0096remained of his life at Augsburg engaged in the teaching of science and in literary work. Both as professor and as author he did much to awaken an interest in scientific studies in Germany. He was a laborious student and was considered on of the most learned men of his time, while his simple life and deep piety made him an object of veneration to the Protestants as well as to the Catholics of Augsburg. Schott also carried on an extensive correspondence with the leading scientific men of his time, notably with Otto von Guericke, the inventor of the air-pump, of whom he was an ardent admirer. He was the author of a number of works on mathematics, physics, and magic. They are a mine of curious facts and observations and were formerly much read.

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He wrote many interesting works: the ‘Magia Universalis Naturae et Artis,’ 4 vols., Wurzburg, 1657-1659, which contains a collection of mathematical problems and large number of physical experiments, notably in optics and acoustics. His ‘Mechanicahydraulica-pneumatica’ (Wurzburg, 1657) contains the first description of von Guericke’s air pump. He also published ‘Pantometricum Kircherianum’ (Wurzburg, 1660); ‘Physica curiosa’ (Wurzburg, 1662), a supplement to the ‘Magia universalis;’ ‘Anatomia physico-hydrostatica fontium et fluminum’ (Wurzburg, 1663), and a ‘Cursus mathematicus’ which passed through several editions. He also edited the ‘Itinerarium exacticum’ of Kircher and the ‘Amussis Ferdinandea’ of Curtz.” (Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. XIII, page 589)

DeBacker-Sommervogel vol. VII col.909 no. 8;

Physica Curiosadsc_0097

 

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ABAA Bibliography Week Showcase

James Gray Bookseller

DSC_0162THURSDAY, JANUARY 25

• 10:00 am-4:00 pm. At The French Institute/Alliance Française, 22 E 60th Street: Booksellers’ Showcase. Following on the great success of previous year’s events, a special mini-antiquarian book fair, sponsored by the Antiquarian Booksellers Association of America, will be held this year. In “Le Skyroom” of The French Institute/Alliance Française, right across the street from the Grolier Club. N.B.: If you plan to visit this showcase,

I will be exhibiting at the ABAA Bibliography Week showcase, Thursday 25 January from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

 “Le Skyroom” of The French Institute/Alliance Française, 22 E. 60th Street (right across the street from the Grolier Club). Please let me know if you will be attending and might wish to see a specific book!

HERE IS A CATALOGUE OF SOME OF THE BOOKS I WILL BE BRINGING !!

Please click on link it will take a while to down load ,

fascicule XIF

fascicule XI

JAN. MMXVIII

 

899G Francis Bacon, and Robert Holborne

 

The Learned Readings of Sir Robert Holbourne, Knight, Attorney General to King Charles I.; Upon the Statute of 25 Edw. 3. Cap. 2.; Being the Statute of Treasons: To Which is added Cases of Prerogative.Treason. Misprison of Treason. Felony &c.. Second printing

London : printed for Sam. Heyrick, at Grayes-Inn-Gate in Holborn, and Matthew Gilliflower, in Westminster-Hall, 1681.                  $2,200

 

Octavo  6 x 3 ¾ inches A (±A1+chi1) B-I K .           Second Edition                   Bound in full contemporary calf. This is a reissue, with cancel title page and errata, of the 1680 edition.

 

Sir Robert Holborne (died 1647) was an English lawyer and politician, of Furnival’s Inn and Lincoln’s Inn (where he was bencher and reader in English law). He acted, along with Oliver St. John, as co-counsel for John Hampden in the ship money case. He sat in the House of Commons between 1640 and 1642 and supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. He was attorney-general to the Prince of Wales, being knighted in 1643. He also published this legal tract.        Wing  H 2373.

 

982G Marino Becichemo 1468-1526

 

Hoc libro continentur haec opera Becichemi : Panegyricus serenissimo principi Leonardo Lauretano et illustrissimo Senatui Veneto dictus. Centuria epistola[rum] quaestionu[m] eide[m] principi atq[ue] senatui dicata: in qua su[n]t capita plura ad arte[m] oratoria[m] & ad artificiu[m] orationu[m] Ciceronis spectantia. Item sunt castigationes multae in asinu[m] aureu[m] & in multa alio[rum] aucto[rum] opa. Castigationes in totum victorinum. Castigationes in totum opus rhe. de inuentione. Castigationes in omnes libros rhe. ad herennium. Castigationes in tres libros de oratore. Castigationes in quattuor libros floridorum Apuleii. Itam sunt artes. De componenda epistola. De componendo dialogo. De imitatione. De componenda funebri orationes. De componenda nuptiali oratione. Expecta lector propediem secundam centuriam.

 

 

Venetiis : A Bernardino Veneto de uitalibus, VIII. Idus octobris 1506           $3,800

 

Folio 12 1/4 X 8 1/2 Inches. A-E6 ; a4 ,b4, c–x6 Y -Z4z4 verso blank. Second Edition The first was printed in Brescia 1504. Bound in a nice 20th century full dark brown calf binding,by J R . The first leaf has had its margins strengthened but in no way obtrusivly, The paper is very thick and this copy has good margins with some deckel edges. The typography is rather crude for an Italian book of this time .

Marin Beçikemi (aka Latin: Marinus Becichemus Scodrensis or Becichemi, Bicich emo, Becichio, Bezicco) {there are a lot of searches here…} was an Albanian 15th and 16th century humanist, orator, and chronist. Born in Shkodër he had seen 26 out of his 30 family members die in the Siege of Shkodra from the Ottoman Empire. In 1503 he published a panegyric to the Venetian Senate concerning the siege. He wrote commentaries on Cicero, Pliny the Elder and other classical philosophers.

 

“In 1492 (according to S. Gliubich, in Illustrious Men of Dalmatia, Vienna-Zara 1856, p. 25) Beçikemi was called by the Senate of the Republic of Ragusa as rector of the schools. During his stay in this city, and precisely in 14951 he dedicated to the Senate his Castigationes et observationes in Virgilium, Ovidium,Ciceronem,S ervium et Priscianum . It turns out that at the beginning of October 1496 he was in Naples as secretary of the Venetian patrician Melchiorre Trevisan, a Venetian fleet administrator who came to the aid of King Ferrandino. Beçikemi had obtained this assignment for the Manin family’s intervention (according to Gliubich), and it may well have been a public office. While serving Trevisan he went to France, probably in 1499; in September Trevisan was appointed general administrator with the task of occupying that part of the duchy of Milan assigned to the Venetians, and it seems likely has been his secretary during the campaign. In the year 1500, Beçikemi took Venetian citizenship, marking a radical change in his life. Probably at the end of the year he opened a school of human letters in Venice (perhaps his letter mentioned in Sanuto, Diarii , III, 786, Sept. 15, reports the request), rivaling with Raffaele Regio, and including among his students Vittore Cappello, Gian Ludovico Navagero, Marc Anthony Contarini and Augustine Beaziano. On 28 Nov . 1500 he pronounced the funeral prayer for Giambattista Scita in Venice in front of a large audience, probably Pietro Bembo, who estimated the Scita, for whom he wrote an meanwhile had close relations with Venetian patriots and literate, such as Girolamo Donato, Marco Dandolo, Antonio Condulmer, Giorgio Emo and Bernardo Soranzo. Perhaps during the early months of 1501 Beçikemi transferred his school to Padua, but in November he accepted a three-year course for the Brescia Study Chair, with the annual salary of 112 ducats (a wage higher than others were paid) . At the same time he had received a request from Vicenza to teach in the public school of that city, but he chose Brescia perhaps because the salary was higher and because Brescia was the city where he had studied. He pronounced the public proclamation in the Brescia study on July 30, 1503. Meanwhile, John Calfurnio, a rector of the Padua Study (January 1503), uttered a communion of funeral prayer. The Paduan Rectors recommended him for the succession of Calfurnio, but he obtained the seat of the Regio. During the period when Beçikemi taught in Brescia he prepared a collection of works for printing, and the privilege granted on September 26. 1505 seems to have already been ready: Collectanea in Plinium, Artificium,Orationum Ciceronis, Centuriae tres Variarum Observationum, Adnotationes V irgilianae, Observations in Livium et F abium, Commentaries in P ersium, In Libros de Oratore et R ethoricos Ciceronis .   Not all of these works have been handed down to us, and perhaps they were never even finished by the author. At this time Beçikemi had already printed the Variarum observationum collectanea, Brescia 1504 (see Brunet, Manuel …, I, 730), gathering his works already edited. It is believed in Brescia perhaps in 1503, in Primum Plinii observationum librum collectanea (see the catalog of the British Museum) and perhaps the first nuncupatoria , Brixi ae year 1503 conscripta);Other editions of the latter workare: Oratio quaBrix . Senatui praelectio in C. P linium , Ferrariae 1504 (in Oxford’s Bodleian ) and Oratio here the most flourishing S enate Brix . gratiasagit … [Venetiis or Brixiae 1504?] (in the Vatican). It seems that the year 1504 is the first edition of the Panegyricus serenissimo principi Leonardo Lauretano and illustrious Senatus Veneto dictus [Brixiae 1504] (see catalog of the V atican ). In 1505 P anegyricus was re- published with Epistolicarum Quaestionum : Centuria first , Edited and printed by British Angel [Brixiae 1505]. Beçikemi complained that this edition was printed with too many errors, and therefore gave the manuscript of the text to Antonio Moretto for a reprint that appeared

as: Marinus Bechichemus … Opera …Panegyricus … Centuria epistolicarum quaestionum … Castigationes de composendo dialogo , de imitatione , de componenda funebri, Venetiis, Bernardo de ‘Vitali, 1506 (also this is full of typographical multae oration errors). renewed by the Senate Brescia for three years and with the same salary It seems that, having obtained a regular license, he would no longer return to teach in Brescia: certainly at the end of 1508, Francesco Arigoni was appointed to his post. The three most distinguished students of Beçikemi in Brescia were Filippo Donato, son of Girolamo, Pietro Soardo and Gian Antonio Cattaneo.. .. Artes de componenda epistola ,, de componenda nuptiali oratione

Following this literary production, it is not surprising that in November 1505 Beçikemi’s conduct was

In the middle of July 1509, he was appointed a reader of humanity for the students of the Chancellery, holding the school with Girolamo Calvo of Vicenza and reading Pliny, Cicero and Virgil:. In May 1514, Beçikemi da enezia was looking for a place as a professor at Mantua and it was related to Isabella d’Este, who wrote: “Messer Marino is not a suspect person in account, before being retired against his will in V enice the Venetians, then to be the man waiting in letters without impassing of others “(letter of 16 May 1514 to the Count of Caiazzo, published by A. Luzio and R. Renier, in Culture and Literature by Isabella d ‘ Este , in Gior . Stor . Of letter italia , VII [1901], p. 226). On May 19, 1514, Isabella sent to Beçikemi a custodian, but he remained in Venice, perhaps because of a cause pending in that city . Later he was busy writing a poem (now lost), in which he praised the Marquis, the Marquess and all the writers of the Mantuan circle: perhaps for this he obtained a copy of the Chronicle of M antua by Mario Equicola by Gian Giacomo Calandra, secretary of Isabella. In 1515 Becichemo wrote to Calandra that he was looking for a protector to dedicate the poem. In March following his son Marco, canonical, “docto and accustomato”, was killed in Venice (see Sanuto, Diarii , XVIII, 166, XL, 778), and Beçikemi, addressed the marquise of Mantua in a letter in which he said that he would soon be to Mantua carrying two of his works worthy of being published. However, he appears to have stayed in Venice, retaining his position as a teacher at the Chancellery .”

(Cfr. BMSTC, p.77)

 

 

998G     Bernardus Basinus           1445-1510

 

De magicis artibus et magorum maleficiism     ( Tractatus exquisitissimus de magicis artibus et magorum maleficiis, per sacre scientie Parisiensem doctorem magistrum Bernardum Basim, canonicum Cesar augustanensem, in suis vesperis compilatus. )

 

Paris : Antoine Caillaut,1491-1492. (Dated by CIBN)                  $28,000

 

Quarto  7 ¾ X5 ½ inches. a8 b6. Second Edition

 

This treatise on magical practices was based on a speech Basin delivered in Paris before an assembly of cardinals in 1482. Basin was born 1445 in Zaragoza and he received his doctors degree in Paris, having study there theology and canon law. In 9 propositions he explains how people enlist the help of demons and if the practise of such diabolic magic makes a person a heretic. Basin states that magic arts, such as involving the invocation of demons and pacts must be been prohibited by all laws, civil and canon alike. The editio princeps was published in 1483 and is extant in 12 copies worldwide. This second edition is more rare and exists in 6 copies worldwide. A corner stone text in the study of witchcraft and inquisition. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 000137
Canon of Zaragoza. – Theologian Antoine Caillaut, the printer of this tract, practised his art at Paris from 1483 to 1505

United States of America Southern Methodist Univ. ONLY
Not in Goff; 2003; CIBN B-182; Pell(Lyon) 40; Bod-inc B-132; Sheppard 6190; Pr 7967; BSB-Ink B-233; GW 3720                             CIBN: Bibliothèque Nationale. Catalogue des incunables. T. I (Xylographes, A-G); T. II (H-Z). Paris, 1981-2014. B-182GW 3720; Pellechet 2003; Hain 2703;Hain 2703. Pell-Pol 2003. Meyer, Druckerzeichen 88.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         NO COPY IN THE U.S.

 

10H        Boethius  Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus                    480-525

 

De Consolatione Philosophiae : Sacti thome de aquino super libris boetii de solatoe philosophie comentum cu expositione feliciter incipit. In diui Seuerini Boetij de scolarium disciplina commentarium feliciter incipit..

     Add: Pseudo- Boethius: De disciplina scholarium (Comm: pseudo- Thomas Aquinas)          

 

[Lyons: Guillaume Le Roy], 1487                $16,000

 

Folio. 9 ½ X 6 ¾ inches 235 leaves. Sig. a2-8,b-v8 (a1 blank and lacking) x6; A2-8, B-I8. This copy is bound in modern quarter calf over wooden boards, it is a very nice copy.. 235 of 238 leaves, lacking ONLY three Blanks : x6, A1, and I8;

 

The text surrounded by commentary ascribed to Thomas Aquinas, now considered to be by Thomas Waley ,with a second work attributed to Pseudo-Boethius, De Disciplina Scholarium, with commentary of Pseudo-Aquinas; contemporary annotations which are slightly cropped.

 

“Boethius became the connecting link between the logical and metaphysical science of antiquity and the scientific attempts of the Middle Ages. His influence on medieval thought was still greater through his De consolatione philosophiae ,written while in prison at Pavia is written in an elaborate literary form: it consists of a dialogue between Boethius, sitting in his prison-cell awaiting execution, and a lady who personifies Philosophy, and its often highly rhetorical prose is interspersed with verse passages. Moreover, although it is true that elsewhere Boethius does not write in a way which identifies him as a Christian except in the Theological Treatises I, II, IV and V, the absence of any explicit reference to Christianity in the Consolation poses a special problem, when it is recalled that it is the work of a man about to face death and so very literally composing his philosophical and literary testament. Whether Boethius was a Christian has been doubted; and it is certain that the Consolatio makes no mention of Christ, and all the comfort it contains it owes to the optimism of the Neoplatonic school and to the stoicism of Seneca. Nevertheless, for a long time the book was read with the greatest reverence by all Christendom, and its author was regarded as a martyr for the true faith” (Schaff-Herzog).

Boethius’s real predicament sets the scene for the argument of the Consolation. He represents himself as utterly confused and dejected by his sudden change of fortune. Philosophy’s first job—true to the generic aim of a consolatio—is to console, not by offering sympathy, but by showing that Boethius has no good reason to complain: true happiness, she wishes to argue, is not damaged even by the sort of disaster he has experienced. She also identifies in Book I a wider objective: to show that it is not the case, as Boethius the character claims, that the wicked prosper and the good are oppressed.

Philosophy seems to have two different lines of argument to show Boethius that his predicament does not exclude him from true happiness. The first train of argument rests on a complex view of the highest good. The first (which is put forward in Book II and the first part of Book III) distinguishes between the ornamental goods of fortune, which are of very limited value—riches, status, power and sensual pleasure—and the true goods: the virtues and also sufficiency, which is what those who seek riches, status and power really desire. It also recognizes some non-ornamental goods of fortune, such as a person’s friends and family, as having considerable genuine value. On the basis of these distinctions, Philosophy can argue that Boethius has not lost any true goods, and that he still even retains those goods of fortune—his family—which carry much real worth. She does not maintain that, in his fall from being powerful, rich and respected to the status of a condemned prisoner, Boethius has lost nothing of any worth at all. But his loss need not cut him off from true happiness, which is attained primarily by an austere life based on sufficiency, virtue and wisdom.

 

At the end of the Disciplina are the verses beginning “consilibar item… and giving the name Conradus in an acrostic,which is derived from the edition of Parix, Toulouse,1480.

 

Not in Goff!

H 3402; C 1103 = 1114; Pell 2502 & 2557; CIBN B-576; Hillard 431; Aquilon 149; Arnoult 309; Polain(B) 4217; IGI 1827; Kind(Göttingen) 232; Pr 8513A; BMC VIII 238;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

992G     John Browne      1642-1700?

 

 

Myographia nova: or, a graphical description of all the muscles in the humane body, as they arise in dissection: distributed into six lectures. At the entrance into which, are demonstrated the proper muscles belonging to each lecture, now in general use at the theatre in Chirurgeons-Hall, London, and illustrated with two and forty copper-plates … Together with a philosophical and mathematical account of the mechanism of muscular motion, and an accurate and concise discourse of the heart and its use, with the circulation of the blood, &c. and with a compleat account of the arteries and veins, to their outward coats, proving them to be made with circular fleshy fibers, by whose contractions their trunks become narrowed, and the fluid particles of the blood are sent forwards into all the parts of the body. Digested into this new method, by the care and study of John Browne,           

 

London : Printed by Tho. Milbourn for the Author, 1698                                           $5,500

 

Folio 12 ½ x 8 inches      [π]3, ¶1, a-e2, A-Z2, Aa-Zz2, Aaa-Hhh2 (original blank Hhh2 present). In addition to the preceding collation, text complete with 39 (of 41) plates including the portrait frontispiece and 2 un-numbered plates (lacking plates 14 and 16 )   The following plates are unsigned bifolia: VIII, X, XV, XII, XIII, XIIII, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, and XXXVI.             Second edition. Enlarged
This is a lovely copy, in good internal condition throughout. It is bound in full modern calf in a contemporary Oxford style.

A couple of leaves/plates with edge tears, nothing too disfiguring. First published in 1681 under title: A compleat treatise of the muscles. The description of the muscles is based on William Molins’ Myskotomia, and the plates partly on Guilio Casserio’s Tabula anatomicae. According to Lowndes, the copies of this work that contain Browne’s portrait are printed on large paper.

“This edition has added a ten-page letter dated 16 July 1698 from Dr. Bernard O’Connor to Dr. William Briggs on muscular motion. Richard Lower’s appendix of the heart occupies pp. 177/183. On pp. 171/176 is a tract by John Bernoulli “Mathematical disquisitions concerning muscular motion communicated in the Lypswick transactions” with its own plate”

 
“Browne was a well-educated man, and in all likelihood a good surgeon, as he was certainly a well-trained anatomist according to the standard of the day. […] His treatise on the muscles consists of six lectures, illustrated by elaborate copper-plates, of which the engraving is better than the drawing. It is probably the first of such books in which the names of the muscles are printed on the figures. Browne’s portrait, engraved by R. White, is prefixed in different states to each of his books. John Browne, physician to King Charles II, James II and William III, came from Norwich and gained surgical experience in London and in the navy, being wounded in the Anglo-Dutch war of 1665-67. About 1675 he was appointed surgeon-in-ordinary to Charles II and surgeon at St Thomas’s Hospital in 1683. He published other works on medicine, including the first recorded description of cirrhosis of the liver (1685) and the best surviving account of touching for the king’s evil (1684). His most important contribution was one of the clearest early descriptions of cirrhosis of the liver. Browne was subjected to a scathing attack by James Young (1647/1721) in which the present work was shown to be plagiarized from works of Casserio and William Molins. The nearly 40 anatomical plates were, with few exceptions, taken from Molins’Myekotomia. Browne did not respond to Youngs criticism, but did make extensive changes to his text and issued future editions of the book under the title Myographia nova.”. (Heirs of Hippocrates N° 642 1681 ed.). Includes dedications to William III and Earl of Sunderland, printing privilege, preface, 8 letters and poems of commendation list of subscribers and a Treatise on Muscular Dissection by Dr Bernard Connor at beginning; and Mathematical Disquisitions concerning Muscular Motion and An Appendix of the Heart and its Use: with the circulation of the blood and index at the end, with a plate.
The present work is based on William Molins’s “Myskotomia,” and the plates are based on Giulio Casserio’s (1552-1616) “Tabula Anatomicae.”

 

Wing B-5126; ESTCR 20507; Russell 101; Cushing B-762; Wellcome III, p. 251; Eimas 642.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Unquestionably one of the most impressive emblem books ever published.”

 

 

 

910G      Johannes Bolland 1596-1665. Jean de Tollenaere 1582-1643. Godefridus Henschenius 1601-1681

Imago Primi Saecvli Societatis Jesv A Provincia Flandro-Belgica Eivsdem Societatis Repræsentata     

 

Antuerpiae : Ex officina Plantiniana Balthasaris Moreti: 1640                 $2,500

 

Large Folio 13 ½ x 9 inches *4, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Zzz4, Aaaa-Zzzz4, Aaaaa-Zzzzz4, Aaaaaa-Gggggg4. . (Gggggg4 Blank).                  First edition. This copy is bound in full original vellum over boards with gilt ornaments in the center of both boards.
Published on the occasion of the centenary of the Jesuit Order. Sometimes ascribed to Jean de Tollenaer, provincial of the Society of Jesus in the Low Countries, who commissioned the work. But chiefly the work of Joannes Bollandus and Godefridus Henschenius. Each book followed by “Exercitatio poetica” (Latin and a few Greek poems) by Sidronius de Hossche, Jacques van de Walle and others. cf. Paquot’s Mémoire littéraire, Brit. mus. Catalogue. The engraved title page, designed by Philips Fruytiers and is engraved by Cornelis Galle. This work contains 126 emblematic engravings within ornamental borders by Cornelius Galle, in which title, image, and explanatory text are combined to illustrate further the history of the Order of the Society of Jesus in the Low Countries, to mark the centenary of the Order.

 

This magnificent volume; it is an essential addition for every Jesuitica collection.

John O’Malley SJ writes in Art, Controversy, and the Jesuits: The Imago Primi Saeculi (1640) :

“In 1640 the Society of Jesus observed the centenary of its founding with elaborate celebrations worldwide. The most lasting monument from the occasion is the Imago primi saeculi Societatis Iesu, a magnificent volume of 952 folio-sized pages of poetry, prose, and 127 exquisite copperplate engravings published by the prestigious Plantin-Moretus Press, Antwerp, in a Latin edition, followed later that year by a Dutch adaptation. No other book better reveals Jesuit self-understanding at the moment when the order had achieved its mature form. The ink was hardly dry on its pages before it became an object of controversy, one of the first volleys in the bitter Jesuit/Jansenist culture war that divided French society for a century and that contributed to the papal suppression of the Jesuits in 1773.”

 

DeBacker-Sommervogel,; vol. 1, col. 1626, no. 5; Peter Maurice Daly, G. Richard Dimler(1997-2006). Corpus Librorum Emblematum(CLE). Jesuit serie s, J.45;

Landwehr, J. Emblem books in the Low Countries; no. 264; Bib. catholica Neerlandica impressa,; 9332; The Illustration of Books Published by the Moretuses. Antwerp: Plantin-Moretus Museum, 1996; 51; Praz,; p. 380;Désigné comme auteur principal de cet ouvrage par le P.J. Drews, “Fasti Societatis Jesu”, p. 127, et par J. Vogt, “Catalogus … librorum rariorum”, p. 362.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

934G      William Cartwright          1611-1643

 

Comedies, Tragi-Comedies, With other Poems by Mr. William Cartwright late Student of Christ–Church in Oxford and Proctor of the University. The Ayres and Songs set by Mr. Henry Lawes Servant to His late Majesty in His Publick and Private Musick. —nec Ignes, Nec potuit Ferrum,—               

London: Printed for Humphrey Moseley, and are to be sold at his Shop, at the sign of the Prince’s Arms in St Pauls Church–yard, 1651              $4,750

 

Octavo  6 ½ x 4 ¼ inches. [Portrait]1, [a]-b8, *14 , *8, ¶4, **8, ***14, *10, a-e8, f4, g-k8, A-U8, X2, with leaf *11 in UNcancelled. Leaves **7 and U1-3 appear to be in UNcancelled state with no evidence of stubs, otherwise this collation matches that described by Evans. (“The variations in this perplexing volume are too complicated to permit of formal analysis or a complete record of the copies in which they occur”–Greg. For these see G.B. Evans, “The Library” (June 1942, xxiii:12-22),

First edition. This copy is nineteenth century green morocco with a gilt spine,and dentells, gilt edges, with the book plates of Lucius Wilmerding, J.O. Edwards, and Christopher Rowe. It is quite a nice copy.    “Cartwright enjoyed a considerable success among his contemporaries but posterity has been less kind and his work is only known to students of seventeenth century literature. He was educated at Westminster School and went up to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1628; he spent the rest of his short life there. He wrote four plays, intended for academic performance: The Ordinary or The City Cozener (1634) shows clearly the influence of Ben Jonson; The Lady Errant, The Royall Slave, and The Siege or Love’s Convert were published in 1651. The Royall Slave, with designs by Inigo Jones and music by Henry Lawes, was acted for King Charles I and Henrietta Maria at Oxford in 1636 and proved a great success. Cartwright took holy orders in 1638 and wrote no more plays but he became a celebrated preacher; in 1642 he became reader in metaphysics to the university. A Royalist, Cartwright preached at Oxford before the king after the Battle of Edgehill. The edition of his works published in 1651 contained 51 commendatory verses by writers of the day, including Izaak Walton and Henry Vaughan. The Plays and Poems of William Cartwright were collected and edited by G. Blakemore Evans and published in 1951. (Stapleton) This work also includes the first poem by Katherine Phillips to be printed (DNB).

Cartwright was well liked, and many of his wide circle of friends contributed to the verses occupying the first 124 pages; Dr. John Fell, Jasper Mayne, Henry Vaughan the Silurist, Alexander Brome, Izaak Walton, Francis Vaughan, Thomas Vaughan, Henry Lawes, Sir John Birkenhead, James Howell and many others. Including the first Publication of Katerine Phillips.

Wing C-709; see also The Plays and Poems of William Cartwright by G. Blakemore Evans, pages 62-72; Hayward English Poetry Catalogue, 104; Greg page 1027.

631G       John Cotton { preface}    Mather Richard                  1596-1669

 

A plat-form of church-discipline, gathered out of the Word of God, and agreed upon by the elders and messengers of the churches assembled in the Synod at Cambridge in N.E. To be presented to the churches and General Court for their consideration & acceptance in the Lord, the 8th month, anno 1649.

 

Re-printed by William and Andrew Bradford in New-York,1711                       $15,000

 

Octavo  6 X 3 3/4 inches. Signatures: A9 (lacking A2 contents list) -E7 (E8 verso blank and missing). First New York edition                                    Stored in a custom box.
Based on the draft prepared by Richard Mather. The preface is by John Cotton. Cf. Holmes.The platform defines and establishes a congregational polity—meaning that churches are independent both of any higher ecclesiastical authority, and of one another. It affirms that authority to choose officers, admit members, admonish or expel members, or restore those who have been expelled rests in the gathered members of each congregation.
Though distinct and without authority over one another, the platform affirms that there is to be a community of churches in relationship with one another. When an internal dispute cannot be resolved within a church, that church, at its own request, could convene a council of nearby churches to hear the dispute and offer non-binding advice which church members could then vote to act on, or not. Six ways of showing the communion of churches are identified: taking thought for each other’s welfare
consulting on any topic of cause where another church has more familiarity or information about a topic
admonishing another church, even to the point of convening a synod of neighboring churches and ceasing communion with the offending church
allowing members of one church to fully participate and receive communion in another church
sending letters of recommendation when a member goes to a new church, due to a seasonal or permanent relocation
financial support for poor churches

This document has real ramifications for the polity of some denominations today. For example, the congregations of the United Church of Christ and Unitarian Universalist churches, and other modern-day descendants of the Puritan churches, continue to claim congregational polity as their local church organization, but have created large denominational administrations to maintain ministerial oversight and promote intradenominational communication. When some Churches of the Standing Order in New England became Unitarian following the Unitarian Controversy, they kept a congregational polity. That polity continued to deeply influence the polity and organization of the American Unitarian Association, and, in turn, that of the Unitarian Universalist Association—an organization that, while radically different theologically than the signers of the 1648 document, nonetheless shares a great deal of the same polity.
Includes resolutions adopted at the Synod at Boston, Sept. 10, 1679, and at the general meeting of ministers at Boston, May 27, 1697.
Bradford, Andrew, 1686-1742, printer; Bradford, William, 1663-1752, printer.

Source: Dictionary of American History by James Truslow Adams, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1940″The Cambridge Platform, contemporary readers edition”, Peter Hughes, editor, p iix

Evans, 1496;Holmes, T.J. Minor Mathers, 51-I;Sabin, 63336
792G    Nicholas            Culpeper            1616-1654          A directory for midwives: or, A guide for women in their conception, bearing, and suckling their children. The first part contains, 1. The anatomy of the vessels of generation. 2. The formation of the child in the womb. 3. What hinders conception, and its remedies. 4. What furthers conception. 5. A guide for women in conception. 6. Of miscarriage in women. 7. A guide for women in their labour. 8. A guide for women in their lying-in. 9. Of nursing children. To cure all diseases in women, read the second part of this book. By Nicholas Culpeper, Gent. student in physic and astrology.

 

London : sold by most book sellers in London and Westminster, 1700        $5,500

Octavo 6 x 3 ½ inches.   A-Q12 Newly corrected from many gross errors. Contemp. full blind stamped calf; slightly rubbed. A nice copy of a popular and ill-surviving text in contemporary binding.
A Directory of Midwives was first published in 1651 and became one of the seminal texts on midwifery and female health for the next two centuries. This volume contains – with continuous pagination – both Culpeper’s Directory, which focuses on obstetrics, and a separately titled Fourth Book of Practical Physick, which deals with female diseases and general health. The first two books first appeared together in 1671 but not in a continuously paginated edition until 1693. Though the work was frequently reprinted, seveneteenth and early eighteenth-century editions do not survive well, most being well-used on a regular basis.

 

ESTC R232056, Wellcome only in UK; U.S. National Library of Medicine & Yale only in North America; Copac adds Edinburgh and York Universities; OCLC adds University of Essex.

 

655G    William Davenant           1606-1668

 

The Works of Sir William Davenant Kt, Consisting of those which were formerly Printed, and those which he design’d for the Press: Now Published out of the Authors Originall Copies.

 

London: Henry Herringman, 1673                             $2,500

 

Folio12 ¾ x 7½ inches . π1 2π2 A-3D4 3E2; Aa-Ppp4, Aaaa-Oooo4

First Edition An unusually fine, fresh, wide-margined copy, with a fine impression of the portrait. Bound in full contemporary calf with nicely gilt spine.

 

The First Collected Edition, with prefatory material by Hobbes, ‘The answer of Mr. Hobbes to Sr. William D’Avenant’s preface before Gondibert’, and poems by Waller and Cowley. Several of the plays originally published in blank verse are here printed for the first time, converted into prose. The volume also includes first printings of ‘The Playhouse to be Let’, ‘Law Against Lovers’, ‘News from Plymouth’, ‘The Fair Favourite’, ‘The Distresses’, and ‘The Siege’. The posthumous collection was published under the watchful eye of “Lady Mary” D’Avenant. The poems reflect the attitudes of the Cavalier poets and the received tradition of earlier poets, particularly Shakespeare, Jonson, and Donne. She no doubt also insisted on the fine portrait frontispiece restoring her husband’s missing nose, which he had lost through illness in 1638.

Following the death of Ben Jonson in 1637, Davenant was named Poet Laureate in 1638. He was a supporter of King Charles I in the English Civil War. In 1641, before the war began, he was declared guilty of high treason by parliament along with John Suckling, after he participated in the First Army Plot, a Royalist plan to use the army to occupy London. He fled to France Returning to join the king’s army when the war started, he was knighted two years later by king Charles following the siege of Gloucester.

Wing D320

 

 

894F     William Drummond        1585-1649

The works of William Drummond, of Hawthornden. Consisting of those which were formerly printed, and those which were design’d for the press. Now published from the author’s original copies.        

 

Edinburgh : printed by James Watson, in Craig’s-Closs, 1711.            $3,500

 

Folio 13 x 8 ½  inches [ ],a-l2, m1, a1, B-Z2, Aa-Zz2, Aaa-Qqq2, A2.A-P2.  First collected edition

This copy is bound in its original full calf binding, It has been recently rebacked with gilt spine. This is a wonderful copy of this book.
This is the first edition of Drummond’s works, printed under the supervision of his son, it contains a brief life of Drummond and his letters to Ben Jonson and other poets of his day. William Drummond is the last significant figure in Scottish poetry before the Eighteenth Century language. These conditions were now abolished. Poets who had published their work in Scots, followed James in revising it and publishing it in English, and Drummond, who did not go south with the court, was left in a state of cultural bereavement. He made a lot of that melancholy state. He became a poet of retreat and death, like Henry Vaughan during the Interregnum.

Drummond was a late practitioner of the Petrarchan sonnet sequence in English, but he worked in phrases and ideas of the French and Italian masters of late petrarchism. Marino was an author he admired and imitated. The language he writes in is not the Scots he spoke but a literary English, as correct as he could learn to make it from reading books. His art aims at refined sweetness both in versification and in the preciosity of his reworking and tinkering with petrarchan imagery. The landscape of his love-melancholy is a solitary and Arcadian Midlothian.
On this colde World of Ours,
Flowre of the Seasons, Season of the Flowrs,
Sonne of the Sunne sweet Spring,
Such hote and burning Dayes why doest thou bring?

Like Poe, Drummond seems to have felt that the death of a beautiful woman was the best subject for poetry and Euphemia Cunningham did her best for him in this respect. Only a year after he had completed the Poems that end in mourning her literary epiphany. Religion was another source of melancholy interiority that he exploited; he expanded the divine poems of the 1616 collection and brought them out as Flowres of Sion in 1623. The volume includes his prose meditation on death, The Cypresse Grove.   In later years he began to compile an uninteresting royalist History of Scotland. The Bishops’ Wars between Charles I and the Scots Presbyterians and the involvement of the Covenant in the politics of the English Civil War stirred Drummond to write political tracts against the Covenanters, notably Irene in response to the promulgation of the National Covenant of 1638 and Skiamachia in support of the Cross Petition to the Scottish Parliament against moves for an alliance with the English Parliamentarians. He did not publish them but they probably circulated in manuscript. Too literary, written in too elaborate and beautifully modulated a style to engage effectively in the cut and thrust of Civil War polemic, they nevertheless make shrewd points about the contradictions in which the Covenanters had involved themselves. John Sage, brought out an edition of his works in 1711, which, along with the poems, includes some of his letters, his history of Scotland and not very reliable versions of the political works.

Lowndes, p. 675. who reports that Ben Jonson thought of Drummond as a ‘Scotian Petrarch’ ESTC Citation No.   T125750
 

 

 

1)   945G           Eusebius of Caesarea                  c. 260-c. 340

 

Eusebius Pa[m]phili de eua[n]gelica preparac[i]o[n]e ex greco in latinu[m] translatus Incipit feliciter.         

 

[ Cologne, Ulrich Zel, not after 1473]                          $18,000

 

Folio     10 ¾ x 7 ¾ inches. [a]12, [b-o]10, [p]8      One of the earliest editions most likely the Second, (editio princeps : Venice 1470) This copy is bound in early wooden boards with a quarter calf spine.

 

This copy contains the fifteen books of the “Praeparatio evangelica,” whose purpose is “to justify the Christian in rejecting the religion and philosphy of the Greeks in favor of that of the Hebrews, and then to justify him in not observing the Jewish manner of life […] The following summary of its contents is taken from Mr. Gifford’s introduction to his translation of the “Praeparitio:

 

“The first three books discuss the threefold system of Pagan Theology: Mythical, Allegorical, and Political. The next three, IV-VI, give an account of the chief oracles, of the worship of demons, and of the various opinions of Greek Philosophers on the doctrines of Fate and Free Will. Books VII-IX give reasons for preferring the religion of the Hebrews founded chiefly on the testimony of various authors to the excellency of their Scriptures and the truth of their history. In Books X-XII Eusebius argues that the Greeks had borrowed from the older theology and philosphy of the Hebrews, dwelling especially on the supposed dependence of Plato upon Moses. In the the last three books, the comparson of Moses with Plato is continued, and the mutual contradictions of other Greek Philosphers, especially the Peripatetics and Stoics, are exposed and criticized.”

 

The “Praeparitio” is a gigantic feat of erudition, and, according to Harnack (Chronologie, II, p. 120), was, like many of Eusebius’ other works, actually composed during the stress of the persecution. It ranks, with the Chronicle, second only to the Church History in importance, because of its copious extracts from ancient authors, whose works have perished.” (CE)

It is also very interesting because of its numerous lively fragments from historians and philosophers which are nowhere else preserved, e.g. a summary of the writings of the Phoenician priest Sanchuniathon, or the account from Diodorus Siculus’ sixth book of Euhemerus’ wondrous voyage to the island of Panchaea, and writings of the neo-Platonist philosopher Atticus.

 

Eusebius (c. 263-339), Greek historian and exegete, Christian polemicist and scholar Biblical canon, became bishop of Cesarea in 314 and is considered as the father of Church History as his writings are very important for the first three centuries of the Christianity.

 

 

Goff E119; BMC I 194

(United States of America: Boston Public Library
Indiana Univ., The Lilly Library (- 2 ff.)
YUL)
;

 

917G       Willem van Hees (Gulielmus Hesius)      1601-1690

 

Emblemata sacra de fide, spe, charitate               

 

Antuerpiae : Ex officina Plantiniana Balthasaris Moreti, 1636           $1,900

 

Octavo  5 ¾ x 3 ¼ inches. A-R12.There are 116 emblems half-page emblematic woodcuts (Liber I with 41, Liber II with 30, Liber III with 40) and 5 unsigned, unnumbered half-page woodcut illustrations (p. 6, 8, 18, 147, 263). The Emblems are from woodcuts by Jan Christoffel Jegher after Erasmus Quellinus–See Praz.

Hees is said to have influenced Artus Quellinus II .( St. Walburga Church in Bruges: an oak pulpit remarkable for breaking with tradition: the barrel is not supported by heavy volutes but rests firmly on a single figure representing Faith (rather than the more usual multiple archangels and church fathers) and the stairs at the back).

Hees’ influence has been identified in Vermeer’s The Allegory of Faith in the glass orb on which the woman sets her eyes. “According to Eddy De Johgh, Vermeer appears to have taken it from a 1636 emblem book by the Jesuit Willem Hesius, Emblemata sacra de fide, spe, charitate. In the emblem, “Capit Quod Non Capit”, a winged boy, a symbol of the soul, is shown holding a sphere reflecting a nearby cross and the sun. In a poem accompanying the emblem, Hesius states that the sphere’s ability to reflect the world is similar to the mind’s ability to believe in God.”[1] Selena Cant has written that the sphere is :

symbol of the human mind and its capacity both to reflect and to contain infinity.

DeBacker-Sommervogel,;vol. IV, col. 336, no. 3; Corpus librorum emblematum. Jesuit series,; J.661; Emblem books at the Univ. of Illinois,; H23; Landwehr, J. Emblem books in the Low Countries,; 203; Landwehr, J. Dutch emblem books,; 83; Praz, M. Studies in 17th cent. imagery (2nd ed.),

  1. Arthur K. Wheelock, Jr., editor,Johannes Vermeer, catalogue of an exhibition National Gallery of Art, Washington, and the Royal Cabinet of Paintings Mauritshuis, p 192, citing Eddy De Jongh, “Pearls of Virtue and Pearls of Vice”, Simiolus 8: 69–97, 1975/1976, The Hague; pp 190–195, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995
  2. Liedtke, Walter A. (2001). Vermeer and the Delft School. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 399–402. 

 

 

 

 

808G    Thomas Hobbes  1588-1679

De Mirabilibus Pecci. Being the Wonders of the Peak in Derby-shire. Commonly Called The Devil’s Arse of Peak. In English and Latine. The Latine written by Thomas Hobbes of Malmsbury. The English by a Person of Quality.
            London: Printed for William Crook at the Green Dragon without Temple-Bar 1678             $2,000
Octavo 6 ¼ x 3 ¾ inches A-E8, F7 (F8 blank and lacking) First English edition .This copy is bound in later quarter calf. From 1608, Hobbes, was appointed tutor to William, only two years his junior. During this interval Hobbes wrote a Latin poem, giving an account of a short tour of the Peak in Derbyshire, made in company with the second earl. It was, it appears, a new year’s gift to his friend, who rewarded him with a gift of 5 pounds. The poem was first published in 1636. This version includes the original Latin and an English translation by ‘a Person of Quality.’ Chatsworth House which features largely in the poem as one of the Wonders of the Peak: Wing H-2224; T.C. I. 296.

 

 

           “ Nothing is more beautiful than know all things”

 

622G    Athansius           Kircher 1602-1680

 

Ars Magna Sciendi, In XII Libros digesta. Qua Nova & Universali Methodo Per Artificiosum Combinationum contextum de omni re proposita plurimis & prope infinitis rationibus disputari, omniumque summaria quædam cognitio compari potest… (tomes 1&2)

 

Amsterdam: Apud Joannem Janssonium à Waesberge, & Viduam Elizei Weyerstraet, 1669         $11,500

 

Folio 14 ½ x 9 inches *4, **4, A-Z4, Aa-Gg4-Zz4, Aaa-Ooo4, Ppp6.

First edition. This copy is bound in full original calf with a gilt spine with an expertly executed early rebacking. The vovell sheets are present but not cut or placed. And two very large foldouts A complete copy with the usual browing. The ‘Ars Magna Sciendi’ is Kircher’s exploration and development of the ‘Combinatoric Art’ of Raymond Lull, the thirteenth century philosopher. Kircher attempts in this monumental work to classify knowledge under the nine ideal attributes of God, which were taken to constitute the pattern for all creation. In the third chapter of this book is presented a new and universal version of the Llullistic method of combination of notions. Kircher seems to be convinced that the Llullistic art of combination is a secret and mystical matter, some kind of esoteric doctrine. In contrast with Llull, who used Latin words, words with clearly defined significations for his combinations, Kircher began filling the tables with signs and symbols of a different kind. By doing this Kircher was attempting to penetrate symbolic representation itself. ( forming a ‘symbolic-Logic)

 

Kircher tried to calculate the possible combinations of all limited alphabets (not only graphical, but also mathematical). He considered himself a grand master of decipherment and tried to (and thought he did) translate Egyptian hieroglyphic texts, he felt that knowledge was a process of encoding and decoding. His tabula generalis, the more mathematical way of thinking created the great difference between Llull and Kircher.
Kircher used the same circle-figures of Llull, but the alphabet which Kircher proposes as material for his combination-machine reveals the difference to Lullus’ at first sight. It is not the signification in correlation with the position in the table, because all nine places in each table are filled with the same significations we find in the Llullistic tables, that makes the difference. It is the notation, which creates the difference. While making certain modifications, mainly in the interest of clarity, Kircher retains the main thesis of Raymond Lull in the search for a scientific approach to the classification of all branches of knowledge. The central aim of Lull’s and Kircher’s activity was to invent a type of logic or scientific approach capable of finding and expressing universal truth. Kircher and his seventeenth century contemporaries had discarded common language as a satisfactory vehicle for this undertaking. Kircher favored the use of symbols as a possible solution to his problem, which he had explored in his earlier work on a non-figurative universal language was not a primary concern of lull’s ‘Combinatoric Art,’ his approach lent itself naturally to the seventeenth century savants and their abiding interest in this subject. (see Brian L. Merrill, Athansius Kircher An Exhibition at Brigham Young University).
 

 

Sommervogel 1066.28; Merrill 22; Ferguson I. 467; Brunet III, 666; Caillet II, 360.5771; Clendening 10.17; De Backer I, 429-30.23; Graesse IV, 21; Reilly #26.

720G    Athanasius         Kircher 1602-1680

 

Athanasi Kircheri Fuldensis Buchonii è Soc. Jesu presbyteri ars magna lucis et umbræ, in X. libros digesta. Quibus admirandæ lucis & umbræ in mundo, atque adeò universa natura, vires effectusque uti nova, ita varia novorum reconditiorumque speciminum exhibitione, ad varios mortalium usus, panduntur. Editio altera priori multò auctior.          

 

 

Amstelodami, apud Joannem Janssonium à Waesberge, & hæredes Elizæi Weyerstraet. 1671 .      $15,000

 

Folio 15 x 9 ¾ inches *4, **4, ***6, (*)2, A-Xxxx4  Second Enlarged edition   Bound in contemporary calf, with nicely gilt spine.            Kircher’s Major Scientific Work and his Principal Contribution to Optics” In Ars magna lucis et umbrae Kircher discusses the sources of light and shadow. The work deals especially with the sun, moon, stars and planets. Kircher also treats phenomena related to light, such as optical illusions, color and refraction, projection and distortion, comets, eclipses, and instruments that use light, such as sundials and mirrors. He theorizes about the type of mirror supposed to have been used by Archimedes to set Roman ships afire, drawing from notes of his own experiments performed in the harbor of Syracuse. The work includes one of the first treatises on phosphorous and fireflies. Here Kircher also published his depictions of Saturn and Jupiter as he saw them through a telescope in Bologna in 1643. On that occasion he observed that the planets were neither perfectly round nor self-luminous, contrary to the popular Aristotelian belief that they are perfect, unchanging spheres.”Kircher takes a great interest in sundials and mirrors in this book, and several interesting engravings are of fanciful sundials. He had written extensively on these subjects on his previous work, the Primitiae gnomonicae catoptricae. In Ars magna lucis et umbrae Kircher also discusses an odd ancestor of the modern projector: a device called the ‘magic lantern,’ of which he is generally, though erroneously, considered the inventor. “Before writing this work, Kircher had read Kepler’s Ad vitellionem paralipomena (1604), the first modern work on optics and was influenced to some extent by it. The Ars magna lucis et umbrae reveals Kircher’s contribution as an astute observer and cataloguer of natural phenomena” (Merrill)             DeBacker- Sommervogel IV, col. 1050, no.9 ; Merrill 7; Caillet 5770

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

850G     Hugh     Latimer                   1485-1555

 

The fyrste Sermon of Mayster Hughe Latimer, whiche he preached before the kynges Maiest. wythin his graces palayce at Westminster M. D. XLIX. the viii. of Marche. (,’,) Cu gratia et Privilegio ad imprimendum solum.
[bound with]
The seconde Sermon of Maister Hughe Latimer, whych he preached before the Kynges maiestie, iv in his graces Palayce at Westminister y. xv. day of Marche. M. ccccc.xlix. Cum gratia et Privilegio ad Imprimendum solum.

[London: by Jhon Day, dwellynge at Aldergate, and Wylliam Seres, dwellyng in Peter Colledge, 1549]                                                $14,200

 

Octavo  5 ½ x 3 ¾ inches. A-D8, A-Y8, Aa-Ee8 (Lacking Ee7 and 8,both blank.) First editions, each of the two works is one of three or four undated variants, attributed to the year 1549. This copy is bound in nineteenth century calfskin, the hinges starting to crack.                 The Encyclopedia Britannica calls Hugh Latimer’s sermons, “classics of their kind. Vivid, racy, terse in expression; profound in religious feeling, sagacious in their advice on human conduct. To the historical student they are of great value as a mirror of the social and political life of the period.”

“All things which are written, are written for our erudition and knowledge. All things that are written in God’s book, in the Bible book, in the book of the Holy Scripture, are written to be our doctrine.” (from Hugh Latimer’s Sermon of the Plow)

“This was the first of Latimer’s famous Lenten sermons on the duty of restoring stolen goods which resulted in the receipt of considerable sums of ‘conscience money.’” (Phorzimer Catalogue)

“The seven sermons which he preached before the king in the following Lent are a curious combination of moral fervor and political partisanship, eloquently denouncing a host of current abuses, and paying the warmest tribute to the government of Somerset.” (DNB)

STC 15270.7; & STC 15274.7; Pforzheimer #581 and 582; McKerrow & Ferguson 64.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

779G        Nicholas, ed            Ling         fl. ca. 1599

 

 

                             Politeuphuia, Wits Common-wealth. Newly corrected and amended.                

 

 

London :printed by E. Flesher, and are to be sold by Edward Brewster at the Crane in St. Pauls Church-yard
1647.        $4,900

Duodecimo 5 ¾ 4 x 3 ¼ inches.          3 preliminary leaves, 322 pages, 4 leaves A-O12.                  edition(?), first printed in 1597.(To the reader: “Courteous reader, encouraged by thy kind acceptance, of the first and second impression of Wits Common-wealth, I have once more adventured to present thee with the foureteenth edition.”)

 

Bound in ninteenth century full calf edges gilt a very lovely copy.

 

Usually ascribed to John Bodenham, who planned the collection, though the work appears to have been done by Nicholas Ling. Cf. Dedication; also DNB.p. Often cited as Wits’ commonwealth, and some editions appeared under that title. Published first in 1597, as the first in a series of which Mere’s “Palladis tamia”, 1598, was the second, “Wits theater of the little world,” by Robert Allott, 1598, the third, and “Palladis palatium, wisedoms’ pallace,” 1604, the fourth. Cf. DNB. “The popularity of this book, of which altogether some eighteen editions before the end of the seventeenth-century were issued, was due it would seem to the fact that it filled a peculiar need of the public of the day. It is difficult to imagine the style and tone of the conversation of the later years of Elizabeth’s court — the written word is the only clue. But it is certain that the more commonly endowed members of a society which included men of such wide reading and extensive knowledge as Bacon, Selden, Jonson and Raleigh must have frequently felt the need of some compendium of wise and sententious aphorisms by means of which they might ornament their discourse. It is just that function which this volume appears to be intended to fulfill for it is a compilation of precepts and maxims, frequently with their source noted, gathered under various heads such as ‘Of Courage’, ‘Of Nobilitie’, etc. Each division begins with a definition and ends with a Latin quotation, while in the manner of a modern Bartlett. The tables which are appended enable one to search not only the divisional topics, but also the individual aphorism
“The popularity of this type of manual in the early years of the seventeenth century may be compared with the deluge of ‘outlines’ of this and that which the public of the present day is encouraged to imagine will provide a short and easy road to knowledge and culture. This appears to be substantiated by the fact that this book is but one, the first of a series, of four volumes which for the want of a better name is called the ‘Wits Series’. From the fact that there is no indication in this book that it was to be followed by others it may be assumed that the series, as a series at least, was not projected until after the demand for this first book indicated the public taste.

“In the address To the Reader, which otherwise appears to be a reprint of the text of the third edition, the present is numbered the ‘fifteenth edition’. It is quite possible that it is the fifteenth but we have only the publisher’s word as no copies of editions five to eight can be traced, and it is a well known ‘puffing’ device to misnumber editions.” (Pforzheimer)

 

Wing L- 2344; see Pforzheimer 802.;McKerrow 259 [triple star])

Copies – N.America
Harvard University
Lehigh University
Library of Congress
William Andrews Clark Memorial Library
University of Minnesota
Yale University.

 

 

957G Richard Mediavilla [Middleton],     d. 1302/3

 

         Commentum super quartem        Sententarium..

 

Venice: Christophorus Arnoldus, [circa 1476-7]        $22,000

 

Folio 12 ¼ 9 ¼ inches. a-z10 [et]10 [cum]10 [per]10 A 10 B-D8 (D8v blank and aa1r blank) aa8 bb10 cc8 {320 leaves complete}

 

Second edition. This copy is rubricated throughout with nicely complicated red initials. It is bound in an age appropriate binding of full calf over wooden boards with clasps and catches with quite impressive end bands.

 

“Middleton, Richard of [Richard de Mediavilla] Franciscan friar, theologian, and philosopher, was born about the middle of the thirteenth century in either England or France. He studied at Paris, where he formed part of the so-called neo-Augustinian movement, defending the philosophy and theology of Augustine against the inroads of Aristotelianism, during the years 1276–87. He probably studied under William of Ware and Matteo d’Acquasparta, usually viewed as principal figures in this movement.

 
Middleton’s Commentary on Peter Lombard’s ‘Sentences’ was probably begun in 1281 and was completed in 1284, when he became regent master of the Franciscan school in Paris, a post he held until 1287. The chief characteristic of his Commentary is its sober assessment of many of the positions of Thomas Aquinas. However, the tone of his eighty Quodlibet Questions, produced during his regency, is much more critical and on many issues shows a strong anti-Thomist reaction. In this they have more in common with his disputed questions, which were argued after the condemnations of 1277 but before his Sentences commentary. The latter commentary has been edited along with his Quodlibet Questions. A small number of his disputed questions have also been edited, as have six of his sermons.

Middleton’s link to the neo-Augustinian movement is seen especially in his treatment of the will, even though he does not entirely follow his teachers, Ware and Acquasparta. For Middleton the will is much more noble than the intellect, since it is much more noble to love God than to understand him. Understanding without the corresponding love separates man from God. However, the key to the will’s nobility is its freedom. The intellect is forced by evidence when evidence is given; the will also is forced by its nature to seek the good, but it is free in choosing the means to its predetermined goal. Even if the intellect were prudent enough to show man the best means to his goal, he would not be forced to adopt them. ‘For although the intellect, like a servant with a lamp, points out the way, the will, like the master, makes the decisions and can go in any direction it pleases’ (Stegmüller, 722).

The superiority of the human will over the intellect further manifests itself in Middleton’s conception of the nature of theology. Certainly, the study of the scriptures attempts to clarify human knowledge of both creator and creatures; principally, however, it aims to stimulate man’s affections. Middleton believes that scripture prescribes laws, forbids, threatens, attracts man through promises, and shows him models of behaviour that he should follow or avoid. The study of scripture perfects the soul, moving it toward the good through fear and love. It is more of a practical science than a speculative endeavour. A theology that is speculative is one that models itself on the theology of the metaphysician or philosopher and tends to reduce Christian faith to reason.

The influence of Aquinas is more in evidence in Middleton’s theory of knowledge. Middleton rejects the illumination theory of Bonaventure and his more loyal followers. Man’s intellectual knowledge can be explained, he argues, by the abstraction performed by the agent intellect from the singulars experienced by the human senses. In short, human individuals know, and they know by means of their own intellectual efforts, not by some special divine illumination. Unlike those who endorse the illumination theory, Middleton contends that there is no direct knowledge of spiritual beings, including God. God is not the first thing known. He can be known only by starting with creatures and by reasoning about their origins or final end. Middleton died in Rheims on 30 March 1302 or 1303.” [Oxford DNB]

 

Goff M-424; BMC V 206.

 

(The ISTC shows two US copies…St Louis Univ., Pius XII Memorial Library () & YUL – i.e. both defective) add UCLA.

 

 

 

 

942G     Michæl (Michaelis Mediolanensis) Carcano ( 1427- 1484)
Sermonarium de poenitentia per adventum et per quadragesimam fratris Michaelis Mediolanensis.

Venice : Georgius Arrivabenus, 28 Sept. 1496                                     $9,000

Large Octavo a-z8 [et]8 [con]8 [rum]8 A-E8 F10.

This copy is bound in bind-tooled pigskin over wooden boards.Highly impressed with blind tool rool stamps of thistles Strawberries and various other flowers.

 

 

 

Carcano was one of the greatest Franciscan preachers of the 15th-century.

In this book there are 92 sermons for Advent and Lent, that amount to a systematic treatment of penitence. Carcano’s preaching was much admired by Bernardino da Feltre, who called him ‘alter sanctus apostolus Paulus et Christi Tuba’. He is known for his part in founding the montes pietatis banking system, with Bernardine of Feltre, and for the marked anti-Semitism of his attacks on usury. His sermons were later printed as Sermones quadragesimales fratris Michaelis de Mediolano de decem preceptis (1492). They include arguments in favour of religious art.(see Geraldine A. Johnson, Renaissance Art: A Very Short Introduction (2005), p. 37)

 

 

The wording of the colophon suggests that the archetype of this edition is that of Nicholas de Frankfordia,1487
Quadragesimale seu sermonarium de penitentia duplicatum per aduentu[m] videlicet & quadragesima[m] a venerabili viro fratre Michaele Mediolanensi ordinis fratrum minorum de obseruantia editum: qui tum sanctimonia vite, tu[m] ferue[n]tissima verbi dei p[re]dicatione a deo inumeris meruit corruscare miraculis felici numine explicitum est. Impressu[m] Venetijs optimaq[ue] castigatione eme[n]datu[m]: per Georgiu[m] de Arriuabenis Ma[n]tuanum. Anno d[omi]ni .M.cccclxxxxvj. die .xxviij. Septembris./

 

Goff C197; H 4507*;; Walsh 2140; BMC V 386  

(HEHL,Harvard, CL,LC,St Bonaventure Univ ,Univ. of Kentucky, Univ. of Minnesota)


 

904G     Theophilus Metcalfe       active 1649.

 

Manuscript copy of : Short-writing, the most easie, exact, lineal, and speedy method that hath ever been obtained, or taught. Composed by Theophilus Metcalfe, author and professor of the said art. The last edition. With a new table for shortning of words. Which book is able to make the practitioner perfect without a teacher. As many hundreds in this city and elsewhere, that are able to write sermons word for word, can from their own experience testifie.

England: after 1689 and before 1717                        $5,500

 

 

Octavo  6 x 4 inches. 55, [7]pp. + portrait of author. The last section of 7 pp. contains Directions for Book-keeping after the Italian Method.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This manuscript is bound in full modern calf.         This copybook manuscript is taken from the last edition published by Metcalfe. The entire work is done with remarkable calligraphy. This is a rare copy manuscript item with complementary addendum on Italian Book-Keeping.

Theophilus Metcalfe (bap. 1610 – c.1645) was an English stenographer. He invented a shorthand system that became popular, in particular, in New England, where it was used to record the Salem witch trials.[1]
Metcalfe was Baptised in Richmond, Yorkshire, and was the tenth child of Matthew Metcalfe and his wife Maria Taylor; Thomas Taylor (1576–1632) was his mother’s brother. A professional writer and teacher of shorthand, Metcalfe in 1645 resided in the London parish of St Katharine’s by the Tower. He died that year or early in 1646, when his widow assigned rights to reissue the book of his system.   Metcalfe published a stenographic system very much along the lines of Thomas Shelton’s Tachygraphy. The first edition of his work was entitled Radio-Stenography, or Short Writing and is supposed to have been published in 1635. A so-called sixth edition appeared at London in 1645. It was followed in 1649 by A Schoolmaster to Radio-Stenography, explaining all the Rules of the said Art, by way of Dialogue betwixt Master and Scholler, fitted to the weakest capacities that are desirous to learne this Art. Many editions of the system appeared under the title of Short Writing: the most easie, exact, lineall, and speedy Method that hath ever yet been obtained or taught by any in this Kingdome.
103G    Katherine          Philips   1631-1664

 

Letters from Orinda to Poliarchus

 

London: printed by W.B. for Bernard Lintott, 1705             $5,500

 

Octavo  6 3/4 X 3 3/4 inches       A-R8     First edition                   This copy is bound in original full calf stored in a custom morroco case.     This is a collection of 48 ( XLVIII) actual letters written by Philips to her patron Sir Charles Cotterell published several decades after her death, there is quit a bit of discussion of the literary culture of the seventh century in Britain. Including insite to Philips writing and reading habits. she often mentions books she is reading and plays which she is working on.

Philips was interested in the epistolary form, she founded the Society of Friendship in 1651 until 1661 was a semi-literary correspondence circle made up of mostly women, though men were also involved. The membership of this group, however, is somewhat questionable, because the authors took on pseudonyms from Classical literature (for example Katherine took on the name Orinda, in which the other members added on the accolade “Matchless.”) It is interesting to see the relations between the female members of the circle, especially Anne Owen, who is known in Philips’s poems as Lucasia. Half of Katherine’s poetry is dedicated to this woman. Anne and Katherine seem to have been lovers in an emotional, if not in a physical, sense for about ten years. Also significant as correspondents and lovers were Mary Awbrey (Rosania) and Elizabeth Boyle (Celimena). Elizabeth’s relationship with Katherine, however, was cut short by Philips’ death in 1664.

In “The Sapphic-Platonics of Katherine Philips, 1632-1664”   Harriette Andreadis

Source:Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 15, no. 1 (autumn 1989): 34-60.

Ms Andreadis, in this essay nicely gives a view of Orinda’s live (and Loves) in relation to her writing by using excerpts from her poems and these letters.

 

 

744G    John Langston 1641-1704

 

Lusus poeticus Latino-Anglicanus in usum scholarum. Or The more eminent sayings of the Latin poets collected; and for the service of youth in that ancient exercise, commonly called capping of verses, alphabetically digested; and for the greater benefit of young beginners i the Latin tongue, rendred into English. By John Langston teacher of a private grammar-school near Spittle-fields, London

London : printed for Henry Eversden at the Crown in Cornhil, near the Stocks-market, 1675.     $1,400 Octavo    5 3/4 X 3 3/4 Inches .This copy is bound in full 17th century calf, recently expertly rebacked.        First edition..     This alphabetically arranged compendium of eminent sayings by Latin poets for the service of youth in capping of verses is the work for which Langston is best remembered. He issued a lesser known grammatical work, “Poeseos Graecae Medulla”, in 1679. He published nothing of a religious nature, but issued the following for school purposes: ‘Lusus Poeticus Latino-Anglicanus,’ &c., 1675, (intended as an aid to capping verses).. LANGSTON, was an, independent divine, was born about 1641, according to Calamy. He went from the Worcester grammar school to Pembroke College, Oxford, where he was matriculated as a servitor in Michaelmas term 1655, and studied for some years. Wood does not mention his graduation. At the Restoration in 1660 (when, if Calamy is right, he had not completed his twentieth year) he held the sequestered perpetual curacy of Ashchurch, Gloucestershire, from which be was displaced . He went to London, and kept a private school near Spitalfields. On the coming into force of the Uniformity Act (24 Aug. 1662) he crossed over to Ireland as chaplain and tutor to Captain Blackwell, but returned to London and to school-keeping in 1663. Under the indulgence of 1672 he took out a license, in concert with William Hooke (d. March 1677, aged 77), formerly master of the Savoy, ‘to preach in Richard Loton’s house in Spittle-yard.’ Some time after 1679 he removed into Bedfordshire, where he ministered till, in 1686, he received an invitation from a newly separated congregation of independents, who had hired a building in Green Yard, St. Peter’s parish, Ipswich. Under his preaching a congregational church of seventeen persons was formed on 12 Oct. 1686. Oon 2 Nov. A ‘new chappell’ in Green Yard was opened on 26 June 1687, and the church membership was raised to 123 persons, many of them from neighbouring villages. Calamy says he was driven out of his house, was forced to remove to London, and was there accused of being a jesuit, whereupon he published a successful ‘Vindication.’ Langston died on 12 Jan. 1704, ‘aetat. 64.’ (DNB).
Wing L411; Arber’s Term cat. I 213.
881G      Gaius Plinius Secundus. (23-79); trans. Philemon Holland 1552-1637

The Historie Of the World: Commonly called, the Natvrall Historie of c. Plinivs Secvndvs. Translted into English by Philemon Holland Doctor of Physicke. The first [and second] Tome[s].           

 

London: Adam Islip, 1601              $15,000

 

Folio 11 ¾ x 8 ½ inches. [π]6, ¶4 a-b6 A8 B-3I6 3K4; A-3G6 3H4 3I-3O6 3P8 (lacking blank leaves π1 and 3P8)   First edition.(second Issue) Title pages to both volumes. This copy is bound full English calf skin expertly rebacked with gilt spine. A good copy with very minor faults: repaired clean tear with slight to the upper corners of 6 leaves of the second volume with only slight loss. Occasional rust spots, marginal tears, or marginal natural paper flaws. “All [of Pliny’s] works have been lost, except for the ‘Naturalis Historia.’ An atmosphere of excess surrounds the work. We know that Pliny claims never to have read a book so bad as not to have any value at all; and Pliny was constantly reading, taking notes, and indexing. The final result was a work in thirty-seven books, intended to inventory the total knowledge possessed by man. The indefatigable Pliny worked his way through impressive numbers: 34,000 notices, 2,000 volumes read, from 100 different authors, and 170 dossiers of notes and preparatory files (‘I have not knowingly omitted any piece of information, if I have found it anywhere.’).
“Pliny remained popular in the Renaissance. He was one of the most frequently consulted authorities on many subjects for Valla and many other humanists; there were at least forty-six editions of his work by 1550; and he was translated in Italian by Landino (published in 1501) and into English by Philemon Holland (1601). But gradually the intense philological work of humanist scholars on the one hand and the new discoveries of the scientific revolution on the other began to throw doubt upon Pliny’s reputation as an infallible authority, and in the end his reputation could not even be rescued by blaming the manuscripts. Yet as Pliny has lost his practical value as a reference handbook for the modern period, he had gained in historical importance for the information he transmits concerning anc indifference to theoretical rigor, his refusal to engage in systematic analysis and selection—that make him so precious for modern scholars interested in the ancient world. Unlike scholars who had greater intelligence, more self-confidence, or simply more time at their disposal, he preserves everything and passes it on to us.” (Conte)

“Along with the patriotic aims of an Englishman and a literary voyager Holland [the English translator of this volume of Pliny] has a theory of his art, though only hints of it are given in his prefaces. What he calls his ‘meane and popular stile’ might be taken as a generic representative of the best early seventeenth century writing. Holland’s unusual learning and care chastened his prose without robbing it of colloquial energy, concrete amplitude, and metaphorical color. His slight but frequent additions are made in the interest of complete and vivid clarity and emotional effect. And the whole tone of his work reflects his Elizabethan veneration for, and sense of contemporaneous intimacy with, the great men and events and the ethical wisdom of antiquity. Pliny’s philosophy gave him some qualms, but these were satisfactorily quieted. In his life and in his work Holland was a fine example of the Christian humanist.” (Bush)
One of the Most Important Elizabethan Science Books “The Natural History” of Pliny the Elder is more than a natural history: it is an encyclopaedia of all the knowledge of the ancient world. It comprises 37 books with mathematics and physics, geography and astronomy, medicine and zoology, anthropology and physiology, philosophy and history, agriculture and mineralogy, the arts and letters. The Historia soon became a standard book of reference; abstracts and abridgements appeared by the third century. Bede owned a copy, Alcuin sent the early books to Charlemagne, and Dicuil, the Irish geographer, quotes him in the ninth century. It was the basis of Isidore’s Etymologiae and such medieval encyclopedias as the Speculum Majus of Vincent of Beauvais and the Catholicon of Balbus. One of the earliest books to be printed at Venice, the centre from which so much of classical literature was first dispensed, it was later translated into English by Philemon Holland in 1601, and twice reprinted (a notable achievement for so vast a text). Over and over again it will be found that the source of some ancient piece of knowledge is Pliny. (PMM 5) Holland’s first book, the first complete rendering of Livy into English, was published in 1600 when he was nearly fifty. It was a work of great importance, presented in a grand folio volume of 1458 pages, and dedicated to the queen. The Livy was followed in the next year by an equally huge translation, of the elder Pliny: The Historie of the World, Commonly called, the Naturall Historie. This encyclopaedia of ancient knowledge about the natural world had already had a great indirect influence in England, as elsewhere in Europe, but had not been translated into English before, and would not be again for 250 years. (ODNB)

 

STC (2nd ed.), 20029.5; Pforzheimer, 496.

Only three complete copies of this massive opus have come to auction in the last thirty-five years

 

111J            Gaspar     Schott      1608-1666

`

  1. Gasparis Schotti Regis Curiani E Societate Jesu, Olim in Panormitano Siciliæ, nunc in Herbipolitano Franconiæ Gymnasio ejusdem Societatis Jesu Matheseos Professoris, Physica Curiosa, Sive Mirabilia Naturæ Et Artis Libris XII. Comprehensa, Quibus pleraq;, quæ de Angelis, Dæmonibus, Hominibus, Spectris, Energumenis, Monstris, Portentis, Animalibus, Meteoris, &c. rara, arcana, curiosaq; circumferuntur, ad Veritatis trutinam expenduntur, Variis ex Historia ac Philosophia petitis disquisitionibus excutiuntur, & innumeris exemplis illustrantur. Ad Serenissimum Ac Potentissimum Principem Carolum Ludovicum, S.R.I. Electorem, &c. Cum figuris æri incisis, & Privilegio.

                 

Herbipolus [i.e., Wurzburg]: Sumptibus Johannis Andreæ Endteri & Wolffgangi Jun. Hæredum. Excudebat Jobus Hertz Typographus Herbipol, 1662

 

$7,500

Two Quarto volumes 8 X 6 ½ inches vol.I a3, b-g4, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Zzz4, Aaaa-Zzzz4, Aaaaa-Ddddd4, Eeeee1.770 pages. vol. II: [ ]1, Eeeee2-4, 5F-5Z4, 6A-6Z4, 7a-7Z4, 8A-8Z4, 9A-9R4. 1583 pages.

 

First edition. Each volume is bound in matching contemporary vellum.

The first volume is dedicated to the wonders of the human race (monsters, etc.) but contains also one of the most complete treatises on demonology, including angels and ghosts. The second volume treats animals and atmospherical phenomena, richly illustrated with plates. There are of course numerous references to electricity, lightning and thunder. The text also deals extensively with meteors and other heavenly bodies, astrology, witchcraft, portents, and medicine; the section on animals is important for its information on South American mammals. An amazing encyclopedia of natural wonders, highly desired for its depictions of extraordinary figures and monstrous beings of both human and animals as well as fish, botanical or arboreal, and teratological phenomena. Caillet says this is the most complete treatise on demonology. ” PHYSICA CURIOSA is a huge, uncritical collections, mines of quaint information in which significant nuggets must be extracted from a great deal of dross. Like many of his time, Schott believed that the principles of nature and art are best revealed in their exceptions!

DeBacker-Sommervogel vol. VII col.909 no. 8;

 

 

 

902G     Thomas Shelton 1601-1650

 

Zeiglographia. or A New art of Short-writing never before published. More easie, exact, short, and speedie than any here to fore. Invented & composed By Thomas Shelton Author and teacher of ye said art Allowed by Authoritie.        

 

London: Printed by M. S. And are to be sold at the Author’s house in Bore’s Head Court by Cripple-Gate,1659.                                    $1,800

 

Octavo  5 ¾ x 3 ¾ inches. A2, B-D8, E4. check   The first edition, reported to have been printed in 1649, is not in Wing. Counting the unrecorded first, this would be the fifth edition.
“A re-issue of the 1654 edition with the same title page except for the alteration of the date to 1659.”                                  This copy is in a well-used state. The leaves are all slightly stained and dog-eared. Paper repairs have corrected many of the curling corners.It has been strengthened and bound in a fulll modern full calf in an aproprate style .              “Thomas Shelton [a] stenographer, descended from an old Norfolk family, was born in 1601. It is probable that he began life as a writing-master, and that he was teaching and studying shorthand before he was nineteen, for in 1649 he speaks of having had more than thirty years’ study and practice of the art. He produced his first book, called ‘Short Writing, the most exact method,’ in 1626, but no copy of this is known to exist. In 1630 he brought out the second edition enlarged, which was ‘sould at the professors house in Cheapside, over against Bowe church.’ He is styled ‘author and professor of the said art.’ Another edition was published in London in 1636. In February 1637-8 he published his most popular work, called ‘Tachygraphy. The most exact and compendious methode of Shorthand Swift Writing that hath ever yet beene published by any … Approved by both Universities.’ It was republished in 1642, and in the same year Shelton brought out a catechism or ‘Tutor to Tachygraphy,’ the author’s residence being then in Old Fish Street. A facsimile reprint of this booklet was published in 1889 by R. McCaskie. In 1645 he was teaching his ‘Tachygraphy’ at ‘the professors house, in the Poultry, near the Church.’ Editions of this work continued to be published down to 1710.
“Shelton, who was a zealous puritan, published in 1640, ‘A Centurie of Similies,’ and in the same year he was cited to appear before the court of high commission, but the offense with which he was charged is not specified. In 1649 his second system of stenography appeared under the title of ‘Zeiglographia, or a New Art of Short Writing never before published, more easie, exact, short, and speedie than heretofore. Invented and composed by Thomas Shelton, being his last thirty years study.’ It is remarkable that the On its appearance Shelton was still living in the Poultry, and there he probably died in or before October 1650.

The book continued to be published down to 1687. alphabet differs from the tachygraphy of 1641 in every respect excepting the letters q, r, v, and z. It is, in fact, an entirely original system.
“Many subsequent writers copied Shelton or published adaptations of his best known system of ‘tachygraphy,’ which was extensively used and highly popular. Old documents between 1640 and 1700, having shorthand signs on them, may often be deciphered by Shelton’s characters, though the practice of adding arbitrary signs sometimes proves a stumbling block. It was in this system that Pepys wrote his celebrated Diary, and not, as frequently stated, in the system erroneously attributed to Jeremiah Rich.
“An adaptation of the system to the Latin language appeared under the title of ‘Tachygraphia, sive exactissima et compendiosissima breviter scribendi methodus,’ London, 1660, 16mo. This adaptation was described and illustrated in Gaspar Schott’s ‘Technica Curiosa,’ published at Nuremberg in 1665. It was slightly modified by Charles Aloysius Ramsay, who published it in France as his own.

 

Wing S-3093,; Westby-Gibson, p. 201-202

Folger ,Huntington ,New York Public ,Washington University, Yale, ;
UK Copies: British Library, Chetham’s Library (Manchester), National Library of Scotland, Senate House Library (London)

 

893F        Sir John  Suckling                  1609-1642

Fragmenta Aurea. A Collection of all The Incomparable Peeces, Written By Sir John Svckling. And published by a Friend to perpetuate his memory. Printed by his owne Copies.           

London: Printed for Humphrey Moseley, and are to be sold at his shop, at the Signe of the Princes Armes in St Pauls Churchyard, 1646                  $6,500

Octavo    7 x 4.75 inches      A4, A-G8, H4, A-E8, F4, A-D8, A-C8, D4.   First edition..        It is bound in full contemporary sheepskin. Binding and contents are in very good shape. It is housed in a custom solander case. This is a very large copy, with many deckle edges throughout. The leaves are large and clean, with a crisp type impression. They have not been washed or pressed.        This copy has the words ‘Fragmenta Aurea’ with the ‘F’ and ‘A’ capitalized, the rest in small letters. Some copies of the first edition have ‘Fragmenta Aurea’ in all caps. This volume is divided into four parts, each with a separate title-page and pagination. The first contains a medley of poems and songs, a number of letters, and an essay on religion; the other three are plays, “Aglaura,” “The Goblins,” and “The Tragedy of Brennoralt.” At his best, Suckling writes with considerable charm; the song which begins, “Why so pale and wan fond lover” has a permanent place in the language of courtship. There is also a short “supplement” to Shakespeare”s Lucrece.
“Sir John Suckling, a Cavalier poet, Suckling’s short life was so crowded with activity that the amount of his literary output is remarkable. The son of an old Norfolk family, he seems to have taken his education none too seriously: he left Cambridge without graduating and spent a year at Gray’s Inn. His father died when Suckling was 18, and this gave him freedom to seek what adventures he pleased. He was a member of the expedition to the Ile de Re (1627), was in the Netherlands (1629-30), and served under Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1631-32).

He was knighted in 1630. “A staunch Royalist, Suckling took up arms on the king’s behalf in 1639 and 1640 and is believed to have been active in a plot to free the Earl of Strafford from the Tower. It was to the Parliamentary party’s advantage to make a ‘plot’ of the affair and Suckling fled to Paris, where he died in the following year—by his own hand according to John Aubrey.     “Suckling was the author of three plays—Aglaura, The Goblins, and Brennoralt—which have never been revived but which contain some good lyrics, notably ‘Why so pale and wan, fond lover?’ His best work, indeed, is in the form of short pieces, occasional verses and songs, and in the delightful ‘A Ballad upon a Wedding.’ His expression is direct and robust, reflecting to some degree his lively, pleasure-loving, and tragically short life. His first published collection was A session of the Poets (1637). (quoted from Stapleton’s Cambridge Guide to English Literature)

Wing S-6126; Pforzheimer 996; Hayward 84. ;Greg, III, 1130- 1. ; Studies in Bibliography,L. A. Beaurline and T. Clayton, “Notes on Early Editions of Fragmenta Aurea,” Studies in Bibliography 23 (1970), pp. 165-170; Grolier’s Wither to Prior, # 827 ;CBEL I, 1213. Folger. Printed books, 25:575.
 

“Truth consists of an adequation between the intellect and a thing”

930G Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274. editor Theodoricus de Susteren.

Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris s[an]cti Thome Aquinatis. que olim … me[n]dis scatebat. Nouissime iam per … magistru[m] nostru[m] Theodericum de Susteren co[n]uentus Coloniens[is] fratru[m] predicatoru[m] regentem … laboriose reuisa … feliciter incipit.

 

Cologne : Heinrich Quentell, 7 Mar. 1499                                      $12,500

 

Folio 10 1/2 X 8 inches 2°: A-Z6,Aa-Gg6; {signature Dd signed De}   Third Edition, the final 15th century edition.

Bound in blind-tooled calf including some blind ’title’ on the front board, full calf over wooden boards. Clasps missing, but the catch-plates are present. Light foxing, with some red and green ink dots along edges. Front pastedown shows slight signs of water damage. Occasional small red stains on text block (e.g. E3v and Q5), likely from the books’ rubricator, but otherwise a clean text block.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris sancti Thome Aquinatis…”First written around 1256, Thomas Aquinas’ “Disputed Questions on Truth” defends “the view that truth consists of an adequation between the intellect and a thing. Aquinas develops a notion of truth of being (“ontological truth”) along with truth of the intellect (what might be called “logical truth”)” (Wippel, 295)

Subjects: Truth; God’s Knowledge; Ideas; The Divine Word; Providence; Predestination; The Book of Life; The Knowledge of Angels; Communication of Angelic Knowledge; The Mind; The Teacher; Prophecy; Rapture; Faith; Higher and Lower Reason; Synderesis; Conscience; The Knowledge of the First Man in the State of Innocence; Knowledge of the Soul After Death; The Knowledge of Christ; Good; The Tendency to Good and the Will; God’s Will; Free Choice; Sensuality; The Passions of the Soul; Grace; The Justification of Sinners; and The Grace of Christ. For each topic, Aquinas reviews the topic’s Difficulties, and then responses with ‘To the Contrary’ and ‘Reply’. Aquinas concludes each topic with an “Answers to Difficulties” section, demonstrating his typical insightful worldview and readable literary style.

“Everything is a being essentially. But a creature is good not essentially but by participation. Good, therefore, really adds something to being (“Good” [U1v])

translation from   http://dhspriory.org/thomas/QDdeVer21.htm).

Goff T181; (Columbia University, Union Theological Seminary;HEHL; LC ;Massachusetts Historical Society;YUL); BMC I, 289/90; Only one Copy in The British Isles (BL)

 

930G Aquinas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

756G    Diodorus Siculus         fl. 44 B.C.

 

Bibliothecae historicae libri VI   [a Poggio Florentino in latinum traductus]              

 

[Paris] : [Denis Roce] Venundantur in vico sancti Iacobi sub signo diui Martini. (1505-08)
Approximate date of publication from Moreau, B. Inventaire chronologique des éditions parisiennes v. 1, p. 274

 

$1,900

 

Octavo 7 X 5 inches a-v in alternate 8’s and 4’s, x 6y4;a-v8/4 x6 y4

 

Diodorus Siculus is the author of the ‘Bibliotheke’ or ‘Library,’ a universal history from mythological times to 60 B.C. Only fifteen of the original forty books survive fully (books one through five; eleven through twenty); the others are preserved in fragments.

 

Diodorus concentrates on Greece and his homeland of Sicily, until the First Punic War, when his sources for Rome become fuller. The ‘Bibliotheke’ is the most extensively preserved history by a Greek author from antiquity. For the period from the accession of Philip II of Macedon to the battle of Ipsus, when the text becomes fragmentary, it is fundamental; and it is the essential source for classical Sicilian history and the Sicilian slave rebellion of the second century B.C. For many individual events throughout Graeco-Roman history, the ‘Bibliotheke’ also sheds important light. Diodorus probably visited Egypt circa 60-56 B.C., where he began researching his history. By 56, he may have settled in Rome, completing the ‘Bibliotheke’ there around 30. He read Latin and had access to written materials in Rome. Books one through six include the geography and ethnography of the inhabited world, and its mythology and paradoxology prior to the Trojan war. Of special significance are the description of Egypt in book one; the discussion of India in book two; passages from the works of Agatharchides in book three; and the highly fragmentary Euhemeran material in book six.” (OCD)

Goff D214; Moreau I 274: 63; Renouard, Imprimeurs III 128; Pell 4264; BMC(Fr) p.135

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fascicule XI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

617-678-4515

 

46 Hobbs Road Princeton Ma.

01541

 

 

 

 

Physica Curiosa 1662 Gaspar Schott

563G Gaspar Schott 1608-1666

{Parts One and Two in two bindings } (Only three complete copies of this massive opus have come to auction in the last thirty-five years)

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P. Gasparis Schotti Regis Curiani E Societate Jesu, Olim in Panormitano Siciliæ, nunc in Herbipolitano Franconiæ Gymnasio ejusdem Societatis Jesu Matheseos Professoris, Physica Curiosa, Sive Mirabilia Naturæ Et Artis Libris XII. Comprehensa, Quibus pleraq;, quæ de Angelis, Dæmonibus, Hominibus, Spectris, Energumenis, Monstris, Portentis, Animalibus, Meteoris, &c. rara, arcana, curiosaq; circumferuntur, ad Veritatis trutinam expenduntur, Variis ex Historia ac Philosophia petitis disquisitionibus excutiuntur, & innumeris exemplis illustrantur. Ad Serenissimum Ac Potentissimum Principem Carolum Ludovicum, S.R.I. Electorem, &c. Cum figuris æri incisis, & Privilegio.

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Herbipolus [i.e., Wurzburg]: Sumptibus Johannis Andreæ Endteri & Wolffgangi Jun. Hæredum. Excudebat Jobus Hertz Typographus Herbipol, 1662                   $8,500

 

DSC_0001DSC_0246Two Quarto  volumes. 203 x 163 mm{[28] l., 770 pages ., [1] l., pages. 771 – 1583, vol.I.   [a]-g4 A-5D4 5E1                              vol. II: [ ]1, Eeeee2-4, 5F-5Z4, 6A-6Z4, 7a-7Z4, 8A-8Z4, 9A-9R4. 1583 pages. This volume contains plates I to LVII two of which are folding ( 56 of 57 plates (lacking plate VI) Plate X is trimed and mounted with no loss. See image below.

Physicæ curiosæ pars I.

: I. Mirabilia angelorum ac dæmonum.                                     II. Mirabilia spectrorum.                          III. Mirabilia hominum.                             IV. Mirabilia energumenorum.                   V. Mirabilia monstrorum.                          VI. Mirabilia portentorum.

   

 

 

Physicæ curiosæ pars II.:

VII. Mirabilia animalium in genere.                                                                                        VIII. Mirabilia animalium terrestrium.                                                                                              IX. Mirabilia animalium volatilium.                                                                                                X. Mirabilia animalium aquatilium.                                                                                                XI. Mirabilia meteorum.                                                                                                                   XII. Mirabilia miscellanea.

First edition. Both volumes are bound in contemporary vellum.

Physica Curiosa is an encyclopedia of the natural sciences of the age. In keeping with Schott’s character, it compiles many of the illustrations and literature previously published. As with many natural history publications of the era, it depicted fantastical creatures alongside real ones. Divided into twelve books, the first six books are devotedDSC_0238
to “miraculous” subjects, including Demons and Angels, spectres, demonic possessions, human and beastly monsters, and portents. Part I is mainly a treatise on demonology, huge encyclopedia of wonder and the occult.Chapters are devoted to angels and demons and their relationships with wizards, ghosts,vampires, incubi and succubi, In great detail, it is followed by depictions of Physical anomalies ( with many interesting images

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DSC_0251DSC_0249DSC_0248DSC_0247The last six books deal with the “marvels” of nature – real creatures from exotic locales, such as elephants and rhinos.dsc_0098

 

Descriptions of remarkable animals, including the American sloth, armadillo, & anteater, the first with the musical notes illustrating its strange song (which also fascinated Harsdörffer); one folding plate illustrates Diego de Gozon killing the dragon of Rhodes, 1345, the last two show the famous linden trees & antiquities of Neustadt am KocherPhysica Curiosa’s target audience was other scholars, educators, and the rich nobility of the time, as this was the demographic that could afford the publication.

Many other creatures presented by Schott exemplify the practice of misrepresenting real creatures, or imposing religious elements on natural entities. dsc_0104

“Gaspar Schott, German physicist, born 5 February, 1608, at Konigshofen; died 12 or 22 May, 1666, at Augsburg. He entered the Society of Jesus 20 October, 1627, and on account dsc_0118of the disturbed political condition of Germany was sent to Sicily to complete his studies. While there he taught moral theology and mathematics in the college of his order at Palermo. He also studied for a time at Rome under the well known Athanasius Kircher. He finally returned to his native land after an absence of some thirty years, and spent the dsc_0096remained of his life at Augsburg engaged in the teaching of science and in literary work. Both as professor and as author he did much to awaken an interest in scientific studies in Germany. He was a laborious student and was considered on of the most learned men of his time, while his simple life and deep piety made him an object of veneration to the Protestants as well as to the Catholics of Augsburg. Schott also carried on an extensive correspondence with the leading scientific men of his time, notably with Otto von Guericke, the inventor of the air-pump, of whom he was an ardent admirer. He was the author of a number of works on mathematics, physics, and magic. They are a mine of curious facts and observations and were formerly much read.

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He wrote many interesting works: the ‘Magia Universalis Naturae et Artis,’ 4 vols., Wurzburg, 1657-1659, which contains a collection of mathematical problems and large number of physical experiments, notably in optics and acoustics. His ‘Mechanicahydraulica-pneumatica’ (Wurzburg, 1657) contains the first description of von Guericke’s air pump. He also published ‘Pantometricum Kircherianum’ (Wurzburg, 1660); ‘Physica curiosa’ (Wurzburg, 1662), a supplement to the ‘Magia universalis;’ ‘Anatomia physico-hydrostatica fontium et fluminum’ (Wurzburg, 1663), and a ‘Cursus mathematicus’ which passed through several editions. He also edited the ‘Itinerarium exacticum’ of Kircher and the ‘Amussis Ferdinandea’ of Curtz.” (Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. XIII, page 589)

DeBacker-Sommervogel vol. VII col.909 no. 8;

Physica Curiosadsc_0097

 

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the Shaman’s Ascent to the Sky

The first evening is devoted to preparation for the rite. The kam (shaman), having chosen a spot in a meadow, erects a new yurt there, setting inside it a young birch stripped of its lower branches and with nine steps (tapty) notched into its trunk. The higher foliage of the birch, with a flag at […]

via The Great Myths #16: A Siberian Horse Sacrifice, and the Shaman’s Ascent to the Sky (Altaic) — word and silence

Bibliothecae historicae libri VI, Diodorus Siculus

 

756G

756G Diodorus Siculus fl. 44 B.C.               Bibliothecae historicae libri VI   [a Poggio Florentino in latinum traductus]

[Paris] : [Denis Roce] Venundantur in vico sancti Iacobi sub signo Ensis. (1505-08)                                               $1.900

Approximate date of publication from Moreau, B. Inventaire chronologique des éditions parisiennes v. 1, p. 274 Printer’s mark of Jehan Barbier on title page.

 

Octavo inches alternate 8’s and 4’s   inches , a-v8·4 x6 y4            This copy is bound in full 18th century calf rebacked gilt spine.DSC_0107

Diodorus Siculus is the author of the ‘Bibliotheke’ or ‘Library,’ a universal history from mythological times to 60 B.C. Only fifteen of the original forty books survive fully (books one through five; eleven through twenty); the others are preserved in fragments.

ON December 6th, 2008 by Roger Pearse
Yesterday I mentioned N. G. Wilson’s statement that a complete copy of Diodorus Siculus existed in 1453. This led me to look again at his two books on how ancient Greek literature came to the west. These excellent volumes are Scholars of Byzantium, which discusses the fate of that literature in the Eastern Roman Empire from 400-1453; and From Byzantium to Italy, which talks about how it then got to Italy.
The statement about Diodorus is on the last page of text of the latter, p. 162, and note 4 on it, which tells us that Constantine Lascaris saw that volume in the imperial palace, PG 161:198. This is the last volume of the PG, in fact; containing material by Bessarion, George Trapezuntinus, Constantine Lascaris, Theodore of Gaza, and Andronicus Callistus.
The work by Constantine Lascaris is De scriptoribus Graecis Patria Siculis – Greek writers from Sicily – is in Latin, addressed to a renaissance ruler of Sicily, and commences on col. 195. Various writers are listed. I transcribe the whole entry on Diodorus from an unfortunately indistinct image:
9. Diodorus Siculus Argyrensis, historicus praestantissimus, qui sub Tiberio militavit. Historiam composuit libris quadraginta, quam Bibliothecam vocavit: de antiquitate Aegyptiorum, de Sicilia et aliis insulis, de bello Trojano, de gestis Alexandri et Romanorum usque ad suam artatem (?), quorum sex a Poggio Florentino traducti circumferuntur. Reliqui vix inventiuntur. Ego autem omnes ejus libros vidi in bibliotheca imperatoris C[onstantino]politani.
That’s plain enough:
9. Diodorus Siculus, of Argyra, a preeminent historian, who lived in the time of Tiberius. He composed a History in 40 books, which he called The Library: on the antiquities of the Egyptians, on Sicily and the other islands, on the Trojan war, the deeds of Alexander and the Romans, down to his own times, of which six translated by Poggio the Florentine are going around. The rest are hard to find. But I myself have seen all of his books in the imperial library in Constantinople.
We can take Lascaris at his word, I think. Constantine Lascaris was a nobleman of the empire who fled the city with others in 1454 and went to Italy. After staying in Milan and Rome he received an invitation from Ferdinand I to go to Naples, and eventually fixed himself in Messina in Sicily, where he taught Greek language and literature. His library ended up in the Escorial in Spain.

What we do have of Diodorus concentrates on Greece and his homeland of Sicily, until the First Punic War, when his sources for Rome become fuller. The ‘Bibliotheke’ is the most extensively preserved history by a Greek author from antiquity. For the period from the accession of Philip II of Macedon to the battle of Ipsus, when the text becomes fragmentary, it is fundamental; and it is the essential source for classical Sicilian history and the Sicilian slave rebellion of the second century B.C. For many individual events throughout Graeco-Roman history, the ‘Bibliotheke’ also sheds important light. Diodorus probably visited Egypt circa 60-56 B.C., where he began researching his history. By 56, he may have settled in Rome, completing the ‘Bibliotheke’ there around 30. He read Latin and had access to written materials in Rome. Books one through six include the geography and ethnography of the inhabited world, and its mythology and paradoxology prior to the Trojan war. Of special significance are the description of Egypt in book one; the discussion of India in book two; passages from the works of Agatharchides in book three; and the highly fragmentary Euhemeran material in book six.” (OCD)

art112

 

Realistically speaking, he was not the greatest of historians. His work often combined fact and fancy in a confusing manner. Even so, Diodorus Siculus (or Diodoros Siculos to his Greek contemporaries), left a wealth of writings which have added to our knowledge of Sicily and the eastern Mediterranean during the “Roman” age. His work has been characterised as uncritical but we are reasonably certain of some details. He was born during the first century BC at Agyrium, in central-eastern Sicily, of a Greek family, and spent some time in Rome, Greece and Egypt, visiting the last around 60 BC. The most recent historical event mentioned in his works occurs in 21 BC. His Bibliotheca Historica (“Historical Library”) includes numerous surviving texts, some fairly reliable –particularly those “borrowed” from authors such as Apollodorus and Timaeus. The problem, as we have implied, is that Diodorus does not always differentiate historical events from historical legend, even though some historians of his era managed to do so. It’s one thing to repeat that the mythical hero Heracles (Hercules) visited Agyrium (Agyrium was east of Enna toward Mount Etna), but quite another to attribute actual events to people who could not possibly have been present to participate in them.DSC_0108

In considering his monumental work, the first portion deals with history until the destruction of Troy, the second segment with the death of Alexander, and the third, turning an eye westward, with the period leading up to Julius Caesar’s conquest of Gaul. Of the forty books, volumes 1 through 5 exist, and volumes 11 through 20 (inclusive) have also been preserved. Only those texts recounting events during the author’s own lifetime may be said to be truly original. It is thought that Hieronymus of Cardia and, for earlier periods, Ephorus, were the sources of his knowledge of Greek history.

Certain passages of Diodorus’ “missing” books are cited by other authors, such as Photius. That Diodorus’ work itself has preserved the earlier writings of several historians is important. His “mythic” treatment of Egyptian, Ethiopian, Assyrian and Persian history is relevant to studies of these civilizations. However, he did not necessarily travel to every place he wrote about. His description of Mesopotamia’s legendary Babylonian rulers is probably based on those of Ctesias.

 

It seems tat many book sellers were marketing this very printing book in paris about the same time, with different devices, J. Barbier seems to have taken Roce’s device about 1508.

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Goff D215? ; Moreau I 274: 63; Renouard, Imprimeurs III 128 and I, 1508, 63; Renouard, 1005 (mark of D. Roce) Pell 4264; BMC(Fr) p.135

 

The First English Essayist Cornwallyes NOT Bacon

815F      Sir William Cornwallis d. 1631

Essayes, by Sr William Cornwallyes, the younger, knight. Newlie corrected.

London: Printed by Thomas Harper for I. M., 1632           $3,500

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Octavo  5 ½ 5 x 3 ½. [A3] missing A1 blank, B-Z8, Aa-Oo8. This collation is consistent with Pforzheimer catalogue.  Engraved title page. by T. Cecill containing two portraits supposed to represent Sir William and his father, Sir Charles Cornwallis.

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Third edition of the “Essayes”, Parts I and II; second edition of the “Discourses.”  DSC_0242                               This is a nice copy bound in full contemporary calf rebacked. The spine has gilt label
Overall, the leaves are in excellent condition, this copy has ample margins, not often found in this work.

 

This book is consists of three seperate works each with a seperate title page but published together. The first “Essayes” is followed by “ Essayes the Second Part” and “Discourses upon Seneca the Tragedian”.
While some state that Cornwallis “was a friend of Ben Jonson, and employed him to write ‘Penates, or a Private Entertainment for the King and Queen,’ on their visit to his house at Highgate on Mayday, 1604. This is not the author of the essays rather it is his Uncle.

His essays are in imitation of Montaigne, but lack the sprightliness of the French author. Yet they are true essays and therefor differ from Bacon, whose ‘Essays” are a collection of aphorisms. They cover such topics as ambition, resolution, youth, essays and books, and humility. DSC_0239 Cornwallis spent his life in studious retirement. The “Essayes” is also a work of considerable Shakespearean interest – it is “so rare that a writer in ‘Shakespeare’s Centurie of Prayse,’ could not find a copy”. This work is also referred to at length by Hunter in his “New Illustrations” of the Tempest, who argues that as Florio’s translation of Montaigne had undoubtedly been seen by Cornwallis before 1600, so too, it was probably seen and used by Shakespeare in his composition of the Tempest (see Hunter, Joseph “New Illustrations of the life, studies, and writings of Shakespeare” London: J.B. Nichols and son 1845).

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STC 5781; Arber IV, 92; Huntington C.L., 90; Grolier Club W-P I, 182; Hoe Catalogue I (1903) 322. Hazlitt I, 101.

See also : Encyclopedia of the Essay edited by Tracy Chevalier  http://www.am41SU533HULL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_azon.com/Encyclopedia-Essay-Tracy-Chevalier/dp/1884964303/ref=sr_1_sc_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1454524110&sr=8-1-spell&keywords=encycloedia+of+the+essay

 

Franciscans

DSC_0285922G         Bernardinus     deBusti, (  (1450-1513)

Rosarium sermonum predicabilium per quadragesima[m] & totu[m] anni circulum: editum per vite venerabilis religiosum fratre[s] Bernardinu[m] de Busti ordinis sancti Francisci de obseruantia predicatore[m] doctissimu[m]. Pars prima Rosariu[m] (additions by Illuminatus Novariensis and Samuel Cassinensis)

Venice : Georgius Arrivabenus, 1498 & 1498    $Sold

Octavo   a-z8, [&]8, [con]8, [rum]8, aa-ff8, gg4 (gg4 is blank) (complete).                      Some rubricating and a few annotations. In two parts, dated: I) 31 May 1498; II) 16 Aug. 1498
s-l1600-4Incipit Rosarium sermonum predicabilium per quadragesima[m] & totu[m] anni circulum: editum per vite venerabilis religiosum fratre[s] Bernardinu[m] de Busti ordinis sancti Francisci de obseruantia predicatore[m] doctissimu[m].

s-l1600-3This copy is bound in its original binding of full blind stamped pigskin over wooden s-l1600-6boards with both clasps        His 16th sermon is important for the history of witchcraft.  Unlike the Dominican demonologists, de Busti treated witchcraft (for instance in his 16th sermon) as a form of idolatry and superstition, and as such as a violation of the first commandment, a kind of improper worship. While being harmful magic it was not seen as a stereotypical diabolical conspiracy. However Busti described a woman who practiced magic and renounced the catholic faith as ‘stria’, a species of female witches that had the credit of getting to the insides of men, and thus devouring them.  Sermon 16 of Bernardino Busti’s Rosarium Sermonum,  proves a rich source for the developing concept of witchcraft at the close of the fifteenth century.  The sermon elaborates on ways in which it is possible to sin against the proscription of idolatry in the first commandment.  Busti was particularly worried about three elements of idolatry common to depictions of witches: demonic involvement, ritualistic behaviors, and negation of the principles of Christianity.  By describing maleficae et maladictae feminae who renounced the Catholic faith, he contributed to ratification of the stereotype of the striga in the early modern period.

Benardino Busti and other Franciscan writers arranged the superstitious practices they wrote to oppose.  One of these was outright idolatry. Others included forms of divination, observance of omens, interpretation of dreams, use of amulets, and more elite practices such as necromancy and the ars notoria.  Also included among superstitious practices was maleficium, which could be translated as witchcraft.  Conti  (see below) argues, however, that Busti and other Franciscan writers treated maleficium still mainly as simple harmful magic, not as a practice inevitably linked to news, more terrible stereotypes of diabolical, conspiratorial witchcraft emerging in the fifteenth century. They addressed those notions too, however, and it is to witchcraft address nocturnal travel to a witches’ sabbath, the ludus Dianae, or when they describe witches’ supposed belief in their own ability to transform (or be transformed by demons) into cats.

Grounded firmly in the tradition of the canon Episcopi, observant Franciscans regarded both of these as entirely illusory–merely the deception of demons worked on the feeble minds of foolish women, and sometimes men. They were by no means unaware of other developing theories of witchcraft, however. They incorporated the notion of witches’ traveling to the ludus Dianae on rods anointed with hideous unguents, whereas the canon Episcopi refers only to women riding on animals in the train of the supposed goddess Diana, actually a demon in disguise.  Here they reflected a stereotype developing since the early fifteenth century in regions around the western Alps….they began in some ways to conflate the ludus Dianae tradition with the separate ludus bariloti, that envisioned malefactors magically entering locked houses, to feast, drink from wine barrels, and commit other indecent revelries. This ludus, Franciscan authorities were willing to posit, might reflect real, physical action, but they never allowed that to affect their judgment that travel with Diana was always completely illusory.

see. F. Conti, Witchcraft, Superstition, and Observant Franciscan Preachers
Pastoral Approach and Intellectual Debate in Renaissance Milan 2015

ch “Preachers and Confessors against “Superstitions”: Bernardino Busti and Sermon 16 of His Rosarium Sermonum” 2011
Goff B1336;
Goff B1336; H 4163*;BM 15th cent.,; V, p. 387 (IA. 22572)

 

 

Carcano

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Sermonarium de poenitentia per adventum et per quadragesimam fratris Michaelis Mediolanensis.  Venice : Georgius Arrivabenus, 28 Sept. 1496    $9,000

DSC_0099  a-z8 [et]8 [con]8 [rum]8 A-E8 F10.
Bound in early blind-tooled pigskin over wooden boards, with one engraved brass clasp on alum-tawed skin strap secured at fore-edge of lower board, two engraved brass catches at fore-edge of upper board.

DSC_0102DSC_0103    One of the great Franciscan preachers of the 15th-century, these are 92 sermons for Advent and Lent, that amount to a systematic treatment of penitence. Michael’s preaching was much admired by Bernardino da Feltre, who called him ‘alter sanctus apostolus Paulus et Christi Tuba’.

Quadragesimale seu sermonarium de penitentia duplicatum per aduentu[m] videlicet & quadragesima[m] a venerabili viro fratre Michaele Mediolanensi ordinis fratrum minorum de obseruantia editum: qui tum sanctimonia vite, tu[m] ferue[n]tissima verbi dei p[re]dicatione a deo inumeris meruit corruscare miraculis felici numine explicitum est. Impressu[m] Venetijs optimaq[ue] castigatione eme[n]datu[m]: per Georgiu[m] de Arriuabenis Ma[n]tuanum. Anno d[omi]ni .M.cccclxxxxvj. die .xxviij. Septembris./

 

 

ReferencesGoff C197; H 4507*; Parguez 301; Richard 160; Polain(B) 1009; IBE 1484; IGI 2521; IBP 1435; Kotvan 353; Sajó-Soltész 929; Gspan-Badali  172; Madsen 1044; Martín Abad C-54; Günt(L) 3107; Voull(Trier) 2066; Voull(B) 4127,5; Hubay(Augsburg) 529; Sack(Freiburg) 937; Hummel-Wilhelmi 434; Kind(Göttingen) 2065; Borm 701; Döring-Fuchs C-56; Walsh 2140; Oates 1936; Pr 4932; BMC V 386; BSB-Ink C-146; GW 6132  (HEHL
HarvCL
LC
Library of Congress,
St Bonaventure Univ., Franciscan Institute
Univ. of Kentucky,
Univ. of Minnesota

 

946G  formerly attributed to Bonaventura  Nicolaus de Hanapis (1225-1291)

           Exempla Sacrae Scriptae ex utroque Testamento collecta. (Biblia pauperum;) Virtutum vitiorumque exempla

 

Imp[re]ssioniq[ue] Venetijs deditu[m] : Impe[n]sis Iohannis de Colonia socijq[ue] ei[us] Ioha[n]nis Manthen de Gherretzem,  before 1477 (The Paris BN copy was bought at Avignon on 14 August 1477)    $7500         Folio          π2 a-m8 n4./   70 ff n. ch. sign. a-e8, f6, g;a-b8, c6, d8 ; in-4, 219 mm   Title from incipit of Breviloquium (leaf [1st]a2r)./ Includes “Biblia Pauperum” attributed to St. Bonaventure, which is a shortened version of a text by Nicolas de Hannapes, Virtutum vitiorumque exempla, more generally called “Exempla sacrae Scripturae”. Cf. Gutenberg Jahrbuch 1936, p. 61-62./ Each work has separate signatures./ Imprint from colophon (leaf [2nd]d8r)./ Signatures: a-e8, f6, g8, [2nd]a-[2nd]b8, [2nd]c6, [2nd]d8./ {Title from the opening line of the Prologus, leaf a2./ The Biblia pauperum (leaves 2a1-2d8) is now usually attributed to Nicolas de Hannapes. Cf. BM 15th cent., GW./ Imprint from colophon./ Signatures: a-c8 f6 g8 2a-2b8 2c6 2d8./ }                      Back carton, brown calf case of the sec. XVIII with elegant decoration imprinted in gold, with title and date of the work on the front plate. Ancient note of possession to a final glance.      This is the second part only this tract   consists of one of several versions of a text going back to the Virtutum vitiorumque exempla of Nicolaus Hanapus, and generally entitled Exempla sacrae scripturae. The title ‘Biblia pauperum’ and the ascription to St. Bonaventure are both incorrect”.  (V. Scholderer in Gb Jb 1936 pp.61-62, reprinted in Fifty Essays (Amsterdam, 1966) pp.140-41: Version E)
Rather than a ‘Pauper’s bible’ this book is in actuality a “religious exempla” (cautionary stories used to aid preaching)   The book presents thousands of examples drawn exclusively from the Bible that enable preachers to illustrate their teaching on virtues and vices and to help the faithful to behave Christianly in public and private life, The moment of death. It was printed for the first time in Venice in 1477 and attributed to St. Bonaventure . It is frequently reissued under various titles. For example, Summa virtutum and viciorum (Cologne 1544, and Paris 1548), Virtutum vitiorumque exempla ex universo divinae scripture promptuario desumta , Flores biblici , Exempla biblica (Augsburg, 1726), or simply as the ‘Bible of the Poor’ , Probably because these narratives were easily understood, and because the publishers had arranged them in alphabetical order               Goff B858; BMC XII 16; Walsh 1701
(US copies :Folger Shakespeare Library
HEHL (var)
HarvCL
Indiana Univ. (Biblia pauperum only)
LC
Southern Methodist Univ., Bridwell Library
The Newberry Library
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library (-)
Vassar College

 

957G         Richard     Mediavilla [Middleton],      d. 1302/3 Commentum super quartem Sententarium.DSC_0285
.  Venice: Christophorus Arnoldus, [circa 1476-7]         $2,3000         Folio        Second edition

This copy is Rubricated throughout with nicely complicated red initals, It is is mound in an age apropraite binding of full calf over wooden boards wit clasps and catches with quite impressve end bands.

“Middleton, Richard of [Richard de Mediavilla] (d. 1302/3), Franciscan friar, theologian, and philosopher, was born about the middle of the thirteenth century in either England or France. The issue of his country of origin has given rise to much discussion, and remains unresolved, but it is at least possible that he was a member of the Northumberland family of Menevill or Meynil, whose name was Latinized as Mediavilla. It is certain, however, that he studied at Paris, where he formed part of the so-called neo-Augustinian movement, defending the philosophy and theology of Augustine against the inroads of Aristotelianism, during the years 1276–87. He probably studied under William of Ware and Matteo d’Acquasparta, usually viewed as principal figures in this movement. However, a number of his theses step outside the ordinary confines of this tradition flowing from Bonaventure, for he often sides with the Aristotelian movement as manifested in the works of Thomas Aquinas, especially when dealing with the nature of knowledge.DSC_0126

Middleton’s Commentary on Peter Lombard’s ‘Sentences’ was probably begun in 1281 and was completed in 1284, when he became regent master of the Franciscan school in Paris, a post he held until 1287. The chief characteristic of his Commentary is its sober assessment of many of the positions of Thomas Aquinas. However, the tone of his eighty Quodlibet Questions, produced during his regency, is much more critical and on many issues shows a strong anti-Thomist reaction. In this they have more in common with his disputed questions, which were argued after the condemnations of 1277 but before his Sentences commentary. The latter commentary has been edited along with his Quodlibet Questions. A small number of his disputed questions have also been edited, as have six of his sermons.

Middleton’s link to the neo-Augustinian movement is seen especially in his treatment of the will, even though he does not entirely follow his teachers, Ware and Acquasparta. For Middleton the will is much more noble than the intellect, since it is much more noble to love God than to understand him. Understanding without the corresponding love separates man from God. However, the key to the will’s nobility is its freedom. The intellect is forced by evidence when evidence is given; the will also is forced by its nature to seek the good, but it is free in choosing the means to its predetermined goal. Even if the intellect were prudent enough to show man the best means to his goal, he would not be forced to adopt them. ‘For although the intellect, like a servant with a lamp, points out the way, the will, like the master, makes the decisions and can go in any direction it pleases’ (Stegmüller, 722).

DSC_0286DSC_0125

The superiority of the human will over the intellect further manifests itself in Middleton’s conception of the nature of theology. Certainly, the study of the scriptures attempts to clarify human knowledge of both creator and creatures; principally, however, it aims to stimulate man’s affections. Middleton believes that scripture prescribes laws, forbids, threatens, attracts man through promises, and shows him models of behaviour that he should follow or avoid. The study of scripture perfects the soul, moving it toward the good through fear and love. It is more of a practical science than a speculative endeavour. A theology that is speculative is one that models itself on the theology of the metaphysician or philosopher and tends to reduce Christian faith to reason.

The influence of Aquinas is more in evidence in Middleton’s theory of knowledge. Middleton rejects the illumination theory of Bonaventure and his more loyal followers. Man’s intellectual knowledge can be explained, he argues, by the abstraction performed by the agent intellect from the singulars experienced by the human senses. In short, human individuals know, and they know by means of their own intellectual efforts, not by some special divine illumination. Unlike those who endorse the illumination theory, Middleton contends that there is no direct knowledge of spiritual beings, including God. God is not the first thing known. He can be known only by starting with creatures and by reasoning about their origins or final end. Middleton died in Rheims on 30 March 1302 or 1303.” [Oxford DNB]
Goff M-424;BMC V 206.

 

David Pearson workshop on ‘Provenance in Books’

The Value of Historic Bookbindings: A St Andrews Perspective, which highlighted the uniqueness of the bindings of early printed books and how they can contribute to our knowledge of not just the history of a specific book, but also the history of how previous owners or readers encountered texts as they were passed through from hand to hand.

Echoes from the Vault

On 21-22 November, Special Collections welcomed David Pearson, former Director of Culture, Heritage & Libraries for the City of London Corporation and author of Provenance Research in Book History (1994),English Bookbinding Styles (2005) and Books as History (2008), for a workshop on provenance in printed books. Over the course of two days, staff, students and academics were treated to a full programme of sessions ranging from the general principles of provenance, through annotations, palaeography, bookplates and heraldry. Pearson illustrated his sessions using examples gleaned from the St Andrews University Library collections which he had selected in an intensive research day in the stacks with Elizabeth Henderson, Rare Books Librarian.

An example of manuscript additions and a dried plant sample, found in an 18th century gardening manual.

A discussion regarding the content of some particularly difficult annotations and ownership inscriptions – palaeographers never agree!

The end paper of…

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The Holy Grail…

In the clear light Of the fire, [Perceval] could see, behind him, The page in charge of his weapons And armor, and handed him The sword, to hold with the rest. And then he rejoined his host, Who’d done him so great an honor. They sat in a hall lit As brightly as candles can […]

via The Great Myths #10: The Holy Grail Appears (Old French) — word and silence

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