Search

jamesgray2

A discussion of interesting books from my current stock A WordPress.com site

William of Auxerre, on Peter Lombard

The first medieval theologian to develop a systematic treatise on free will, the virtues, and the natural law.

245J Guillermus Altissodorensis , or  William of Auxerre, c.1150-1231 (sometimes also called William of Beauvai)

Summa aurea in quattuor libros sententiarum : a subtilissimo doctore Magistro Guillermo altissiodore[n]si edita. quam nuper amendis q[uam]plurimis doctissimus sacre theologie professor magister Guillermus de quercu diligenti admodum castigatione emendauit ac tabulam huic pernecessariam edidit.

 

Impressa est Parisiis : Maxima Philippi Pigoucheti cura impensis vero Nicolai vaultier et Durandi gerlier alme vniuersitatis Parisiensis librariorum iuratorum,  3 Apr. 1500/01.                                $18,000

H19386-L153309897 4

Folio, 306, [20] ; A-z8, §8ç8A-M8, N10,A-B6,C8.    First edition. Large woodcut device (Davies 82) on title, Durand Gerlier’s woodcut device (Davies 119) within 4-part border at end. Gothic types, double column. Small marginal tear, old ms. marginalia.H19386-L153309911This is a wonderful copy which is well preserved. Bound in contemporary Flemish blind stamped calf over wooden boards, rebacked with old spine, endpapers renewed, manuscript author’s name on fore-edge.  Fine blind-stamped panelled calf over beveled wooden boards with pineapple stamps in lattice pattern, within a border of double eagle and round rose stamps. Clasps and catches missing the boards have metal strips .

Provenance:old ms. inscription ‘Societatis Jesu Brugensis’ on title page ; Bibliotheca Broxbourniana (1949) ; heraldic ex libris with the letters A and E of Albert Ehrman (motto: pro viribus summis contendo)  John Ehrman (1920 – 2011) received the library that his father Albert had started; he used a bookplate with the script “Bibliotheca Broxbourniana”  In addition to his historical scholarship, he worked to enhance his father’s library, and disposed of it by gift and auction sale in the late 1970s, ending with a final sale in 1978.

H19386-L153309886-1 2

FIRST EDITION of the major work by William of Auxerre. In his commentary on Peter Lombard, William treats creation, natural law, the nature of man, a tripartite God, usury, end the Last Judgment, among other topics. He applies the critical reasoning of classical philosophy to his writing, He was an Archdeacon of Beauvais before becoming a professor of theology at the university in Paris. In 1231, he was made a member of the commission (the others were Simon of Authie and Stephen of Provins, both canons of Rheims)  appointed by Gregory IX to examine Aristotle’s writings on the natural sciences and to offer amendments where religiously necessary.   And “correct” the corpus of Aristotle and his Arab commentators (which had been banned at the university of Paris since 1210) and extirpate dangerous passages.  Contrary to the papal legate Robert of Courçon and other conservatives, who in 1210 condemned Aristotle’s Physics and Metaphysics as corruptive of Christian faith, William saw no intrinsic reason to avoid the rational analysis of Christian revelation. Confident of William’s orthodoxy, Gregory urged the King to restore him to the university faculty so that he and Godfrey of Poitiers might reorganize the plan of studies. William fell ill and died before any of these projects were begun.The work of the committee was never completed.

 

The Summa Aurea, written between 1215 and 1220, the Summa Aurea, is divided into  four books as a  commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, that was an important precursor to Aquinas.  It contains an ample disquisition on usury and the natural law basis of economic matters.  William was one of the H19386-L153309903first theologians to be influenced by Aristotle. Preceding as he did the Aristotelian revival, William was largely influenced by St. Augustine, St. Anselm of Canterbury, Richard and Hugh of Saint–Victor, and Avicenna.  He is considered the first medieval theologian to develop a systematic treatise on free will, the virtues, and the natural law. His Summa Aurea shows an intellectual awareness and insistence on the physical which had not been seen in earlier philosophers.  Both in method and in content it shows a considerable amount of originality, although, like all the Summæ of the early thirteenth century, it is influenced by the manner and method of the Lombard.  William was probably a student of the Parisian canon and humanist Richard of St. Victor  but the teacher  whom William was most profoundly influenced was Praepositinus, or Prevostin, of Cremona, Chancellor of the University of Paris from 1206 to 1209.  William was, in turn, the teacher of the Dominican, John of Treviso, one of the first theologians of the Order of Preachers. The importance of the “Summa Aurea” is enhanced by the fact that it was one of the first Summæ composed after the introduction of the metaphysical and physical treatises of Aristotle.

H19386-L153309892 2

 

The Summa aurea, in four books, selectively treated such theological matters as God as one nature in three persons, creation, man, Christ and the virtues, sacramental worship, and the Last Judgment.

William’s emphasis on philosophy as a tool for Christian theology is evidenced by his critique of Plato’s doctrine of a demiurge, or cosmic intelligence, and by his treatment of the theory of knowledge as a means for distinguishing between God and creation. He also analyzed certain moral questions, including the problem of human choice and the nature of virtue.

William also wrote a Summa de officiis ecclesiasticis (“Compendium of Church Services”), which treated liturgical, or common, prayer, sacramental worship, and the annual cycle of scripture readings and chants. This systematic study served as the model for the late-13th-century noted work on divine worship, Guillaume Durand’s Rationale divinorum officiorum (“An Explanation of the Divine Offices”).

É. H. Gilson, History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (New York 1955) 656–657. J. Ribaillier, ed., Magistri Guillelmi Altissiodorensis Summa aurea, 7 vols. (Paris 1980–1987).                                                                                                                                                       P. Glorieux, Répertoire des maîtres en théologie de Paris au XIIIe siècle (Paris 1933–34);     v. 17–18 of Bibliothèque Thomiste (Le Saulchoir 1921–) 1:293–294. c. ottaviano, Guglielmo d’Auxerre                                                                                                                                               . J. VanWijnsberghe, “De biechtleer van Willem van Auxerre in het licht der vroegscholastiek,” Studia catholica 27 (1952) 289–308.                                                                  G. Bonafede, Enciclopedia filosofica, 4 v. (Venice–Rome 1957) 2:934–935.

Goff G718; BMC VIII, 122 ; Hain 8324 ; Proctor 8206 ; Polain 1787 ; IGI 4600; IBP 2614; IDL 2170; IBE 2788; IBPort 821; SI 1815

United States of America Astrik L. Gabriel, Notre Dame IN
Boston Public Library
Bryn Mawr College, Goodhart Medieval Library
New York, Columbia University, Butler Library
San Marino CA, Huntington Library
Univ. of Chicago Libraries
Univ. of Wisconsin

 

Open this link for a very good introduction to Guillermus

 

 

Featured post

The “Praeparitio” is a gigantic feat of erudition.

945G     Eusebius of Caesarea                  c. 260-c. 340

Eusebius Pa[m]phili de eua[n]gelica preparac[i]o[n]e ex greco in latinu[m] translatus Incipit feliciter.               

DSC_0263 2[ Cologne, Ulrich Zel, not after 1473]                          $18,000

DSC_0005 3Folio 10 ¾  x 7 ¾  inches. [a]12, [b-o]10, [p]8      One of the earliest editions most likely the Second, (editio princeps : Venice 1470)  This copy is bound in a modern binding of half  period exposed quarter sawn beech boards and bound in quarter dark goatskin and tooled in blind.

This copy contains the fifteen books of the “Praeparatio evangelica,” whose purpose is “to justify the Christian in rejecting the religion and philosphy of the Greeks in favor of that of the Hebrews, and then to justify him in not observing the Jewish manner of life […] The following summary of its contents is taken from Mr. Gifford’s introduction to his translation of the “Praeparitio:

“The first three books discuss the threefold system of Pagan Theology: Mythical, DSC_0011 2Allegorical, and Political.  The next three, IV-VI, give an account of the chief oracles, of the worship of demons, and of the various opinions of Greek Philosophers on the doctrines of Fate and Free Will.  Books VII-IX give reasons for preferring the religion of the Hebrews founded chiefly on the testimony of various authors to the excellency of their Scriptures and the truth of their history.  In Books X-XII Eusebius argues that the Greeks had borrowed from the older theology and philosphy of the Hebrews, dwelling especially on the supposed dependence of Plato upon Moses.  In the the last three books, the comparson of Moses with Plato is continued, and the mutual contradictions of other Greek Philosphers, especially the Peripatetics and Stoics, are exposed and criticized.”

The “Praeparitio” is a gigantic feat of erudition, and, according to Harnack (Chronologie, II, p. 120), was, like many of Eusebius’ other works, actually composed during the stress of the persecution.  It ranks, with the Chronicle, second only to the Church History in importance, because of its copious extracts from ancient authors, whose works have perished.” (CE)
In explaining the plan of his treatise Eusebius promises  that his purpose shall be worked out in a way of his own, differing from the methods of the many Christian authors who had preceded him. This promise is further explained   as meaning that his arguments will not depend on his own statements, but will be given in the very words of the most learned and best known advocates of the Pagan religions, that so the evidence alleged may not be suspected of being invented by himself. The cogency of |xvi this mode of argument truthfully and fairly conducted is unquestionable, but it had not in this case such entire novelty as Eusebius seems to claim for it. We shall find as we proceed that many of his arguments are the same as those of the earlier Apologists, Aristides, Justin Martyr, Tatian, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen; that he constantly borrows long passages from their writings, including the same quotations from Greek authors, reproduced word for word with due acknowledgement. Those earlier authors had in fact adopted the very same method which Eusebius announced as distinctive of his own work. The quotations thus borrowed are however few in comparison with the great multitude gathered by Eusebius himself from all parts of the Greek literature of a thousand years, from works both known and unknown of poets, historians, and philosophers.

The peculiar value of the Praeparatio resulting from this wealth of quotation is universally acknowledged. ‘This book is almost as important to us in the study of ancient Philosophy as the Chronicon is with reference to History, since in it are present specimens of the writings of almost every philosopher of any note whose works are not now extant’ (G. E. L. Cotton, Dict. Gk. and R. Biogr., ‘Eusebius,’ 116b).

‘The Preparation exhibits the same wide range of acquaintance with the classical writers of Greece which the History exhibits in the domain of Christian literature. The list of writers quoted or referred to is astonishing for its length (see Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vii. 346). Some of these are known to us, even by name, only through Eusebius, and of several others he has preserved large portions which are not otherwise extant. . . . It was chiefly the impression produced by this mass of learning which led Scaliger to describe it as “divini commentarii,” and Cave to call it “opus profecto nobilissimum” (H. L. i. p. 178)’ (Lightfoot, Smith and “Wace’s Dict. Chr. Biogr. ii. 331)

DSC_0275
It is also very interesting because of its numerous lively fragments from historians and philosophers which are nowhere else preserved, e.g. a summary of the writings of the Phoenician priest Sanchuniathon, or the account from Diodorus Siculus’ sixth book of Euhemerus’ wondrous voyage to the island of Panchaea, and writings of the neo-Platonist philosopher Atticus.

Eusebius (c. 263-339), Greek historian and exegete, Christian polemicist and scholar Biblical canon, became bishop of Cesarea in 314 and is considered as the father of Church History as his writings are very important for the first three centuries of the Christianity.

DSC_0264 3

In Book XI Eusebius proposes to show the agreement of Plato, as the representative of Greek Philosophy, with the Hebrew Scriptures. Adopting the threefold division of Ethics, Dialectic, and Physics, he notices the moral teaching of the sacred writers, their literary methods, accurate reasoning, and correct use of significant names, their knowledge of the natural world, and their contemplation of the ‘true being’ of things unseen (chapters 1-9). He then quotes the comments of Numenius, and his saying, What else is Plato than Moses speaking Attic Greek?, and Plutarch’s treatise on the Ei0 at Delphi (10, 11).

Other points of comparison are the ineffable nature of God, His unity, the Second Cause as contemplated by Philo, Plotinus, Numenius, and Amelius, the Third Divine Power of the Ps.-Platonic Epinomis (chapters 12-30).

The nature of the Good and of the Ideas, as stated by Plato in the Republic and Timaeus, is illustrated by xxiii quotations from Numenius, Philo, and Clement of Alexandria (21-25). The existence of evil powers, the immortality of the soul and the Divine image, as taught in the Alcibiades and Phaedo, and illustrated from Porphyry’s answer to Boethus On the Soul, the creation of the world and of the heavenly bodies, the goodness of God’s works, their changes and dissolution, the resurrection of the dead, and the final judgement, are all brought into the comparison, and illustrated from the Timaeus, Republic, Politicus, and Phaedo, and from a fragment of Plutarch On the Soul.

In Book XII the comparison of Plato with the Hebrew Scriptures is continued on the simple instruction of children, the need of faith, the qualifications of rulers as described in the Laws, the Gorgias, and the Republic (chapters 1-9); the picture of the just man and his fate in the Republic; Paradise and the garden of Zeus, and the origin of mankind male and female, in the Symposium; the Deluge, the right foundation of law, religious training, the use of poetry, music, and wine, and the control of the passions, all illustrated from the Laws (chapters 10-28).

Other subjects brought into the comparison are the contrast of true philosophy and spurious wisdom (Theaetetus), the education of women (Republic), and passages of the Laws and Republic corresponding to the Hebrew Proverbs and laws of Moses on ‘the memory of the just,’ riches and poverty, and the honour due to parents, on slaves, landmarks, and thieves (chapters 29-42). Other coincidences are found in the use of certain examples and figures of speech, in the division of a nation into twelve tribes, in the situation of the chief city, and in Plato’s thoughts on faults in education (Republic), on atheism, on God, and Divine providence (Laws).

In Book XIII Eusebius quotes with approval Plato’s opinions on the absurdities of Greek mythology in the Timaeus, Republic, and Eutliyphron (chapters 1-5), on stedfast adherence to truth even unto death in the Crito |xxivand the Apology of Socrates (chapters 6-11), adding the testimonies of Aristobulus and Clement to the agreement of Plato and other Greek philosophers with the Hebrew Scriptures (chapters 12, 13).

The remainder of the book treats of matters in which Plato’s teaching is condemned concerning the belief of the common people (Timaeus and Republic), a multitude of inferior gods and daemons, the nature of the soul (Timaeus) criticized by the Platonist Severus, the worship of the heavenly bodies (Laws and Timaeus), the treatment of women (Laws and Republic), unnatural vice, and the laws of murder.

In Book XIV the consistent truth of Hebrew doctrines adopted by Christians is contrasted with the contradictions and conflicts of Greek philosophers, showing how Plato criticized his predecessors in the Theaetetus and Sophista, and was himself criticized by his followers in the successive Academies, who in their turn are subjected to the keen satire of Numenius (chapters 1-9). The subject is continued in quotations from Porphyry, Xeno-phon, Plato, Plutarch, and especially from Aristocles On Philosophy against the schools of Parmenides who rejected the evidence of the senses, of Aristippus, Metrodorus, and Protagoras who believed them alone, and of the Pyr-rhonists who believed nothing at all. The doctrines of Epicurus are refuted from the writings of Aristocles, Plato, and Dionysius of Alexandria (chapters 21-47).

In Book XV the moral character of Aristotle is defended against the slanders of Epicurus and others by Aristocles; but where he differed from Plato and the Hebrews in regard to virtue and happiness, the ideas of God and His providence, the creation of the world, the fifth corporeal essence, the nature of the heavenly bodies, and the immortality of the soul, his doctrines are severely criticized by Atticus the Platonist (chapters 2-9).

His description of the soul as an enteleceia is further criticized by Plotinus, Porphyry, and Atticus (10-13); |xxv the Stoic philosophy is discussed by Aristocles, Areius Didymus, Porphyry, Longinus, and Plotinus (14-22), and the remainder of the book is occupied with a long extract from Plutarch, De placitis Philosophorum, on the various physical theories of the world, followed by the judgement of Socrates on such questions from the Memorabilia of Xenophon.

The literary value of the Preparation for the Gospel will be most fully appreciated by considering a separate list of the chief fragments of ancient authors for the preservation of which we are indebted to Eusebius in that work.

(a) Fragments of Poetry.

1. An interesting epigram by Callimachus on the simplicity of the primitive statues (99 b): this is contained in a fragment of Plutarch, De Daedalis Plataeensibus.

2. A fragment of Euripides, Melanippe Captiva, on the characters of bad and good women (466 d).

3. Large extracts in iambic verse from the Exodus, a tragedy by the Jewish dramatist Ezekiel (438 c 10-446 d 2), on which see Schürer, Jewish People, ii. 3. 224.

4. Fragments of an epic poem On Jerusalem by a Jew named Philo, 421 c, d, 430 c, 453 a. Cf. Schürer, ibid. 222.

5. Eight extracts from the epic poem of Theodotus On the Jews, describing Sichem, and narrating the story of the sons of Emmor (426 b-429 a). Cf. Schürer, ibid. 224. |xxvi

6. Many of the oracles quoted by Oenomaus in The Detection of Impostors (209 c-234 a).

7. All the oracles contained in the work of Porphyry On the Philosophy to be derived from Oracles (123 d-124 b, 145 a-146 b, 168 b, 175 c). These oracles with their contexts are carefully edited by Wolff in his work Porph. De Philos. ex Oraculis haurienda, of which they form the chief substance.

8. Pindar, Fr. Incert. 2 (105), Paean. 10 (33), both in 687 b.

9. The remarkable epigram on the Tetragrammaton and the Name of seven vowels (520 a).

To go no farther, the Greeks would be unable to state the etymologies even of the letters of the alphabet, nor could Plato himself tell the meaning or the reason of the vowels or the consonants.
But the Hebrews would tell us the reason of ‘Alpha,’ which with them is called ‘Al’ph,’ and this signifies ‘learning’:and of ‘Beta,’ which it is their custom to call ‘Beth,’ which name they give to a house; so as to show the meaning, ‘learning of a house,’ or as it might be more plainly expressed, ‘a kind of teaching and learning of household economy.’
‘Gamma’ also is with them called ‘Gimel’: and this is their name for ‘fullness.’ Then since they call tablets ‘Delth,’ they gave this name to the fourth letter, signifying therewith by the two letters, that ‘written learning is a filling of the tablets.’
And any one going over the remaining letters of the alphabet, would find that they have been named among the Hebrews each with some cause and reason. For they say also that the combination of the seven vowels contains the enunciation of one forbidden name, which the Hebrews indicate by four letters and apply to the supreme power of God, having received the tradition from father to son that this is something unutterable and forbidden to the multitude.
And one of the wise Greeks having learned this, I know not whence, hinted it obscurely in verse, saying as follows:

‘Seven vowels tell My Name,—-the Mighty God,
The everlasting Father of mankind:
The immortal lyre am I, that guides the world,
And leads the music of the circling spheres.’  28

You would find also the meanings of the remaining Hebrew letters, by fixing your attention on each; but this we have already established by our former statements, when we were showing that the Greeks have received help in everything from the Barbarians.
And any one diligently studying the Hebrew language would discover great correctness of names current among that people: since the very name which is the appellation of the whole race has been derived from Heber; and this means the man that ‘passes over,’ since both a passage and the one who passes over are called in the Hebrew language ‘Heber.’ 29
For the term teaches us to cross over and pass from the things in this world to things divine, and by no means to stay lingering over the sight of the things that are seen, but to pass from these to the unseen and invisible things of divine knowledge concerning the Maker and Artificer of the world. Thus the first people who were devoted to the one All-ruler and Cause of the Universe, and adhered to Him with a pure and true worship, they called Hebrews, naming men of this character as travellers who had in mind passed over from earthly things.
But why should I spend more time in collecting all the instances of the propriety and correctness of the Hebrew names, when the subject requires a special treatise of its own. However, speaking generally, I think that even by what has been said I have supplied the evidence of the art of reasoning among the Hebrews: if indeed, as Plato said, it is a task for no mean or ordinary men, but for a wise lawgiver and dialectician, to discover the kind of names naturally belonging to things,—-a man such as Moses who has made known to us the Hebrew oracles. So then what follows next after the subject of Dialectics, but to examine what was the condition of the Hebrew people in regard to Physics?

10. Part of the Orphic Hymn to Zeus, of which vv. 19-42 (except two or three) are found first in the fragment of Porphyry Peri Agalmatwn preserved by Eusebius P. E. 100 c 5-101 c 1.

(b) Historical Fragments.

1. In history we have first the long extract from the translation by Philo Byblius of Sanchuniathon’s Phoenician History contained in a fragment of Porphyry’s work Against the Christians preserved by Eusebius (31 a-42 b). If we could fully trust Porphyry’s testimony to the truthfulness of Philo, and to the genuineness and antiquity of the work of Sanchuniathon, the historical value of the extract could hardly be over-estimated: and we cannot wonder that the question of its authenticity has been a most fruitful source of criticism and controversy from the time of Scaliger and Grotius to our own days. ‘Few problems, in fact, in the circle of Semitic studies and of ancient history in general are of more importance than this.’ So writes M. Renan. Memoire sur l’Origine et le Caractere veritable de l’Histoire phenicienne qui porte le nom de Sanchoniathon, p. 6.

2. Diodorus Siculus. In 59 c 2-61 a we have an interesting fragment of the sixth book of the Bibliotheca, confirming his account of the sources of Greek theology from the Ιερα αναγραφη, or Sacred Record of Euemerus,|xxvii and adding the wonderful narrative of Euemerus concerning his voyage to the fabulous island of Panchaea in the Indian Ocean.

3. The large fragments of Philo Judaeus first known from Eusebius will be found in 322 d 11 on the Word or Second God, in 336 b Concerning Providence, in 355 c-361 b on the Exodus and the Law from a work otherwise unknown, entitled Hypothetica, and in 379 a-400 a a very long and important passage from the Apology for the Jews.

These fragments will be found placed together at the end of the sixth volume of Richter’s edition of the Greek text of Philo.

4. Among the most important of the historical fragments preserved for us by Eusebius are the long extracts from the work of Alexander Polyhistor Concerning the Jews, which occupy the larger part of Book IX, and have been very carefully edited in a special monograph by Dr. J. Freudenthal. The value of these extracts is much increased by quotations from lost works of authors otherwise unknown, Eupolemus, Artapanus, Molon, a certain Philo, and Demetrius, who all wrote on the history of the Jews. On the importance of the fragments see Schürer, ibid. ii. 3. 197.

5. The extract from the Chronicon of Julius Africanus (487 d-491 b) was edited from Eusebius by Dr. Routh in Rell. Sacr. ii. 269-78, who enlarged the text from Georgius Syncellus and added copious notes (423-37).

6. From the lost work of Abydenus On Assyrian History we have most interesting notices of the Flood of Sisithrus, i. e. Noah (414 d), of the Tower of Babel (416 b), of Nebuchadnezzar’s madness and of his fortification of Babylon (456 d).

(g) Philosophical Fragments.

It is in the region of Greek Philosophy that the wealth of quotation is most remarkable.

1. Among the Neo-Platonists we find Atticus, whose commentary on the Timaeus is sharply criticized by |xxviii Proclus, but of whose own writings there remain only the important fragments preserved by Eusebius; the first of which describes the threefold division of Philosophy into Ethics, Physics, and Logic, and eulogizes Plato as ‘a man from nature’s mysteries new-inspired,’ and ‘in very truth sent down from the gods, in order that Philosophy might be seen in its full proportions,’ (509 b-510 a). Also in the long and important extracts contained in Book XV, chapters 4-9, 12, 13, Atticus appears as a passionate defender of Plato against Aristotle.

2. From the Epitome of Areius Didymus we have a short extract on the Platonic Ideas (545 b), and several passages on the Stoic doctrines in Book XV, chapters 15, 20.

3. Numenius the Neo-Pythagorean is known almost exclusively from the long and numerous extracts preserved by Eusebius. From the contemplation of true ‘Being’ with Plato (525 c-527 a) he passes on to the nature of ‘the First and Second God’ (537 a), and to ‘the only Good’ transcending all essence, which can be contemplated only apart from sense ‘in a certain, immense, ineffable, and absolutely Divine solitude’ (543 d). In 650 d we find him defending Plato for ‘preserving both life and truth’ by withdrawing from Athens; and in 727 b-739 he describes The revolt of the Academics against Plato, under the leaders of the three, or more, Academies.

4. The fragments of Aristocles the Peripatetic contain an interesting criticism of Socrates and Plato, and of the divergent Socratic Schools (510 b-511 c), a defence of the veracity of the senses against the Eleatics Xenophanes and Parmenides (756 b-757 d), a long refutation of the Sceptics Pyrrho and Timon (758 c-763 d), strong and able censures of the Sophists, Cyrenaics, and Epicureans (764 c-768 d), and lastly a defence of the moral character of Aristotle against the slanderous |xxix  attacks of Epicurus, Timaeus of Tauromenium, Alexinus the Eristic, Eubulides, Demochares, Cephisodorus, and Lycon (791 a-793 c).

5. Of the three known fragments of Euemerus, the most important is contained in a fragment of the sixth book of Diodorus Siculus, itself preserved by Eusebius (Diod. Sic. iv. 179, Dindorf).

6. On the falsehood of oracles we have first a valuable fragment of Diogenianus directed against the fatalism of Chrysippus (136 d 3); then the vigorous and amusing invective of Oenomaus occupying no less than eighteen chapters of Book V (209 b-234 c); and the long series of extracts from the work of Porphyry On the Philosophy to be derived from Oracles, mentioned above (p. xxvi).

7. Of other works of Porphyry Eusebius has preserved many fragments of the Epistle to Anebo (92 a, 197 c, 740 d), on which see Parthey’s edition of Iamblichus De Mysteriis; a large part of the treatise De Statuis (97 d 2 note); several fragments of a work On the Soul, against Boethus; three long extracts from the Philological Lecture; fragments of the famous treatise Against the Christians (31 a, 179 d, 485 b).

8. A fragment attributed to Plotinus on the Entelecheia of Aristotle, which is inserted by Creuzer after Ennead. iv. 2.

9. From Plutarch’s treatise on the Daedala, or primitive wooden statues at Plataeae, and the worship connected with them Eusebius has preserved two very interesting fragments (83 c, 99 b); and though the long extracts from the Stromateis (22 b-25 b) and the De placitis Philosophorum (836 a-852 c) are not the work of Plutarch, but a compilation by some unknown writer from the Epitome of Aetius, this very ancient error in the title does not detract from their value. We are equally indebted for their preservation to Eusebius, to whose accuracy and fidelity Diels (Proleg. 5-10) pays an emphatic and even enthusiastic testimony. |xxx

 

Goff E119; BMC I 194

(United States of America: Boston Public Library
Indiana Univ., The Lilly Library (- 2 ff.)
YUL)
;

 

CHAPTER XIV

[PLUTARCH] ‘THALES of Miletus, one of the seven sages, declared water to be the first principle of all things. This man is thought to have been the founder of philosophy, and from him the Ionic sect derived its name; for it had many successions. After studying philosophy in Egypt he came as an elderly man to Miletus. He says that all things come from water, and are all resolved into water. And he forms his conjecture first from the fact that seed, which is watery, is the first principle of all animal life; thus it is probable that all things have their origin from moisture. His second argument is that all plants derive nourishment and fruitfulness from moisture, and when deprived of it wither away. And the third, that the very fire of the sun, and of the stars, and the world itself are nourished by the evaporations of the waters. For this reason Homer also suggests this notion concerning water,

“Ocean, which is the origin of all.” 34

This is what Thales says.

‘But Anaximander of Miletus says that the first principle of all things is the infinite, for from this all are produced, and into this all pass away; for which reason also infinite worlds are generated, and pass away again into that from which they spring. So he says the reason why the infinite exists is that the subsisting creation may not be deficient in any point. But he also is at fault in not saying what the infinite is, whether it is air, or water, or earth, or any other corporeal elements; he is wrong therefore in declaring the matter while excluding the efficient cause. For the infinite is nothing else than matter, and matter cannot have an actual existence, unless the efficient cause underlie it.

‘Anaximenes of Miletus declared that the air is the first principle of all things, for from this all are produced, and into it they are resolved again. For example, our soul, he says, is air, for it holds us together; and the whole world too is encompassed by air and breath, and air and breath are used as synonyms. But he too is wrong in thinking that living beings consist of simple homogeneous air and breath; for it is impossible that the matter can exist as sole principle of things, but we must assume the efficient cause also. As for instance silver suffices not for the production of the drinking-cup, unless there be the efficient cause, that is the silversmith; the case is similar with copper and various kinds of wood, and all other matter.

‘Heracleitus and Hippasus of Metapontum say that fire is the principle of all things: for from fire, they say, all things are produced and all end in fire: and all things in the world are created as it gradually cools down. For first the coarsest part of it is pressed together and becomes earth; then the earth being resolved by the natural force of the fire is turned into water, and being vaporised becomes air. And again the world and all the bodies in it are consumed in a conflagration by fire. Fire therefore is the first principle, because all things come from it, and the end, inasmuch as they are all resolved into it.

‘Democritus, who was followed long after by Epicurus, said that the first principles of all things are bodies indivisible, but conceivable by reason, with no admixture of vacuum, uncreated, imperishable, not capable of being broken, nor of receiving shape from their parts, nor of being altered in quality, but perceptible by reason only; that they move, however, in the vacuum, and through the vacuum, and that both the vacuum itself is infinite and the bodies infinite. And the bodies possess these three properties, shape, magnitude, and weight. Democritus, however, said two, magnitude and shape; but Epicurus added to them a third, namely weight. For he said the bodies must be moved by the impulse of the weight, since otherwise they will not be moved at all. The shapes of the atoms are limitable, not infinite: for there are none either hook-shaped, nor trident-shaped, nor ring-shaped. For these shapes are easily broken, whereas the atoms are impassive and cannot be broken; but they have their proper shapes, which are conceivable by reason. And the “atom” is so called, not because it is extremely small, but because it cannot be divided, being impassive, and free from admixture of vacuum: so that if a man says “atom” he means unbreakable, impassive, unmixed with vacuum. And that the atom exists is manifest: for there are also elements (στοιχεῖα), and living beings that are empty, and there is the Monad.

‘Empedocles, son of Meton, of Agrigentum, says that there are four elements, fire, air, water, earth, and, two original forces, love and hate, of which the one tends to unite, and the other to separate. And this is how he speaks:

“Learn first four roots of all things that exist:
Bright Zeus, life-giving Hera, and the god
Of realms unseen, and Nestis, who with tears
Bedews the fountain-head of mortal life.”  35

For by “Zeus” he means the seething heat and the ether; and by “life-giving Hera,” the air; the earth by Aidoneus, and by Nestis and “the fountain-head of mortal life,” the seed, as it were, and the water.’

So great is the dissonance of the first physical philosophers: such too is their opinion concerning first principles, assuming, as they did, no god, no maker, no artificer, nor any cause of the universe, nor yet gods, nor incorporeal powers, no intelligent natures, no rational essences, nor anything at all beyond the reach of the senses, in their first principles.

In fact Anaxagoras alone is mentioned as the first of the Greeks who declared in his discourses about first principles that mind is the cause of all things. They say at least that this philosopher had a great admiration for natural science beyond all who were before him: for the sake of it certainly he left his own district a mere sheepwalk, and was the first of the Greeks who stated clearly the doctrine of first principles. For he not only pronounced, like those before him, on the essence of all things, but also on the cause which set it in motion.

‘”For in the beginning,” he said, “all things were mingled together in confusion: but mind came in, and brought them out of confusion into order.'”

One cannot but wonder how this man, having been the first among Greeks who taught concerning God in this fashion, was thought by the Athenians to be an atheist, because he regarded not the sun but the Maker of the sun as God, and barely escaped being stoned to death.

But it is said that even he did not keep the doctrine safe and sound: for though he made mind preside over all things, he did not go on to render his physical system concerning the existing world accordant with mind and reason. …

 

Featured post

“Truth consists of an adequation between the intellect and a thing”

930G Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274. editor Theodoricus de Susteren.

Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris s[an]cti Thome Aquinatis. que olim … me[n]dis scatebat. Nouissime iam per … magistru[m] nostru[m] Theodericum de Susteren co[n]uentus Coloniens[is] fratru[m] predicatoru[m] regentem … laboriose reuisa … feliciter incipit.

DSC_0123

930G Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274

Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris s[an]cti Thome Aquinatis. que olim … me[n]dis scatebat. Nouissime iam per … magistru[m] nostru[m] Theodericum de Susteren co[n]uentus Coloniens[is] fratru[m] predicatoru[m] regentem … laboriose reuisa … feliciter incipit.

Cologne : Heinrich Quentell, 7 Mar. 1499                                        $11,500

Folio 10 1/2 X 8 inches 2°: A-Z6,Aa-Gg6; {signature Dd signed De)   Third Edition/The final 15th century edition.

Blind-tooled front and back covers (including some blind-tooled letters), full calf on DSC_0122thick boards. Clasps missing, catchplates present. Foxing throughout, with some red and green ink dots along edges. Front pastedown shows slight signs of water damage. Occasional small red stains on text block (e.g. E3v and Q5), likely from the books’ rubricator, but otherwise a clean text block. “Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris sancti Thome Aquinatis…”First written around 1256, Thomas Aquinas’ “Disputed Questions on Truth” defends “the view that truth consists of an adequation between the intellect and a thing… Most importantly, he develops a notion of truth of being (what might be called “ontological truth”) along with truth of the intellect (what might be called “logical truth”)” (Wippel, 295)

DSC_0126Sections include: Truth; God’s Knowledge; Ideas; The Divine Word; Providence; Predestination; The Book of Life; The Knowledge of Angels; The Communication of Angelic Knowledge; The Mind; The Teacher; Prophecy; Rapture; Faith; Higher and Lower Reason; Synderesis; Conscience; The Knowledge of the First Man in the State of Innocence; Knowledge of the Soul After Death; The Knowledge of Christ; Good; The Tendency to Good and the Will; God’s Will; Free Choice; Sensuality; The Passions of the Soul; Grace; The Justification of Sinners; and The Grace of Christ.

For each topic, Aquinas reviews the topic’s Difficulties, and then responses with ‘To the Contrary’ and ‘Reply’. Aquinas concludes each topic with an “Answers to Difficulties” section, demonstrating his typical insightful worldview and readable literary style.“Everything is a being essentially. But a creature is good not essentially but by participation. Good, therefore, really adds something to being (“Good” [U1v]

translation from   http://dhspriory.org/thomas/QDdeVer21.htm).

DSC_0125

Goff T181;(Columbia University, Union Theological Seminary;HEHL; LC ;Massachusetts Historical Society;YUL)  ;  BMC I, 289/90; Only one Copy in The British Isles (BL)

DSC_0127

Impressa Agrippine. opera atq[ue] impe[n]sis p[ro]uidi viri Henrici Quentell. ciuis eiusdem. Anno salutis humane nonagesimonono supra millesimumquadringentesimu[m] Ipso die celebritatis autoris cursu felici ad finem vsq[ue] perducta.

 

Featured post

Das Narrenschiff :: The ship of fools

5770105The ship of fools is an allegory, originating from Book VI of Plato‘s Republic, about a ship with a dysfunctional crew:

  1. Plato. “VI”. Republic. Translated by Jowett.
Imagine then a fleet or a ship in which there is a captain who is taller and stronger than any of the crew, but he is a little deaf and has a similar infirmity in sight, and his knowledge of navigation is not much better. The sailors are quarreling with one another about the steering––every one is of the opinion that he has a right to steer, though he has never learned the art of navigation and cannot tell who taught him or when he learned, and will further assert that it cannot be taught, and they are ready to cut in pieces any one who says the contrary. They throng about the captain, begging and praying him to commit the helm to them; and if at any time they do not prevail, but others are preferred to them, they kill the others or throw them overboard, and having first chained up the noble captain’s senses with drink or some narcotic drug, they mutiny and take possession of the ship and make free with the stores; thus, eating and drinking, they proceed on their voyage in such a manner as might be expected of them. Him who is their partisan and cleverly aids them in their plot for getting the ship out of the captain’s hands into their own whether by force or persuasion, they compliment with the name of sailor, pilot, able seaman, and abuse the other sort of man, whom they call a good-for-nothing; but that the true pilot must pay attention to the year and seasons and sky and stars and winds, and whatever else belongs to his art, if he intends to be really qualified for the command of a ship, and that he must and will be the steerer, whether other people like or not––the possibility of this union of authority with the steerer’s art has never seriously entered into their thoughts or been made part of their calling. Now in vessels which are in a state of mutiny and by sailors who are mutineers, how will the true pilot be regarded? Will he not be called by them a prater, a star-gazer, a good-for-nothing?[1]

203J Sebastian Brant(1458-1520)

DAS NARRENSCHIFF. {Hie vahet sich an das neü narren schiff vo[n] Narrogonia zu Nutz vnd Heylsamer ler zu vermeyden straffe der narrheyt } 

Basel, Johann Bergmann von Olpe, (12 Feb.) 1499.              $34,000

IMG_0235
Quarto  (213 x 152mm.), 162 leaves (of 164), a-t 8 u v 6,  lacking two leaves: a1 (title) and a8, quire a defective with some loss of text, b1 detached, h8 and i1 defective, s1 torn without loss, s6-8 and t1-6 defective, u6 and quire v torn at upper corner, quire v becoming detached, occasional light staining.  With 112 (of 114)  large woodcuts mostly attributed to Albrecht Dürer and the Haintz Narr Master, a.o. and with elaborate ornamented and historiated woodcut borders on both sides on each page. Gothic type. 30 lines. Bound in original quarter pigskin over wooden boards, expertly restored, wit one original clasp.

5770105

First published in German in 1494 this is a milestone in the history of book illustrations with many woodcuts by Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), printed from the original blocks. Sebastian Brant’s  work is present here in a rare third German edition printed by the original publisher. In splendid collaboration with this humanist- printer Johann Bergmann of Olpe, the Basel editions of the “Ship of Fools” have turned out as a “remarkably complete mirror of human life”, based upon the “very universality of Brant’s self-righteous surliness.and the picturesqueness of his metaphors” (Panofsky). The illustrations of human weakness in large woodcuts by the young Dürer and the Haintz Narr Master, a.o. are printed from the original blocks.

Its commentary on the boasting, pedantry, false learning, gambling, gluttony, medical folly, adultery, greed, envy, hatred, pride and other failings that mark humanity are sharp and telling, and, sadly, as relevant today as they were 450 years ago.

259L18403_9RMGQ

Before Goethe’s Werther arrived on the scene, this work was the most successful book ever published in Germany, immensely popular and read until it fell to pieces. This is one of literature’s most famous satires and a remarkable illustrated book. Sebastian Brant describes in his “Ship of Fools” the voyage of a ship bearing 100 fools, to the fools’ paradise of Narragonia, and he satirizes all the follies of his time including representatives of every human and social type.

PMM calls it “the first original work by a German which passed into world literature.and helped to blaze the trail that leads from medieval allegory to modern satire, drama and novel of character”.

The reference to the newly discovered America is found on fol. 76 verso (cf. Harrise, BAV, Additions, no. 21).

Complete incunabular editions were issued three times in German by the original printer Bergmann of Olpe with the Dürer woodcuts: These editions are unobtainable. Since 1906 most probably only 1 incomplete copy has been recorded in German book auctions.  

IMG_0243– In the United States there are only four copies of any Incunabular German  editions :  

:The Grüninger, ’11 Feb. 1494′ 1 copy

Morgan Library

1494- 2 copies : 

Morgan Library and Library of Congress   Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection (– a1) .

Bergmann, de Olpe, 3 Mar. 1495  1 copy:

 Metropolitan Museum of Art

 

GW 5047 (records only 11 copies complete or fragmentary in public libraries, the Bodl copy in Oxford is imperfect, as well as the Basel UB copy, the only one in Switzerland, see digitalisat);

Not in Goff : NO US COPIES                                                                                          HC 3742; Pr 7782; Hieronymus, Buchillus. 195; Wilhelmi 182; Panofsky, Dürer II, pp. 275-276; Meder p. 275; cf. PMM 37.

IMG_0239

Holdings

British LibraryBritish Library (IA.37957)

AustriaWien, ÖNB (Ink 12.H.16)
British Isles (without British Library)Oxford Bodley (imperfect)
FranceStrasbourg BNU (2, 1 imperfect)
GermanyBamberg SB
Berlin KupferstichKab
Berlin SB (copy destroyed)
Dresden SLUB
Schleusingen NaturhistM (Prov GymB)
SwitzerlandBasel UB (imperfect)

 GW

05047 Brant, Sebastian: Das Narrenschiff. Basel: Johann Bergmann, 12.II.1499. 4°
164 Bl. a–t⁸uv⁶. 1, Tab. 2 Sp. 30 Z. Typ. 4:220G, 5:109G. Init. b, h. 2 Randleisten pro S. 114 Hlzs., dar. 7 Wdh. DrM III.
Anm. 1. Beschreibung in MRFH [24.VII.2013].
Anm. 2. Antiquariat Hellmut Schumann (Zürich) November 2017 (def.).
Reproduktionen: Res.Publ. Unit 46. Basel UB (Digitalisat).
HC 3742. Schr 3560. CRF XIII 552. VB 615. Pr 7782. BMC III 797.IA 37957. Bod-inc B-504. Deckert 166. ÖNB-Ink B-641. ISTC ib01085100.
Bamberg SB. Basel UB. Berlin Kupferstichkab, *SB†. Dresden SUB. London BL. Oxford Bodl (def.). Schleusingen ehem. Gy. Strasbourg BNU (2 Ex., 1. Ex. def., 2. Ex. def.). Wien NB.
Gesamtüberlieferung: 11 Exemplare/Fragmente in öffentlichen Einrichtungen.
HC 3742; Schr 3560; Zehnacker 552; Voull(B) 615; Deckert 166; Bod-inc B-504; Sheppard 2563; Pr 7782; BMC III 797; GW 5047   
260L18403_9RMGQ

Navigating Dürer’s Woodcuts for The Ship of Fools

At the start of his career, as a young man in his twenties, Albrecht Dürer created a series of woodcuts to illustrate Sebastian Brant’s The Ship of Fools of 1494. Dürer scholar Rangsook Yoon explores the significance of these early pieces and how in their subtlety of allegory they show promise of his masterpieces to come.

Attributed to Albrecht Dürer, woodcut illustration for Chapter 85, “Not Providing for Death”.

The celebrated Nuremberg artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) spent part of his journeyman years, from 1492 to 1494, in Basel, working as a woodcut designer for some of the most eminent publishers of his time, including Johann Bergmann von Olpe, Johannes Amerbach, and Nicolaus Kessler. Basel, along with Strasbourg, Augsburg and Nuremberg, was a prosperous commercial town and a leading artistic and publishing center in the North of the Alps. Dürer’s journeyman experience here was crucial in his formation as a woodcut designer deeply engaged in the early publishing industry. The most important woodcut project that he was involved with during this time was the design of an extensive illustration cycle to accompany *The Ship of Fools*, the satirical verses composed in German by Sebastian Brant (1457-1521) and published by Bergmann von Olpe in 1494. This collection of moralizing stories was an instant best-seller; so much so that in that same year, five separate pirated editions appeared in Strasbourg, Augsburg, Nuremberg, and Reutingen. No doubt, its numerous whimsical woodcuts depicting various types of foolish and sinful human behavior contributed to its great success, as these illustrations were copied in all subsequent editions until the late sixteenth century. Nowadays, in general, about two-thirds of the 114 illustrations (counting 9 repeating ones) in the 1494 edition are attributed to the young Dürer, while the rest, which are found inferior in design and cutting, are ascribed to anonymous masters, such as the so-called Master of the Haintz Narr (named after the namesake scene in The Ship of Fools). A more conservative view, expressed by the art historian Erwin Panofsky in 1945, attributes only one-third of the illustrations to Dürer.

The Master of the Haintz Narr, woodcut illustration for Chapter 5 , “Of Old Fools”.
Attributed to Albrecht Dürer, woodcut illustration for Chapter 14, “Of Insolence toward God”.

Overall, the woodcuts Dürer made during his journeyman years are not as impressive as those he created later as an independent master in Nuremberg. For example, hatching lines used for modeling consist here only of simple parallel lines, and the contour lines during this early period are depicted crudely and overly thick without much variation. The artist presumably simplified his illustrations so as to accommodate the limited skills of block-cutters (Formschneider) who were in charge of cutting the woodblocks he designed. Nevertheless, Dürer’s woodcuts in The Ship of Fools already reveal seeds of his stylistic elements and motifs found later in his career. They also betray a greater understanding of the book’s narrative and allegorical content, suggesting that he worked closely with Brant, possibly responding directly to the author’s demands and instructions. Dürer’s intimate knowledge of Brant’s text can best be illustrated by examining the original title page designed by the Nuremberg artist, The Fools on a Cart and a Boatload of Fools.

Dürer’s Fools on a Cart and a Boatload of Fools, the original title page.

This woodcut of Dürer’s occupies almost the entire title page and consists of two scenes that are vertically arranged. The upper compartment shows figures in fools’ caps — shaped like donkey’s ears and adorned with bells — riding a cart pulled by horses and being guided by fools. This uppermost register also has the book’s title, “The Ship of Fools” (“Das Narren Schiff”), carved on the same woodblock as the image. In the lower section, three boats of yelling and singing rowdy fools set out for their destination, “The Land of Fools” (“Ad Narragoniam”), as indicated in the caption. Attentive viewers may find it odd that two different allegorical subjects, both the multiple ships of fools and a single cart of fools, are juxtaposed in this original title cut of 1494. It differs greatly from the better-known title cuts of later years, all of which utilize the image of only a large ship of fools, thus visualizing the book’s title verbatim. This seemingly dissonant title cut of 1494, however, confirms that Dürer was indeed well aware of the structure and themes of Brant’s original German text at the time of its conception and original publication.

Despite the book’s title, in Brant’s original text, the idea of a ‘ship’ is not central, but rather, incidental. As noteworthy as the ship is, it is only one amongst a number of diverse motifs including a cart, a dance, a wheel of fortune, a net, a mirror, and a bagpipe. The ship motif became the book’s foremost leitmotif only when, while being translated into Latin, Jacob Locher, Brant’s pupil, extensively rearranged and revised Brant’s text to give it a semblance of unity, which was found lacking in Brant’s original. This Latin edition, translated and edited by Locher and first published by Bergmann von Olpe in 1497, became the standard version of The Ship of Fools’ text that was repeatedly copied in all following editions and translations.

Given all, at the time of the book’s first publication, Dürer’s title cut, with both the cart and multiple ships, advertise the book’s full content more adequately than its short, unilateral title. It complements the title words in communicating the book’s complex, multi-structural narrative elements to the reading public, and further, it mirrors the general structure of the book.

The Ship of Fools, which consists of 112 chapters, is roughly dividable into two parts. In contrast to the first half of the book (that is, the first 61 chapters), where the metaphor of a ship plays a small role except in chapter 48 (“A Journeyman’s Ship”), the ship motif is disproportionately greater in the second half: the prologue (since it was written last) and chapters 103 (“Of the Antichrist”), 91 (“Of Prattling in Church”), 108 (“The Schluraffen Ship”), and 109 (“ Contempt of Misfortune”). We gather that Brant gradually realized its symbolic importance in the process of his writing. The significance of the ship in the second part is even more apparent when one examines the text illustrations. Even when the ship is only briefly mentioned, or even not mentioned at all, it is still visually depicted, sometimes as a tiny object floating on a lake (or a sea) in the background, and sometimes far more conspicuously. This can bee seen in chapters 68 (“Not Taking a Joke”), 72 (“Of Coarse Fools”), 75 (“Of Bad Marksmen”), 80 (“Foolish News”), and 81 (“Of Cooks and Waiters”).

Attributed to Albrecht Dürer, woodcut illustration for chapter 103 , “Of the Antichrist”.
Attributed to Albrecht Dürer, woodcut illustration for chapter 75, “Of Bad Marksmen”.

The motif of a cart of fools is treated as a principal theme only twice in the book, once in chapter 47 (“On the Road of Salvation”) and another time in chapter 91 (“Of Prattling in Church”), where both the cart and the ship are addressed simultaneously. Less emphatically, the cart motif is mentioned once again in chapter 53 (“Of Envy and Hatred”). However, Dürer’s depiction of the cart, along with ships, on the title page serve well as metaphors for land- and sea-going vehicles carrying the fools, thus conveying the universality of all the fools described by the text.

With the editorial changes made to Brant’s text by Locher, who utilized ‘the ship of fools’ as the leitmotif throughout, not only in the first Latin edition of 1497 but also in all subsequent publications (both authorized and pirated), the book no longer reproduced or imitated the original title page design by Dürer. Instead, after 1497, a different woodcut, rendering only a large ship laden with fools and attributed to the Master of the Haintz Narr, repeatedly served as the title cut prototype. In 1494, the Master of the Haintz Narr’s woodcut originally appeared as the frontispiece on the verso of the title page, and also can be found as an illustration accompanying chapter 108, “The Schluraffen Ship.” As the concept of the ship became the most significant motif of the book, this woodcut became the most fitting image for the title cut, as it visualizes the two principal ideas of the book and its title — namely, both a ship and fools. However, it is Dürer’s original title cut for the 1494 edition which represents the book’s original structure and thematic concerns much more faithfully and allegorically.

Master of Haintz Narr, the frontispiece of the 1494 edition which became a popular choice for title page in later editions.

Throughout his career as a successful independent master in Nuremberg, Dürer continued to create woodcuts that were meant to accompany texts. He provided numerous humanist friends and Nuremberg publishers with woodcuts to illustrate their new publications. Best known works, of course, are his own illustrated books, such as the Apocalypse (1498; the second edition in 1511), the Large Passion (1511), the Life of the Virgin Mary (1511), and the Small Passion (1511). Here, the primary features are the woodcuts themselves, rather than texts, and significantly, he self-published them by hiring printers. Dürer’s later productions of such high caliber, innovation, and audacity cannot be fully understood without taking into consideration his invaluable journeyman experience in the large publishing companies and his participation in executing extensive illustration cycles such
as The Ship of Fools in Basel.


Rangsook Yoon is Assistant Professor of Art History at Central College in Pella, Iowa, specialising in Dürer’s early career as a print-maker and self-publisher. She is currently working on several articles dealing with Dürer’s woodcuts during his apprenticeship and journeyman years, as well as a book about the Apocalypse.

Fascicule XIV. The Boston Antiquarian Book show 2018 Highlight List

Here is a Link to some of the Treasures I will be bringing :https://www.dropbox.com/s/x78waframq8mgku/%E2%88%9E%C2%A7%C2%B6%E2%80%A2Booth%20124..pdf?dl=0

BOOTH 124

TO THE  image.png

November 16-18, 2018 | Boston, MA

Hynes Convention Center

Boston, MA

Friday: 5pm – 9pm

Saturday: Noon – 7pm

Sunday: Noon – 5pm

Please feel free to contact me if there is any book which you would especially like to see.   jamesgray2@me.com

The Boston Book Fair is the annual fall gathering for book lovers and collectors, featuring the top selection of items available on the international literary market. Come see and shop over 130 U.S. and international dealers, sanctioned by the Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association of America and the International League of Antiquarian Booksellers.

 http://bit.ly/2zOqbSk

Here is a Price list:

210JKing James Bible1611$230,000

181JPsalterium Latinum$95,000

228JAferPublii Terentii Comoediae$900

738GAlciatiEmblemata1600$1,100

607FAnon.Poems on Affairs of State1689$1,800

503FAnon.The Secret History of Q. Eliz.1695$1,500

696GAnon.Letters From the Living1703$2,100

179FBaconAdv. of Learning (2 Books)1633$1,750

183FBaconAdv. of Learning (2 Books)1633$1950

829GBaconAdv. of Learning1640$2,200

722FBaconEssays or Counsels1680$900

693GBaconHistory of King Henry VII1629$1,100

797GBaconSylva Sylvarum1635$3,500

828GBaconSylva Sylvarum1658$2,500

221JBaconThe Cure of Old Age1683$2,900

998GBasinDe magicis artibus1491$28,000

222JBoeceHistory of Scotland1585$2,000

10HBoethiusDe Consolatione Philosophiae1487$16,000

144JBoethiusDe Consolatione Philosophiae1491$9,000

992GBrowneMyographia Nova1698$5,500

756DBurnetThe Life of E. of Rochester1680$1,600

203JBrantDAS NARRENSCHIFF 1499$34,000

960GByardDictionarius Pauperum1511$3,500

942GCarcanoSermonarium1496$9,000

980EClevelandPoems1665$2,200

128FClevelandRevived1668$4,000

813EClevelandWorks1687$3,500

115FClevelandWorks1687$1,800

173JCochlaeusDe Petro et Roma$6,000

582GCranmerDefense… Catholic Doctrine1550$28,000

147FCreechLucretius’ Philosophy1683$2,800

655GD’AvenantWorks1673$2,500

109FDaviesNature a Nosce teipsum1697$3,000

230JDefoeThe Union of Great Britian1709$1,500

250JDenhamPoems and Translations1668$400

733EDenhamPoems and Translations1671$1,150

732EDenhamPoems and Translations1684$950

756GDiodorusBibliotheke1505$2,900

1022EDraytonPoems1637$3,200

894FDrummondWorks1711$3,500

166FDrydenBritannia Rediviva1688$4,500

453FDrydenLucretius1709$1,200

142FD’UfreyButlers Ghost1682$2,200

936EErasmusThe First and Second Tome1548$38,000

193JErasmusNew Testament1560$7,000

184JEsmer Missae Christianorum1524$7,000

200JEstienneBiblia Hebraica (Five Volumes)1539$20,000

188JEstienneNew Testament1550$18,000

849GEtheregeThe Comical Revenge1669$1,700

945GEusebiusPraeparatio Evangelica1473$18,000

IMG_0323

815GFischerDefensio Cõtra Lutherum1525$2,500

664EFlatmanPoems and Songs1682$1,200

120FFlatmanPoems and Songs1682$1,200

121FFlatmanPoems and Songs1682$1,800

664GFullerChurch History of Britian1656$3,500

249JFullerHistorie of the Holy Warre1640$450

454GFloydSaint Augustine1686$2,000

640GGebertEpistola Gerberti1611$2,900

535GGerbecMiscellanea Curiosa1685$2,200

166JGiesAVTORITATES ALLEGABILES1526$3,500

700GGregory Nomenclatura Brevis1672 $2,200

770EGreville Works1633$5,500

IMG_0093195JGyrnaeusDe Eucharistica Controversia1584$3,000

670GGurnayDemonstration of Antichrist1631$2,900

825GHalePrimitive Origin of Mankind1677$3,200

247JHardouyn Heures a lusaige de Romme1509$53,000

830EHerbertA Priest to the Temple1701$700

689GHerbertThe Temple/ The Synagogue1674$4,500

209FHowellDodona’s Grove1644$3,000

190JHuttenPasquillorum Tomi Duo1544$4,200

805GIrvineHistoriæ Scoticæ1682$2,500

393GJenksThe Art of Love1702$2,000

189JJoyeOur Sauiour Jesus Christ1543$9,000

204JKeymorsDutch Fishing1664$2,600

622GKircherArs Magna Sciendi1669$11,500

850GLatimerLatimer’s 1st and 2nd Sermons1549$14,200

747915_view 03_03

779GLingWits Common-wealth1647$4,900

551GLingWits Common-wealth1684$4,900

183JLutherDas Fünffte, Sechste und Siebend1532$4,700

175JLutherEin Brieff D.M. Luther1538$4,000

197JLutherVrsach Vnd Antwort1523$4,000

234JMagisterSummula Clarissimi Iuriscon1500$4,500

153GMaraffiOld and New Testaments1554$4,000

226JMartinNew Testament1582$45,000

631GMatherPlatform of Church-Discipline1711$15,000

714GMelanchthonThe Augsburg Confession1531$22,000

176JMelanchthonIN D. PAVLI DOCTRINAM1522$4,500

904GMetcalfeShort-writing1689$5,500

957GMiddletonCommentum1476$23,000

180FMiscellanyPoems on Affairs of State1702$2,500

197FMiscellanyPoems on Affairs of State1703$1,100

145JPergulensisLogica magistri1495$12,500

103GPhillipsLetters from Orinda1705$5,500

933GPhillipsPoems1678$4,500

172JPigochetHeures a l’usaige de Romme1498$15,000

407FQuarlesDivine Poems1638$1,000

709FRandolphPoems1652$1,500

111FRandolphPoems1652$1,500

IMG_0129452G Ray Miscellaneous Discourses1692$2,500

261FRoscommonPoems1717$1,500

248JRoscommonPoems1717$1,500

178JSickingenEyn Sendbrieff1522$4,800

695BSidneyDiscourses Concerning Gov’t1698$4,000

477ESidneyPembrokes Arcadia1633$3,200

536SpencerVulgar Prophecies1665$450

893FSucklingFragmenta Aurea1646$5,500

134FSucklingWorks1709$1,800

477FTatePoems1677$2,600

804GTertullianTertullian’s apology1655$2,550

167FThomasLuctus Britannici1700$2,300

209JTrovamalaIncipit Liber1499$7,500

235JTygrinusLucensium Oratio Luculentissima1492$4,000

IMG_0089

 

108FWallerPoems1668$1,800

758FWardCalves-Head Club1709$2,700

807EWildIter Boreale1668$2,800

472FWildIter Boreale1668$2,800

789GWildIter Boreale1670$2,800

735FWilmotPoems1696$6,600

263FWottonReliquiæ Wottonianæ1672$1,500

171JZwingliQuo Pacto Ingenui1523$19,800

 

IMG_0088H19386-L153309897 4IMG_0209IMG_0084IMG_0068DSC_00275770145180j1 2messagepart 25770105DSC_0029 5DSC_0027 7DSC_0023IMG_0025DSC_0047

 

Fascicule XIV. The Boston Antiquarian Book show 2018 Highlight List

Here is a Link to some of the Treasures I will be bringing :https://www.dropbox.com/s/x78waframq8mgku/%E2%88%9E%C2%A7%C2%B6%E2%80%A2Booth%20124..pdf?dl=0

BOOTH 124

TO THE  image.png

November 16-18, 2018 | Boston, MA

Hynes Convention Center

Boston, MA

Friday: 5pm – 9pm

Saturday: Noon – 7pm

Sunday: Noon – 5pm

Please feel free to contact me if there is any book which you would especially like to see.   jamesgray2@me.com

The Boston Book Fair is the annual fall gathering for book lovers and collectors, featuring the top selection of items available on the international literary market. Come see and shop over 130 U.S. and international dealers, sanctioned by the Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association of America and the International League of Antiquarian Booksellers.

 http://bit.ly/2zOqbSk

Here is a Price list:

210JKing James Bible1611$230,000

181JPsalterium Latinum$95,000

228JAferPublii Terentii Comoediae$900

738GAlciatiEmblemata1600$1,100

607FAnon.Poems on Affairs of State1689$1,800

503FAnon.The Secret History of Q. Eliz.1695$1,500

696GAnon.Letters From the Living1703$2,100

179FBaconAdv. of Learning (2 Books)1633$1,750

183FBaconAdv. of Learning (2 Books)1633$1950

829GBaconAdv. of Learning1640$2,200

722FBaconEssays or Counsels1680$900

693GBaconHistory of King Henry VII1629$1,100

797GBaconSylva Sylvarum1635$3,500

828GBaconSylva Sylvarum1658$2,500

221JBaconThe Cure of Old Age1683$2,900

998GBasinDe magicis artibus1491$28,000

222JBoeceHistory of Scotland1585$2,000

10HBoethiusDe Consolatione Philosophiae1487$16,000

144JBoethiusDe Consolatione Philosophiae1491$9,000

992GBrowneMyographia Nova1698$5,500

756DBurnetThe Life of E. of Rochester1680$1,600

203JBrantDAS NARRENSCHIFF 1499$34,000

960GByardDictionarius Pauperum1511$3,500

942GCarcanoSermonarium1496$9,000

980EClevelandPoems1665$2,200

128FClevelandRevived1668$4,000

813EClevelandWorks1687$3,500

115FClevelandWorks1687$1,800

173JCochlaeusDe Petro et Roma$6,000

582GCranmerDefense… Catholic Doctrine1550$28,000

147FCreechLucretius’ Philosophy1683$2,800

655GD’AvenantWorks1673$2,500

109FDaviesNature a Nosce teipsum1697$3,000

230JDefoeThe Union of Great Britian1709$1,500

250JDenhamPoems and Translations1668$400

733EDenhamPoems and Translations1671$1,150

732EDenhamPoems and Translations1684$950

756GDiodorusBibliotheke1505$2,900

1022EDraytonPoems1637$3,200

894FDrummondWorks1711$3,500

166FDrydenBritannia Rediviva1688$4,500

453FDrydenLucretius1709$1,200

142FD’UfreyButlers Ghost1682$2,200

936EErasmusThe First and Second Tome1548$38,000

193JErasmusNew Testament1560$7,000

184JEsmer Missae Christianorum1524$7,000

200JEstienneBiblia Hebraica (Five Volumes)1539$20,000

188JEstienneNew Testament1550$18,000

849GEtheregeThe Comical Revenge1669$1,700

945GEusebiusPraeparatio Evangelica1473$18,000

IMG_0323

815GFischerDefensio Cõtra Lutherum1525$2,500

664EFlatmanPoems and Songs1682$1,200

120FFlatmanPoems and Songs1682$1,200

121FFlatmanPoems and Songs1682$1,800

664GFullerChurch History of Britian1656$3,500

249JFullerHistorie of the Holy Warre1640$450

454GFloydSaint Augustine1686$2,000

640GGebertEpistola Gerberti1611$2,900

535GGerbecMiscellanea Curiosa1685$2,200

166JGiesAVTORITATES ALLEGABILES1526$3,500

700GGregory Nomenclatura Brevis1672 $2,200

770EGreville Works1633$5,500

IMG_0093195JGyrnaeusDe Eucharistica Controversia1584$3,000

670GGurnayDemonstration of Antichrist1631$2,900

825GHalePrimitive Origin of Mankind1677$3,200

247JHardouyn Heures a lusaige de Romme1509$53,000

830EHerbertA Priest to the Temple1701$700

689GHerbertThe Temple/ The Synagogue1674$4,500

209FHowellDodona’s Grove1644$3,000

190JHuttenPasquillorum Tomi Duo1544$4,200

805GIrvineHistoriæ Scoticæ1682$2,500

393GJenksThe Art of Love1702$2,000

189JJoyeOur Sauiour Jesus Christ1543$9,000

204JKeymorsDutch Fishing1664$2,600

622GKircherArs Magna Sciendi1669$11,500

850GLatimerLatimer’s 1st and 2nd Sermons1549$14,200

747915_view 03_03

779GLingWits Common-wealth1647$4,900

551GLingWits Common-wealth1684$4,900

183JLutherDas Fünffte, Sechste und Siebend1532$4,700

175JLutherEin Brieff D.M. Luther1538$4,000

197JLutherVrsach Vnd Antwort1523$4,000

234JMagisterSummula Clarissimi Iuriscon1500$4,500

153GMaraffiOld and New Testaments1554$4,000

226JMartinNew Testament1582$45,000

631GMatherPlatform of Church-Discipline1711$15,000

714GMelanchthonThe Augsburg Confession1531$22,000

176JMelanchthonIN D. PAVLI DOCTRINAM1522$4,500

904GMetcalfeShort-writing1689$5,500

957GMiddletonCommentum1476$23,000

180FMiscellanyPoems on Affairs of State1702$2,500

197FMiscellanyPoems on Affairs of State1703$1,100

145JPergulensisLogica magistri1495$12,500

103GPhillipsLetters from Orinda1705$5,500

933GPhillipsPoems1678$4,500

172JPigochetHeures a l’usaige de Romme1498$15,000

407FQuarlesDivine Poems1638$1,000

709FRandolphPoems1652$1,500

111FRandolphPoems1652$1,500

IMG_0129452G Ray Miscellaneous Discourses1692$2,500

261FRoscommonPoems1717$1,500

248JRoscommonPoems1717$1,500

178JSickingenEyn Sendbrieff1522$4,800

695BSidneyDiscourses Concerning Gov’t1698$4,000

477ESidneyPembrokes Arcadia1633$3,200

536SpencerVulgar Prophecies1665$450

893FSucklingFragmenta Aurea1646$5,500

134FSucklingWorks1709$1,800

477FTatePoems1677$2,600

804GTertullianTertullian’s apology1655$2,550

167FThomasLuctus Britannici1700$2,300

209JTrovamalaIncipit Liber1499$7,500

235JTygrinusLucensium Oratio Luculentissima1492$4,000

IMG_0089

 

108FWallerPoems1668$1,800

758FWardCalves-Head Club1709$2,700

807EWildIter Boreale1668$2,800

472FWildIter Boreale1668$2,800

789GWildIter Boreale1670$2,800

735FWilmotPoems1696$6,600

263FWottonReliquiæ Wottonianæ1672$1,500

171JZwingliQuo Pacto Ingenui1523$19,800

 

IMG_0088H19386-L153309897 4IMG_0209IMG_0084IMG_0068DSC_00275770145180j1 2messagepart 25770105DSC_0029 5DSC_0027 7DSC_0023IMG_0025DSC_0047

 

Hardouyn Heures on vellum!s

N.

Heures a lusaige de Romme tout au long                           sans riens requerir : avec les figures de la                        vie de lhomme: et la destruction de hierusa=lem.

Tout pour le Mieulx.

747915

Paris : Par Gillet Hardouyn imprimeur, 1509     $53,000

Large Quarto 9 x 5 3/4   inches (a very Large copy)  [92] Vellum leaves A-L8, M4  complete.

Printed in red and black. 21 full -page Illustrations,  and 28 small woodcuts along the text, from the Master of the Apocalypse Rose, and IMG_0336Pichore design. All the borders are painted . ILLUMINATED IN GOLD AND  very vivid COLOURS BY A CONTEMPORARY HAND, liquid-gold initials and line-filler the illustrations are mostly of Gospel scenes; numerous small illustrations of saints and miscellaneous subjects; each text page within varying historiated border. One- and two-line initials in gold on blue or red ground throughout. The imagery in this book combines metalcut designs by Jean Pichore with the rich illumination of a painter.

Large R (for Rome) on first four leaves of each quire, in a line with the signature.

This copy is bound in 18thcentury tan calf recently rebacked.

IMG_0316
HARDOUYN (Gilles or Gillet), son of Guillaume, born in 1455, libr. – juror and printer, 1491-1521; resigns his duties as a free juror on 9 Sept. 1519. He was first a bookseller and IMG_0319then also a typographer, he was, together with Germain Hardouyn, one does not know if his son or brother, among the first to introduce in the decoration of the Livres d’heures the style of the Italian Renaissance.   He published exclusively books of hours. Before the fall of Pont-Notre-Dame (25 Oct. 1499), he lives in the 8th house of the bridge. Then He can be found: – “At the end of the bridge at the Change, at the sign of the Rose, below the beautiful Ymaige; – On the bridge at the Change near the beautiful Ymaige Notre Dame at the sign of the Rose “; At this location he is listed as  was only bookseller. And almost IMG_0331every Hours that bears this address have the name of another printer than him. In 1509, he became a printer and established himself: – “At the end of the bridge Notre Dame before saints Denis de la Chartre at the sign of the Rose dor; – In confinio pontis Nostræ Dominæ, ante ecclesiam sancti Dionisii of carcere, ad intersignum Rosæ deauratæ; Several books of hours bearing this address and his name as imprint. With an almanac beginning earlier, are not earlier than 1509. He keeps this address until the end .

Documents: Arch. Nat., ZIH 24, 364; L. DOREZ, Notes … n ° 11; P. LACOMBE, Books of Hours, Passim. We admit here with Leon Dorez, that the libr.-juror who resigns his office in 1519 and who is called Gilbert is the same as Gillet; however it is qualified factor , which seems to apply with difficulty to a printer having produced as much as him. – The ancestors of the Hardouyn had always lived and “exposed their days” on the bridge Notre Dame. 

IMG_0325Sig. A1r (Hercules and the centaur Nessus* ), a1v almanac for 1508-20, a2r-7r calendar, a7v-B1v Gospel sequence [Martyrdom of St. John, two portrait cuts], B2r-6r Passion according to St. John [Crucifixion], B6r-7r Obsecro te, B7v-c8r Hours of the Virgin: Matins-Lauds [Adam and Eve, Annunciation, Visitation], C8v-F2r Hours of the Cross and of the Holy Ghost, intermingled with Hours of the Virgin: Prime-Compline [Flagellation, Pentecost, Nativity, Annunciation to the Shepherds, Adoration of the Magi (x 2), Flight into Egypt, Coronation of the Virgin], F2v-3v prayers for saying on weekdays, F4r-8r prayers for saying on Saturday and others, F8v- G5r Seven Penitential Psalms [a Prophet, David],IMG_0332 G5r-8r Litany of Saints, G8v-I6v Office of the Dead [a Prophet, Job on his Dungheap], I7r-8v prayers to the Virgin and to St. John the Evangelist, I8v-K5v suffrages, K5v-7v prayers to the Virgin, Missus est Gabriel, K8r-L3v seven prayers to St Gregory, Seven joys of the Virgin, and other prayers in Latin and French, L4r contents, L4v colophon, M1-6 Office of the Immaculate Conception).M4 Prayer: Jesus soit en ma teste; M4v colophon..

Full page woodcuts:
A1 Hardouin Device, the Centaurus Nessus, Heracles and the abduction of Deianira;
A1v Planetary man, in the form of a Skeleton;
A6 Martyrdom of Johannes the Evangelist, in the cauldron of boiling oil;

IMG_0346
A8v Impotence of the soldiers in the capture of Christ in Gethsemane-Ego Sum;
B4v Divine Decree, the Church and the virtues;
B5 Annunciation;
C3v The meeting of Joachim and Anna at the Golden Gate;
C8V Flagellation of Christ;
D1 Crucifixion;

IMG_0313
D2 Pentecost;
D3 Nativity;
D5v Annunciation to the Shepherds;

747915_view 02_02-2

D6 Nativity (from Simone Vostre Quart Series);
E1 Adoration of the Magi;
E3v Presentation in the Temple;
E6 Massacre of the Innocents;

IMG_0323
F1v Death of the Virgin;

IMG_0345
F8v battle and Death of Uriah;

747915_view 03_03
G1 King David and Bathsheba bathing;
G8v The poor Lazarus at the banquet of the rich, “Lazarus and Dives”;
H1 Massacre of the Innocents (Repeated);
L 8v Mary Immaculate;
M4v Hardouin Device.

Small Woodcuts:
A7, San Luca Evangelist in the Scriptorium;
A7v, San Matthew Evangelist in the Scriptorium;
A7v, San Mark Evangelist in the Scriptorium;
C8, Sanhedrin trial of Jesus;
I8 Man of Sorrows on a sarcophagus;
I8v Man of Sorrows on a sarcophagus (repeated);
I8v miracle of Pentecost;
K1v Annunciation;
K4v Archangel Michael as a conqueror of the Satan;
K4v Beheading of John the Baptist;IMG_0329
K5 John the evangelist with the cup of poison;
K5 decapitation of the Apostle Peter;
K5v St. James at pilgrimage with book;
K6 Martyrdom of St. Stephen standing with book and stones;
K6 St. Lawrence on the grill;
K6 St. Christopher carrying the Christ;
K6V Martyrdom of St. Sebastian;
K7v St. Nicholas with the three boys;
K7v St. Claudius as a bishop with book;
K8 St. Anthony as a hermit with his pig;
K8 St. Anne teaches Maria to read;
K8v St. Mary Magdalene standing with the Ampulla;
K8V St. Catherine with wheel, sword and book;
L1 St. Margaret escaping from the Satan, in the shape of a dragon;
L1 St. Barbara standing with tower and palm branch;
L1v Beheading of St. Barbara;
L3 Crucifixion with Mary and John;
L6 Annunciation to Mary. The words on the fourth line of the colophon and the entire 3 lines below that obliterated. Contemporary owner’s motto and arms painted in colors and gold on vellum leaves at beginning and end; early 19th-century booklabel of Bettison’s of Cheltenham & Leamington; 19th-century armorial bookplate of George Folliot.IMG_0340

In these Hardouyn Hours the metal cuts are emulating those of “Vostre”s new style of illustration”(see the next item in this catalogue).

IMG_0363

Bohatta 887, 891, ; Brun, pages 18 and 210 (“la meilleure production des presses d”Hardouyn”); Fairfax Murray/French 270; Lacombe 199. Brunet, Manuel , V, Paris 1864, coll. 1628-1644; Ph. Renouard, Imprimeurs Parisiens , etc., Paris 1898; P. Lacombe, Livres d’heures etc., Paris 1907; Bohatta, Bibliographie des livres d’heures .Vienna 1909; R. Brun, Le livre illustré en France au XVI and siècle , Paris 1930, pp. 22-26.
  1. Newberry Library IMG_0365

2.Huntington Library,

3.Morgan Library & Museum

4.University of British. Columbia

5.University of Cambridge

  1. 6 Koninklijike Bibliotheek

747915_view 04_04

Nessus is well known for his part in the story of the Shirt of Nessus. He was a ferryman, and one day, he had to carry Deianeira, wife of Heracules, across the river. After they crossed the river, Nessus tried to have sex with her, but Hercules watching from the other riverbank, shot an arrow straight into Nessus’ chest. Before he drew his final breath, Nessus told Deianeira that his blood would ensure that her husband would be faithful to her in eternity. Deianeira believed him and collected some of the centaur’s blood.

(E.B.)

IMG_0344

Hardouyn Heures on vellum!

247J.

Heures a lusaige de Romme tout au long                           sans riens requerir : avec les figures de la                        vie de lhomme: et la destruction de hierusa=lem.

Tout pour le Mieulx.

747915

Paris : Par Gillet Hardouyn imprimeur, 1509     $53,000

Large Quarto 9x 5 3/4   inches (a very Large copy)  [92] Vellum leaves A-L8, M4  complete.

Printed in red and black. 21 full -page Illustrations,  and 28 small woodcuts along the text, from the Master of the Apocalypse Rose, and Pichore design. All the borders are painted . ILLUMINATED IN GOLD AND  very vivid COLOURS BY A CONTEMPORARY HAND, liquid-gold initials and line-filler the illustrations are mostly of Gospel scenes; numerous small illustrations of saints and miscellaneous subjects; each text page within varying historiated border. One- and two-line initials in gold on blue or red ground throughout. The imagery in this book combines metalcut designs by Jean Pichore with the rich illumination of a painter.

Large R (for Rome) on first four leaves of each quire, in a line with the signature.

This copy is bound in 18thcentury tan calf recently rebacked.

IMG_0316
HARDOUYN (Gilles or Gillet), son of Guillaume, born in 1455, libr. – juror and printer, 1491-1521; resigns his duties as a free juror on 9 Sept. 1519. He was first a bookseller and then also a typographer, he was, together with Germain Hardouyn, one does not know if his son or brother, among the first to introduce in the decoration of the Livres d’heures the style of the Italian Renaissance.   He published exclusively books of hours. Before the fall of Pont-Notre-Dame (25 Oct. 1499), he lives in the 8th house of the bridge. Then He can be found: – “At the end of the bridge at the Change, at the sign of the Rose, below the beautiful Ymaige; – On the bridge at the Change near the beautiful Ymaige Notre Dame at the sign of the Rose “; At this location he is listed as  was only bookseller. And almost every Hours that bears this address have the name of another printer than him. In 1509, he became a printer and established himself: – “At the end of the bridge Notre Dame before saints Denis de la Chartre at the sign of the Rose dor; – In confinio pontis Nostræ Dominæ, ante ecclesiam sancti Dionisii of carcere, ad intersignum Rosæ deauratæ; Several books of hours bearing this address and his name as imprint. With an almanac beginning earlier, are not earlier than 1509. He keeps this address until the end .

Documents: Arch. Nat., ZIH 24, 364; L. DOREZ, Notes … n ° 11; P. LACOMBE, Books of Hours, Passim. We admit here with Leon Dorez, that the libr.-juror who resigns his office in 1519 and who is called Gilbert is the same as Gillet; however it is qualified factor , which seems to apply with difficulty to a printer having produced as much as him. – The ancestors of the Hardouyn had always lived and “exposed their days” on the bridge Notre Dame. 

Sig. A1r (Hercules and the centaur Nessus* ), a1v almanac for 1508-20, a2r-7r calendar, a7v-B1v Gospel sequence [Martyrdom of St. John, two portrait cuts], B2r-6r Passion according to St. John [Crucifixion], B6r-7r Obsecro te, B7v-c8r Hours of the Virgin: Matins-Lauds [Adam and Eve, Annunciation, Visitation], C8v-F2r Hours of the Cross and of the Holy Ghost, intermingled with Hours of the Virgin: Prime-Compline [Flagellation, Pentecost, Nativity, Annunciation to the Shepherds, Adoration of the Magi (x 2), Flight into Egypt, Coronation of the Virgin], F2v-3v prayers for saying on weekdays, F4r-8r prayers for saying on Saturday and others, F8v- G5r Seven Penitential Psalms [a Prophet, David], G5r-8r Litany of Saints, G8v-I6v Office of the Dead [a Prophet, Job on his Dungheap], I7r-8v prayers to the Virgin and to St. John the Evangelist, I8v-K5v suffrages, K5v-7v prayers to the Virgin, Missus est Gabriel, K8r-L3v seven prayers to St Gregory, Seven joys of the Virgin, and other prayers in Latin and French, L4r contents, L4v colophon, M1-6 Office of the Immaculate Conception).M4 Prayer: Jesus soit en ma teste; M4v colophon..

Full page woodcuts:
A1 Hardouin Device, the Centaurus Nessus, Heracles and the abduction of Deianira;
A1v Planetary man, in the form of a Skeleton;
A6 Martyrdom of Johannes the Evangelist, in the cauldron of boiling oil;

IMG_0346
A8v Impotence of the soldiers in the capture of Christ in Gethsemane-Ego Sum;
B4v Divine Decree, the Church and the virtues;
B5 Annunciation;
C3v The meeting of Joachim and Anna at the Golden Gate;
C8V Flagellation of Christ;
D1 Crucifixion;

IMG_0313
D2 Pentecost;
D3 Nativity;
D5v Annunciation to the Shepherds;

747915_view 02_02-2

D6 Nativity (from Simone Vostre Quart Series);
E1 Adoration of the Magi;
E3v Presentation in the Temple;
E6 Massacre of the Innocents;

IMG_0323
F1v Death of the Virgin;

IMG_0345
F8v battle and Death of Uriah;

747915_view 03_03
G1 King David and Bathsheba bathing;
G8v The poor Lazarus at the banquet of the rich, “Lazarus and Dives”;
H1 Massacre of the Innocents (Repeated);
L 8v Mary Immaculate;
M4v Hardouin Device.

Small Woodcuts:
A7, San Luca Evangelist in the Scriptorium;
A7v, San Matthew Evangelist in the Scriptorium;
A7v, San Mark Evangelist in the Scriptorium;
C8, Sanhedrin trial of Jesus;
I8 Man of Sorrows on a sarcophagus;
I8v Man of Sorrows on a sarcophagus (repeated);
I8v miracle of Pentecost;
K1v Annunciation;
K4v Archangel Michael as a conqueror of the Satan;
K4v Beheading of John the Baptist;IMG_0329
K5 John the evangelist with the cup of poison;
K5 decapitation of the Apostle Peter;
K5v St. James at pilgrimage with book;
K6 Martyrdom of St. Stephen standing with book and stones;
K6 St. Lawrence on the grill;
K6 St. Christopher carrying the Christ;
K6V Martyrdom of St. Sebastian;
K7v St. Nicholas with the three boys;
K7v St. Claudius as a bishop with book;
K8 St. Anthony as a hermit with his pig;
K8 St. Anne teaches Maria to read;
K8v St. Mary Magdalene standing with the Ampulla;
K8V St. Catherine with wheel, sword and book;
L1 St. Margaret escaping from the Satan, in the shape of a dragon;
L1 St. Barbara standing with tower and palm branch;
L1v Beheading of St. Barbara;
L3 Crucifixion with Mary and John;
L6 Annunciation to Mary. The words on the fourth line of the colophon and the entire 3 lines below that obliterated. Contemporary owner’s motto and arms painted in colors and gold on vellum leaves at beginning and end; early 19th-century booklabel of Bettison’s of Cheltenham & Leamington; 19th-century armorial bookplate of George Folliot.IMG_0340

In these Hardouyn Hours the metal cuts are emulating those of “Vostre”s new style of illustration”(see the next item in this catalogue).

Bohatta 887, 891, ; Brun, pages 18 and 210 (“la meilleure production des presses d”Hardouyn”); Fairfax Murray/French 270; Lacombe 199. Brunet, Manuel , V, Paris 1864, coll. 1628-1644; Ph. Renouard, Imprimeurs Parisiens , etc., Paris 1898; P. Lacombe, Livres d’heures etc., Paris 1907; Bohatta, Bibliographie des livres d’heures .Vienna 1909; R. Brun, Le livre illustré en France au XVI and siècle , Paris 1930, pp. 22-26.
  1. Newberry Library

2.Huntington Library,

3.Morgan Library & Museum

4.University of British. Columbia

5.University of Cambridge

  1. Koninklijike Bibliotheek

 

 

747915_view 04_04
Nessus is well known for his part in the story of the Shirt of Nessus. He was a ferryman, and one day, he had to carry Deianeira, wife of Heracules, across the river. After they crossed the river, Nessus tried to have sex with her, but Hercules watching from the other riverbank, shot an arrow straight into Nessus’ chest. Before he drew his final breath, Nessus told Deianeira that his blood would ensure that her husband would be faithful to her in eternity. Deianeira believed him and collected some of the centaur’s blood.

(E.B.)

 

 

 

IMG_0344

 

Trouble of mind and the disease of melancholly

252J.  Timothy Rogers (1658-1728)

A discourse concerning trouble of mind and the disease of melancholly : in three parts : written for the use of such as are, or have been exercised by the same.

London : Printed for Thomas Parkhurst, and Thomas Cockerill at the Bible and Three Crowns in Cheapside, and at the Three Legs in the Poultrey 1691.                      $2, 800

IMG_0209

 

Octavo     inches. A8 (a)-(d)8 (e)4, B-2E8 ( leaf S7 pages 269/270 torn in the out margin affecting one word in each line) first Edition , bound in original calf boards neatly rebacked.

“Rogers was educated at Glasgow University, where he matriculated in 1673, and then studied under Edward Veal at Wapping.Rogers began his career in the dissenting ministry as evening lecturer at Crosby Square, Bishopsgate. Some time after 1682 he was struck down by a form of hypochondria, from which he recovered in 1690, and then became assistant to John Shower. Shower was then minister of the Presbyterian congregation in Jewin Street, and moved in 1701 to the Old Jewry Meeting-house.  Rogers’s hypochondria returned, and in 1707 he left the ministry .(DNB)

Rogers cautions not to blame the devil for this depression:

“Do not attribute the effects of mere Disease, to the Devil”, He describes how the mind can make the body sick: “If a Man, saith he, that is troubled in Conscience, come to a Minister, it may be, he will look all to the Soul, and nothing to the Body; if he come to a Physician, he considereth the Body, and neglecteth the Soul: for my part, I would never have the Physician’s Counsel despised, nor the Labour of the Minister neglected; because the Soul and Body dwelling together, it is convenient, that as the Soul should be cured, by the Word, by Prayer, by Fasting, or by Comforting; so the Body must be brought into some temperature, by Physick, and Diet, by harmless Diversions, and such like ways.” 

“Rogers’s detailed instructions on how to care for patients suffering from `trouble of mind’, especially from `melancholly’ of the religious kind, are particularly valuable because they were written from personal experience; as the extract shows much of his advice can still be usefully applied by the psychiatrist and the psychiatric nurse today. It appears from his biography prefixed to the third edition of his book (London 1808; a second edition appeared in 1706) that he came from a family in which several near relatives were similarly affected ‘so that his case might properly be called natural or hereditary’. In his late twenties he had his first breakdown, ‘a deep and settled melancholy’ lasting two years. On his recovery he wrote this book as an offering ‘for his wonderful restoration’, to discharge ‘the Duty of those Persons whom God hath delivered from Melancholy, and from the anguish of their Consciences’ and to show `What is to be thought of those that are distracted with Trouble for their sins’. However he continued ever after subject to ‘a very unhappy dejection of mind . . . a prey to gloomy fears and apprehensions’, so that he was forced to retire into the country where he continued to manifest ‘though in a more contracted sphere, the same zeal for the honour of God, and for the salvation of the souls of men’.” (300 years of Psychiatry, Richard Hunter, 1963, p248)

Archibald Alexander (17721851), the first professor at Princeton Theological Seminary, was a perceptive student of human behavior. His insights on counseling, especially on dealing with depression, are remarkably valid for today. In his Thoughts on Religious Experience (1844), Alexander wrote concerning the causes of depression:

“ When religious melancholy becomes a fixed disease, it may be reckoned among the heaviest calamities to which our suffering nature is subject. It resists all argument and rejects every topic of consolation, from whatever source it may proceed. It feeds upon distress and despair and is displeased even with the suggestion or offer of relief. The mind thus affected seizes on those ideas and truths which are most awful and terrifying. Any doctrine which excludes all hope is congenial to the melancholy spirit; it seizes on such things with an unnatural avidity and will not let them go. [Alexander 1978, 35] Alexander tells of Timothy Rogers, a London minister who lived from 1658 to 1728. Rogers was a godly, pious, and able pastor. Yet he was overtaken by a severe depression which today would probably be diagnosed as involutional depression. Rogers’s depression was so acute that he “gave up all hope of the mercy of God, and believed himself to be a vessel of wrath, designed for destruction, for the praise of the glorious justice of the Almighty”(Alexander 1978, 35).

Alexander describes Rogers’s condition in terms that tell us the man was clinically depressed, perhaps even psychotically depressed at times. It is clear that Alexander accepts Rogers’s depressed feelings as genuine and recognizes them as the cause of the spiritual problem which clouded his perceptions. Yet Alexander does not conclude that Rogers was damned, nor does he charge him with spiritual backsliding or lack of faith. Rather he sees a severe depression that needed to be understood. Rogers’s depression eventually ran its course, as do most involutional depressions. Many Christians cared for him and prayed on his behalf. After his depression lifted, Rogers became interested in ministering to others who experienced depression. As part of this effort he wrote treatises entitled Recovery from Sickness and Consolation for the Afflicted . Alexander was so impressed with the preface in Rogers’s Discourse on Trouble of Mind and the Disease of Melancholy that he put its contents verbatim into his own Thoughts on Relgious Experience . Those thoughts of Rogers on depression are of such high caliber that I have reproduced them in the appendix. They are the best material I have found on counseling depressed Christians. (© 1984 by William T. Kirwan)

Wing; R1848; Hunter p248

Copies – N.America

Harvard University Houghton Library

Newberry

U.S. National Library of Medicine

Union Theological Seminary

William Andrews Clark Memorial Library

University of Texas at Austin

Yale University, Medical School

Characters of Distinction between true and pretending Prophets are laid down. 1665

Todays book is as much fun to read as Brown’s Pseudoxia Epidemica , Like Brown Spencer is battling against superstition, with reason and natural history as his weapon and defense. 

940G     John Spencer, Dean of Ely             1630-1693

A Discourse concerning Prodigies: Wherein The Vanity of Presages by them is reprehended, and their true and proper Ends asserted and vindicated.

[bound with]

A Discourse Concerning Vulgar Prophecies. Wherein The Vanity of receiving them as the certain Indications of any future Event is discovered; And some Characters of Distinction between true and pretending Prophets are laid down.           

DSC_0079

London: Printed by J. Field for Will. Graves over against Great S. Maries Church in Cambridge, 1665; London: Printed by J. Field for Timothy Garthwait at the Kings head in S. Pauls Church-yard, 1665

$1,150

DSC_0080

Octavo  6 ½ X 4 ½ . A8, a8, B-Z8, Aa-Cc8, Dd4; A-I8, K4.   Second edition of the first book, first edition of the second book. Bound in contemporary calf.

The remarkable nature of Spencer’s achievement is enhanced when it is remembered that oriental studies were then in their infancy and that he was compelled to derive nearly all his data from classical writers of Greece and Rome, from the Christian fathers, the works of Josephus, or from the Bible itself. Spencer professed that his object was ‘to clear Deity from arbitrary and fantastic humor, “A greatly extended editon of Spencer’s refutation of omens and apparitions and the first to include his new publication, a “Discourse Concerning Vulgar Prophecies.” The book examines a copious assemblage of superstitions and auguries, such as comets, eclipses, the turning of ponds to blood and the moving of mountains, tracing the history of the Old Testament and classical mythology and commending the study of Natural Philosophy. Spencer examines superstitious beliefs surrounding comets and eclipses, as well as the beliefs held by some on the turning of ponds to blood and the moving of mountains and many more interpretations of bizarre natural phenomena.                                                              

“I Shall descend now to a close and distinct discourse concerning the (forementioned) Prodigies Signal; and amongst them, first con∣cerning those which more immediately resolve into causes Natural.”

 Spencer disapproved of the interpreting natural phenomena as superstitious prognostication and rather tricot to come up with, what we would call, a  scientific explanation.                

                         ” in which the vanity of receiving them as the certain indications of any future event is discovered, and some characters of distinction between true and pretended prophets are laid down.”

This attempt to bring the public to reason and sobriety was not less timely than the the first book, published  in response to the “Annus Mirabilis,”  Some enthusiasts  brought to notice a number of pretended prodigies, as portending future changes in the state, Spencer conceiving it to be of dangerous consequence thus to unsettle the minds of the people,,

And it might Be usefully renewed in current instances and at  THIS much later period .

Spencer writes :”That Nature in its production of the several kinds of crea∣tures, should (as if they were all stampt with one common seal) give them forth in such equal and similar figures and proportions, is a more just object of wonder, then to see the natural Archeus sometimes to play the bungler, and to leave its work (in some parts thereof) rude and mishapen. That the Earth should generally be delivered of the many vapours and winds within its bowels, without the pangs and throws of an earthquake; and that all the host of Heaven should marchJoel 2. 7, 8.every one on his way, and not break their ranks, neither thrust one another, but walk every one on his path (to borrow the language of the Prophet)Excedit profectò omnia miracula, ul∣lum diem fu isse in quo non cuncta confla∣grarent. Plin. Hist. Nat. l. 2. c. 107. are prodigies beyond an Earthquake, New star, or monster sometime discovered to the world, and therefore more justly chosen to be the constant instances of the divine Wisdom and Power; and to see some strange fires breaking forth (sometimes) from the caverns of the earth, is so much beneath wonder, that Pliny tells us, it exceeds all wonder, that there should be any day wherein all the things in the world (so pregnant with fiery principles) do not break forth into one mighty flame, and lay the world in ashes.Now then what sober Reason can warrant us to conclude any necessary and natural occurrences the prophetick signs of Events”

“John Spencer, master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and author of ‘De Legibus DSC_0118Hebraeorum,’ was a native of Bocton, near Bleane, Kent, where he was baptized on 31 October 1630. He was educated at the King’s School, Canterbury, became king’s scholar there, and was admitted to a scholarship of Archbishop Parker’s foundation in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, on 25 March 1645. He graduated B.A. in 1648, M.A. in 1652, B.D. in 1659, and D.D. in 1665. After taking holy orders he became a university preacher, served the cures first of Saint Giles and then of Saint Benedict, Cambridge, and on 23 July 1667 was instituted to the rectory of Landbeach, Cambridgeshire, which he resigned in 1683 in favor of his nephew and curate, William Spencer. On 3 August 1667 he was unanimously elected master of Corpus Christi College, and he governed that society for twenty-six years. He contributed verses to the Cambridge university Collection on the death of Henrietta Maria, queen dowager, in 1669. He was appointed a prebendary to the first stall at Ely in February 1671/2, and served the office of vice-chancellor of the university in the academic year 1673, during which he delivered a speech addressed to the Duke of Monmouth on his installation as chancellor of the university. He was admitted on the presentation of the king, to the archdeaconry of Sudbury in the church of Norwich on 5 September 1677; and was instituted to the deanery of Ely on 9 September 1677. He died on 27 May 1693, and was buried in the college chapel, where a monument with a Latin inscription was erected to his memory. He married Hannah, daughter of Isaac Puller, and sister of Timothy Puller. She died leaving one daughter (Elizabeth) and one son (John).
“Spencer was an erudite theologian and Hebraist, and to him belongs the honor of being the first to trace the connection between the rites of the Hebrew religion and those practiced by kindred Semitic races. In 1669 he published a ‘Dissertatio de Urim & Thummin,’ in which he referred those mystic emblems to an Egyptian origin. […] In 1685 appeared Spencer’s chief publication, his ‘De Legibus Hebraeorum ritualibus et earum rationibus libri tres.’ In this work, which included the earlier treatise on Urim and Thummin, Spencer deserted the time honored paths traced by commentators, and ‘may justly be said to have laid the foundations of the science of comparative religion. In its special subject, in spite of certain aspects, it still remains by far the most important book on the religious antiquities of the Hebrews.’ (Robertson Smith, Religions of the Semites, 1894) .’” (DNB)

Wing S-4948; CH, CLC, CN, IU, PL, WF, Y; Wing S-4949; CH, CLC, IU, MIU, NU, TO, TU, WF, Y.

 

 CHAP. II. Concerning Prodigies, Signal, Natural.I Shall descend now to a close and distinct discourse concerning the (forementioned) Prodigies Signal; and amongst them, first con∣cerning those which more immediately resolve into causes Natural. Concerning all which, I offer this general Thesis to proof. Prodigies Natural are not intended, nor to be expounded the Prognosticks of judge∣ments, suddenly to ensue upon whole Nations or particular persons. It is (especially) ignorance of their causes and ends which hath prefer∣redIsa. 44. 15. some of these Natural Prodigies to so great a veneration and re∣gard in many mens minds. As Ethnicism of old made the gods it worshipt, so ignorance oft makes the Furies it dreads.This Thesis I shall endeavour to perswade,1. By some general Reasons and Arguments.2. By a particular Induction and Survey of such as seem most plau∣sibly pretended the silent Monitours of some approaching venge∣ance.First, By some general Reasons.SECT. I. Reasons to prove Prodigies Natural no Signs of a future judgement.The first Argument taken from their doubtfull and uncertain indication; That proved from the confessions of their ablest Expositours; From their different Expositions in all times. The Interpreters of them banisht the Iewish Common-wealth of old, upon this account, Philo. Thuanus. The Argument further urged from Tully. God’s Signs express; The use∣lesness of those which are not.2. From a consideration of the times wherein most attended to. The rea∣son why a regard is to be had to the times and seasons; When Laws or U∣sages first obtained, noted from K. James. The times noted especially for gross ignorance in matters of Religion and Philosophy. Some Obser∣vations upon the remaining Registers of such accidents yet extant: The times remarked also for the publick fears and distractions happening in them. Livy. Seneca.3. From the natural and necessary Causes of these things. More of Na∣ture observable in a Prodigy, then common Occurrences.4. From the Nature and temper of the Oeconomy we are now under.THe Argument which I shall first offer to reprehend the commonArg. 1. vanity of receiving them as a kinde of indications in bodies Po∣litick, is this: Their (pretended) indications are so hugely perplext, doubt∣full and uncertain, that it cannot be concluded what judgement they portend, or when to ensue, or whether private persons or whole Nations be alam’d by them.If God do write Fata hominum in these mystick characters, there is none on earth found able to reade the writing, and (with any certainty) to make known the interpretation thereof. Most of their Expositours (like those upon Aristotle) are rather Vates quàm Interpretes. Concerning that prodigious Comet which shone in our Hemisphere, Ann. 1618▪ one that pretended himself as much Coelo à Conciliis as other men, yet thus freely delivers himself, Deum immortalem! quantò ille plurs de sese fermè Opiniones quàm crines sparsit. To a like purpose Tycho Brahe (discoursing de Nova stella Cygni, Ann. 1600.)

The Primitive Origin of Mankind EVOLUTION in 1677!

825G Matthew Hale

The Primitive Origin of Mankind considered and examined according to the light of nature.

DSC_0037 (2)

London: William Godbid for William Shrowsbery, 1677           $ 2,800

Folio 12 1/2 X 7 3/4 inches a-4,b2,B-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Bbb4,Ccc2. First edition.

This copy is bound in full later calf. This copy has the book plate of Desmond Morris author of DSC_0043the book The naked ape and numerous  TV shows sociobiology and Evolution.

 

“The problem of human origins, of how and when the first humans appeared in the world, has been addressed in a DSC_0042variety of ways in western thought. In the 17th century the predominant explanation for the origin of the world and the beings that inhabit it, especially human beings, was based on the biblical account of creation. It was almost universally accepted that humans had been created by a supernatural agent using supernatural means. But alternative explanations for the production of the first humans did exist, according to which the first humans were produced by nature through some form of spontaneous generation” (Matthew R. Goodrum).

The word evolution (from the Latin evolution, meaning “to unroll like a scroll”) appeared in English in the 17th century, referring to an orderly sequence of events, particularly one in which the outcome was somehow contained within it from the start. Notably, in 1677 Sir Matthew Hale, attacking the atheistic atomism of Democritus and Epicurus, used the term evolution to describe his opponent’s ideas that vibrations and collisions of atoms in the void — without divine intervention — had formed “Primordial Seeds” (semina) which were the “immediate, primitive, productive Principles of Men, Animals, Birds and Fishes.”[ Goodrum] For Hale, this mechanism was “absurd”, because “it must have potentially at least the whole Systeme of Humane Nature, or at least that Ideal Principle or Configuration thereof, in the evolution whereof the complement and formation of the Humane Nature must consist … and all this drawn from a fortuitous coalition of senseless and dead Atoms.”[ Goodrum]

DSC_0037 (3)While Hale (ironically) first used the term evolution in arguing against the exact mechanistic view the word would come to symbolize, he also demonstrates that at least some evolutionist theories explored between 1650 and 1800 postulated that the universe, including life on earth, had developed mechanically, entirely without divine guidance. Around this time, the mechanical philosophy of Descartes, reinforced by the physics of Galileo and Newton, began to encourage the machine-like view of the universe which would come to characterise the scientific revolution.[Bowler ] However, most contemporary theories of evolution, including those developed by the German idealist philosophers Schelling and Hegel (and mocked by Schopenhauer), held that evolution was a fundamentally spiritual process, with the entire course of natural and human evolution being “a self-disclosing revelation of the Absolute”.[Schelling]

In response to Isaac de la Peyrere‘s theory of polygenesis, Hale advanced his own theory that the earth was not eternal, but rather had a spontaneous “beginning,” and went on to defend “the Mosaic account of the single origin of all peoples” (Norman). He further believed “that in animals, especially insects, various natural calamities reduce the numbers to low levels intermittently, so maintaining the balance of nature” (Garrison & Morton). Hale anticipated Malthus in studying the growth of a population from a single family, and “seems to have been the first to use the expression ‘geometrical proportion” in respect to population (Hutchinson). Primitive Origination was written as the first part of a larger manuscript entitled Concerning Religion, the whole of which “was submitted to Bishop Wilkins, who showed it to Tillotson. Both advised condensation, for which Hale never found leisure” (DNB). This first part, called “Concerning the Secondary Origination of Mankind,” was published after his death as The Primitive Origination of Mankind. A lawyer by trade, Hale distinguished himself after the fire of London in 1666 by deciding many cases of owner and tennant dispute, and helped facilitate the rebuilding of the city. He also publically demonstrated his belief in witches when as a judge he condemned more than one suspected witch to death. Wing H-258 ;Norman 965 ;Garrison & Morton 215; Lowndes, 973.

Goodrum, Matthew R. (April 2002). “Atomism, Atheism, and the Spontaneous Generation of Human Beings: The Debate over a Natural Origin of the First Humans in Seventeenth-Century Britain”. Journal of the History of Ideas 63 (2): 207–224

Bowler, Peter J. (2003). Evolution:The History of an Idea. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23693-9.

Schelling, System of Transcendental Idealism, 1800

Brian Regal Human Evolution: A Guide to the Debates, 2004

1512 Dante Alighieri 99 wood-cuts !

IMG_0055Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)

Opere del Divino Poeta Danthe con svoi Comenti : Recorrecti et con ogne diligentia novamente in littera cvrsiva impresse. In bibliotheca S. Bernardini. [With the commentary of Cristoforo Landino.

[Venetia] In bibliotheca. S. Bernardini, [1512] {[Impressa in Venetia per Miser Bernardino Stagnino da Trino de Monferra]}              SoldIMG_0025

Quarto: 8×5 1/2 inches  ; [12], 441 leaves. Collation: AA12 (AA1 In very good facsimile  of the title) , a-z8, [et]8, aa-zz8, 2[et]8, [con]8, [rum]8, A-E8

FIRST STAGNINO EDITION

There are a few contemporary annotations  by several hands throughout.  Endpapers renewed.

This copy is bound in a strange but interesting binding of modern manufacture.It is Bound in brown full leather with an inlayed white material carved image of ‘Danthe’ beset by the lion, leopard and wolf!

IMG_0034

The book is illustrated with a full-paged woodcut of Dante with three scenes (1. wandering in the “selva oscura”, 2. beset by the lion, leopard and wolf, and 3. led by IMG_0031Screenshot_20181002-150305_eBayVergil.) The poems are illustrated with 98 smaller woodcuts. In addition to the woodcuts that illustrate the text, there is a vignette of Adam & Eve, God, and the Serpent in the Garden of Eden that appears on the title page and again in the woodcut border on the first leaf of the Inferno. A woodcut of St. Bernardino of Siena also appears on the title. There are woodcut initials throughout. Title page printed in red and black.  Some of the woodcuts are signed C or with a small column with or without initials PF or CC.

IMG_0028The woodcuts “differ from those used in earlier editions yet show unmistakable traces of those of 1491.”(Fiske Catalogue, p. 7). The text surrounded with commentary./ Italic type (Proctor 12359); 51 lines of commentary partially surrounding text.

This edition has the  commentary of Cristoforo Landino (1424-98) His Dante commentary was presented to the city with great fanfare in a public ceremony in 1481, and with corrections to both the Landino commentary and the text of the Commedia by Pietro da Figino (Pietro Mazzanti da Figline).  In addition to the Commedia, this edition includes Dante’s Italian verse paraphrases of the Pater Noster, Ave Maria and the Creed.

Dante’s theme, the greatest yet attempted in poetry, was to explain and justify the Christian cosmos through the allegory of a pilgrimage. To him comes Virgil, the symbol of philosophy, to guide him through the two lower realms of the next world, which are divided according to the classifications of the ‘Ethics’ of Aristotle. Hell is seen as an inverted cone with its point where lies Lucifer fixed in ice at the centre of the world, and the pilgrimage from it is a climb to the foot of and then up the Purgatorial Mountain. Along the way Dante passes Popes, Kings and Emperors, poets, warriors and citizens of Florence, expiating the sins of their life on earth. On the summit is the Earthly Paradise where Beatrice meets them and Virgil departs. Dante is now led through the various spheres of heaven, and the poem ends with a vision of the Deity. The audacity of his theme, the success of its treatment, the beauty and majesty of his verse, have ensured that his poem never lost its reputation. The picture of divine justice is entirely unclouded by Dante’s own political prejudices, and his language never falls short of what he describes.” PMMIMG_0058

“Edizione rara e molto stimata… fu intitolata ‘Opere’ probabilmente perché contenente il Credo, il Pater Nostro, e l’Ave Maria parafrasati in versi Italiani da Dante.”(Colomb De Batines, I, pp. 78-9)

Adams D 90; Mambelli, Annali delle Edizioni Dantesche, no. 27; Colomb De Batines, Indice generale della Bibliografia dantesca I, 78; Sander, Le livre à figures italien, depuis 1467 jusqu’a 1530, 2325; Essling, Les livres à figures Vénitiens de la fin du xve siècle et du commencement du xvie, 529.IMG_0033

Fisk:Opere del divino poeta Danthe con svoi conienti : recorrecti et con ogne diligentia novamente in littera cvrsiva impresse.Atend: Fine del comento di Christoforo Landino Fiorètino sopra la Comedia di Danthe poeta excellentissimo reuista & emédata ditigetenmente p el rcuerédo maestro Pietro da Figino … & ha posto molte cose in din ersi luoghi che ha truouato mancare si in lo texto eòe nella giosa etià nouiter per altri excellenti huoT. Impressa in Venetia per Miser Bernardino stagnino da Trino de monferra. Del. M.CCCCC.XII. Adi. xxiiii. Nouembrio. 8°. ff. (12) + 441. Wdcts. 1012 B 6

At the end are the Credo, Pater nostro, and Ave Maria of Dante. The woodeuts are a full-page cut at the beginnìng of the Inferno, mie at the bottoni of the first page of the Inferno, in which depicts the figures Octaviano and Sibiìia, IMG_0038.jpgsmall ones at the head of each canto (differing from the cuts in the earlier editions, yet showing unmistakable traces of those of 1491), with a vignette of St. Bernard and a woodcut of Adam and Ève on the tùie-page. These illustrations are reprinted in the edition of 1520, except that there the wr.odcut of Adam and Ève is repeated on the first pair of the Inferno, and the vignette on the title-page is smaller and reversed.

 

IMG_0027

 

Bandini, Angelo Maria. Specimen literaturae Florentinae saeculi XV in quo dum Christophori Landini gesta enarrantur virorum ea aetate doctissimorum in literariam remp. 2 vols. Florence: Rigaccius, 1747–1751.

“Edizione rara e molto stimata.” — Colonib de Batines, i.78.

IMG_0054.jpg

Harvard University Bulletin, Volume 4, Justin Winsor : Harvard University. Library. 1887

Please don’t look :  Iconografia Dantesca: The Pictorial Representation to Dante’s Divine Comedy By Ludwig Volkmann, Charles Sarolea 1899.

DSC_0067 2DSC_0067 3

Create a website or blog at WordPress.com

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: