679J. Book of hours use of Rome .

Hore diuine virginis Marie secundum vsum Romanum cum alijs multis foliosequenti notatis vna cum figuris Apocalipsis & destructio Hierusalem & multisfiguris, Biblie insertis.

Parisius nouiter ĩpressum p Germano Hardouyn librario. Cõmorante inter duas portas Palatij adintersignium sancte margarete. 1533                                                                                                  $35,000

Octavo 155 x 103 mm. Signatures a-m8 ā7 [95] of [96] leaves (lacks the last leaf). with 20 [of 21] large illustrations and 12 smaller ones, all finely hand-coloured.  Marginal tear without losses to E2, in some parts the text is palely crossed out line by line or with vertical or diagonal signs, slightly worn binding and other minor traces of use and time, but overall, a good copy. Bound in full nineteenth century calf.

 Germain Hardouyn was a prolific printer, bookseller and publisher active in Paris from 1500 to 1541, initially with his brother Gillet or Gilles. The two Hardouyns supplied the Parisian market and the provinces with many printed books of hours, publications typical of Paris publishers and printers in the Renaissance: countless editions were produced between 1488 and 1568. The new printing technology in fact, it replaced the long work of copyists and miniaturists, allowing for the creation of multiples that could reach a wider audience. 

The growing urban middle class was a major buyer of these kinds of books, as beautiful as the precious manuscripts that were created for the noble classes. Although some printed books of hours were left in black and white, many had their illustrations sumptuously hand painted, as in the present case. The artists who colored them were often also active as traditional illuminators, making it difficultto distinguish the illustrations from those found in the manuscripts. 

Since the two Hardouyns were not only recorded as typesetters but also as illuminators, which is rare in the book trade, their printed books of hours are often exceptionally well painted, closely resembling illuminated manuscripts. The present specimen has a livelyand very accurate colouring, illuminated by elegant golden finishes. Dated 1533 on the colophon, it nevertheless bears the almanac for the years 1520-1532 on page A4v. The work opens with the title page, decorated with the large Hardouyn typographical brand, on the reverse of which we find a skeletal Astro/Anatomical Man with four other small miniatures relating to the four medieval temperaments in the corners.

 The other full or three-quarter page illustrations mostly depict scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary (Annunciation, Nativity, Announcement to the Shepherds, Adoration of the Magi, Presentation in the Temple, Flight into Egypt, Crucifixion, Pentecost), but also biblical scenes such as Adam and Eve with the Serpent underthe Tree of Knowledge, and David and Bathsheba.

669J. Book of Hours, use of Rome