• 538J Bate, Pharmacopoeia Bateana: or, Bate’s dispensatory: 1694

2) 583J Digby,  Touching the cure of wounds by the powder of sympathy: 1658

3) 504J Gibson, The Farriers Dispensatory : 1721

4) 559J Halfpenny, The gentleman’s jockey, and approved farrier:

5) 539J Harvey, Casus medico-chirurgicus: 1685

6) 527J Van Helmont, A ternary of paradoxes: 1650

6) 527J Van Helmont, Deliramenta catarrhi: or, The incongruities, impossibilities:1650

7) 493J Radcliffe, Pharmacopoeia Radcliffeana: 1716

8) 578J Salmon, The family-dictionary; or, Household companion: 1710

9) 582J Walwyn, Physick for families. Or, The new, safe and powerful way of physick: 1696


  1. 538J

George Bate. (1608-1669) 

Pharmacopoeia Bateana: or, Bate’s dispensatory. Translated from the second edition of the Latin copy, published by Mr. James Shipton. Containing his choice and select recipe’s, their names, compositions, preparations, vertues, uses and doses, as they are applicable to the whole practice of physick and chyrurgery: the Arcana Goddardiana, and their recipe’s intersperst in their proper places, which are almost all wanting in the Latin copy. Compleated with above five hundred chymical processes; and their explications at large, various observations thereon, and a rationale upon each process. To which are added in this English edition, Goddard’s drops, Russel’s pouder, and the emplastrum febrifugum: those so much fam’d in the world; as also several other preparations from the Collectanea chymica, and other good authors. By William Salmon, professor of physick.

London: for S. Smith and B. Walford, at the Prince’s Arms, St. Paul’s Church-yard, 1694.    $2,200

 Octavo, 17 x 11 cm. Signatures: A7B-Z 8Aa-Zz8 Aaa-Ppp8[qqq]Qqq-Rrr4

§Leaves (signature3K if you will) Kkk1-8 is made up of 16 leaves printed on one side only then put together creating pages which are thicker that all of the others in the book, and giving the feeling the pages are split.

A split signature.

Published posthumously by his colleagues and students for the first time in London in 1688, it was then gradually increased with additions of other authors. The text remained in vogue until the middle of the eighteenth century. This is the first edition to have the Arcana Goddardiana. There is one Plate, is an engraving of a chamber designed for heating antimony, an element often used in powdered form in medicines and cosmetics facing p. 475, engraved by F.H. van Hove

This copy is bound in contemporary boards recently rebacked in an amateur way.

Bate graduated with an M.D. from St Edmund Hall, Oxford in 1637. Three years later while thought to be a Puritan, yet he treated Charles I in Oxford. In the Interrgenum he was physician to Oliver Cromwell and his family. At the restoration he became physician to Charles II, and one of the founding Fellows of the Royal Society. The first deals with internal remedies, the second with external compounds. There is also a guide to the chemical and medicinal symbols used in the text. This work is an exhaustive compendium of herbal and chemical remedies. Every imaginable drug and disease are treated, and a long and detailed index at the end of the text, to make it easier to find information on any given malady or cure.

Wing B1088 which has title “Pharmacopœia Bateana: or, Bate’s dispensatory.” :Arber’s Term cat.; II 478; Cushing B157 (1694 ed.); Wellcome II, p. 113 (1694 ed.);Heirs of Hippocrates No. 495.


2) 583J

Kenelm Digby. (1603-1665)

 A late discourse made in a solemne assembly of nobles and learned men at Montpellier in France; by Sr. Kenelme Digby, Knight, &c. Touching the cure of wounds by the powder of sympathy; with instructions how to make the said powder; whereby many other secrets of nature ar unfolded. Rendred faithfully out of French into English by R. White. Gent { Translation of “Discours fait en une célèbre assemblée, touchant la guérison des playes par la poudre de sympathie”.}

London: printed for R. Lownes, and T. Davies, and are to be sold at their shops in St. Pauls Church yard, at the sign of the White Lion, and at the Bible over against the little north door of St. Pauls Church, 1658.            $2,900

 Duodecimo: 12.5 x 8.5 cm. Signatures: A-G12 H6. This copy has some occasional and very minor stains and folds in the text; it is in good condition overall. It is in full contemporary English sheepskin, rebacked, in good shape.

 ¶This remarkable book is one of the most imaginative attempts to add a mechanistic development to the pharmacopeia. The Powder of Sympathy, is the substantive manifestation of Sympathetic magic which is based on the metaphysical belief that like affects like. But with

Digby’s ‘discovery’ of The Powder of Sympathy which facilitates an extra-perceptible connection between a wound and its cause; specifically rapier wounds. Expanding the concepts of healing, and for that matter weapons. Digby’s discovery is depicted in Umberto Eco’s novel The island of the day before. Where Dr. Byrd, the scientist on board a lost ship, can tell the time at the ship’s port of departure and can then calculate accurately how far they have traveled west. Byrd then uses The Powder of Sympathy, in the attempt to solve the problem of longitude. A dog’s wound is kept open on a ship in the South Pacific. At an agreed upon hour the knife that opened that wound is touched in London. The dog howls and whimpers. The seamen then know London time, and from that they can determine longitude.

“Digby’s father was one of the men executed for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1606. However, the son remained a Catholic and was educated at Gloucester Hall (now Worcester College), Oxford. A successful naval commander, Digby was interested in science and became a founder member of the Royal Society in 1660. His first work, not published until 1827, was his Private Memoirs, written in 1628 to refute gossip about his wife, Venetia Stanley. In 1638 he published a reaffirmation of his Catholic faith, Conference with a Lady about Choice of Religion, after flirting with Protestantism, and a criticism of Browne’s Religio Medici (Observations upon Religio Medici) in 1643. A Royalist, he pleaded the cause of King Charles in Rome, and was banished in 1649, the year of the king’s execution. He lived in Paris, where he became a friend of Descartes, until the Restoration, when he returned to England as Chancellor to Queen Henrietta Maria. Other works were Of the Immortality of Man’s Soul (1644), On the Cure of Wounds (1658) and A Discourse Concerning the Vegetation of Plants (1660), an address to the Royal Society on the necessity of oxygen to plant life.” (Stapleton’s Cambridge Guide to English Literature, page 238)

“A less solid philosopher than Herbert, but a much finer knight-errant, was the handsome,charming, versatile, and unique Sir Kenelm Digby, a wandering planet whose orbit one crosses at every turn in the period.” (Bush)

“Since Bacon is so often the scapegoat of credulity, we may remember that Gilbert, Kepler, Descartes, and others were not immune from unscientific ideas. Boyle, for instance, stopped the bleeding of his nose with ‘some moss of a dead man’s skull.’ [This particular ‘receipt’ is printed and present in the present book.] After Harvey’s doubtless the most celebrated if not the most valuable medical discovery was Sir Kenelm Digby’s ‘powder of sympathy;’ its miraculous efficacy was first publicly proclaimed in 1658. That versatile dilettante showed his really scientific capacity in his treatise on bodies (1644) and his lecture to the Royal Society on the vegetation of plants (1661). In general the mixture of the fabulous or occult with the scientific was in part a natural legacy from medieval science, in part it was sustained by the persistent conviction, rational or mystical, of the unity between God and all His works.” (Bush’s English Literature in the Earlier Seventeenth Century, page 260)

Wing D1435; ESTC; R27859; Zeis Index,; 40; Cushing D163 (2nd ed., 1658); Osler 2457 (1st ed., 1658); Wellcome II, p. 468 (2nd ed.),Heirs of Hippocrates No. 483 (second edition)

A collection of hand written later receipts receipts in the Digby


3) 504J. William Gibson. (1680-1751) 

The Farriers Dispensatory : In three parts. Containing I. A description of the medicinal simples, commonly made use of in the Diseases of Horses, with their Virtues and Manner of Operation, distributed into proper Classes, &c. II. The preparations of simples, vegetable, animal and mineral ; with an Explanation of the most usual Terms, both in the Chymical and Galenical Pharmacy. III. A number of useful compositions and receipts suited to the Cure of all Diseases, never before published ; as also those of greatest Account from Solleysell, Ruini, Blundevill, and other most celebrated Authors, digested under their proper Heads of Powders, Balls, Drinks, Ointments, Charges, &c. The proper Method of compounding and making them, with many other useful Observations and Improvements tending to their right Administration. To which is also added, A compleat Index of all the Medicines contained in the Book, whether Simple or Compound, with a Table of Diseases pointing to the Remedies proper in each Malady. By W. Gibson.

London : Printed for W. Taylor, at the Ship and Black-Swan, in Pater-Noster-Row, 1721   $1,000

Octavo, 19.5 x 12 cm . signatures: A6 B-Y2 A2 B4  First edition Bound in contemporary full calf,with the book plate of John Hepburn Surgeon 1735 and a manuscript additional cure for sprains.

The Farriers Dispensatory was William Gibson’s supplement to his Farriers Guide. The second of his four published texts, the Dispensatory was a welcome successor to the incredibly well-received Farriers New Guide. This treatise was dedicated to Sir William Hope of Balcomie (1660-1724), a prominent equestrian and a translator of Jacques Solleysel’s (1617-1680) The Compleat Horseman (London, 1696). Sir William Hope believed that Gibson’s work was monumental and enlightening, going so far as to say that, ‘But be that as it will I am mightily well pleased that I can truly say, Britain has now a Gibson, as France formerly a Solleysell.’[*] Originally published in 1721, with a 2nd edition in 1724. Gibson left the army early in the 18th C to take up farriery, hoping it would be more profitable. His first publication was ‘The Farrier’s New Guide’, in 1721, the most scientific approach to diseases of horses to date, followed by the current work ‘The Farrier’s Dispensary’, on remedies used in farriery. The latter seems to have been of less use than the former, which went through many more editions. He wrote a larger work on the diseases of horses in 1750, and is considered one of the most important of the fathers of English farriery.

Gibson firmly believed that, at least at the time, those ‘endeavouring to make their Books compleat Systems, have not only rendered them much more perplexed than otherwise they would have been, but so tedious in many Place, that they are enough to deter any unaccustomed Reader from the least Perusal of them.’[22] In an effort to keep The Farriers New Guide from being unnecessarily complicated, Gibson chose not to include a collection of medicines and ‘receipts’ in his first text, but rather to publish an entire separate text to address such treatments. The Farriers Dispensatory, composed in three parts, contains a ‘Description of medicinal Simples, commonly made use of in the Diseases of Horses….,; the Preparations of Simples, Vegetable, Animal, and Mineral….; a Number of useful Compositions and Receipts suited to the Cure of all Diseases….;’ and ‘a compleat Index of all the Medicines contained in the Book.’[*]

Gibson specifically chose to structure his book as a dispensatory because it was the most extensive style of text and because he believed that it would be best suited to those who did not have the leisure or ability to read many books.[24] He also argued that his particular version of dispensatory guards ‘against all such Errors and Defects as have been already hinted at, by explaining the Nature of every Medicine, whether simple or compound, so far as is needful to the right Administration thereof, having also laid down the necessary Cautions, with a particular Observation of all such symptoms as require a Change or Alteration….’[25] It was vital to Gibson that his dispensatory improved upon the medical knowledge published and practiced by other farriers and authors. He claimed that many similar books took their prescribed medicines from books of physic for humans, but that the authors had little acquaintance with the study and did not properly adjust the recipes for equine use. Gibson warned that other farriery treatises recommended useless and insignificant cures, did not give proper doses or warnings, and suggested cures that, when mixed with others, reduced the cure’s effectiveness.[*] in 1671, new laws opening up previously restricted lands for the gentry to use for events such as hunts, expanded equine sports to those who had not had such opportunities due to their lack of land access. The need and desire for athletically gifted horses sparked an expansion of breeding in England and the surrounding countries. Tudor and Stuart monarchs ‘took the lead in improving the quality of the stock’ by importing Barbs, Turkomans, Neapolitans and other foreign horses with the intentions of improving the royal stud and producing more magnificent equine athletes.[**]

Peter Edwards, Horse and Man in Early Modern England (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007).

[*] Michael Hubbard MacKay, “The Rise of a Medical Specialty: The Medicalization of Elite Equine Care C. 1680 – C. 1800” (PhD Thesis, University of York, 2009).J.F. Smithcors, “William Gibson, Surgeon-Farrier, On Fevers,” Medical History 2, no. 3 (1958), 210.

[**] J.F. Smithcors, “William Gibson, Surgeon-Farrier, On Fevers,” Medical History 2, no. 3 (1958), 210.

English Short Title Catalog,; T94761


4) 559J.  John Halfpenny. (fl 1670) 

The gentleman’s jockey, and approved farrier, instructing in the natures, causes, and cures of all diseases incident to horses, with an exact and easie method of breeding, buying, dieting, and otherwise ordering all sorts of horses, as well for common and ordinary use, as the heats and course. With divers other curiosities collected by the long practice, experience and pains of J.H. Esquire, Matthew Hodson, Mr. Holled, Mr. Willis, Mr. Robinson, Mr. Holden, Thomas Empson, Mr. Roper, Mr. Medcalf, and Nathaniel Shaw.

London: Printed for Marcy Browning, near the Royal Exchange, 1681. (the only book printed by Marcy Browning in the ESTC).  $1,900

Octavo, 15 x 8.5 cm. Signatures: A-ST3 Aa3  Most probably missing frontice plate.(Final quire signed T3, A3 with A3 comprising index, possibly meant to be bound as part of the preliminaries) Seventh edition, most likely a pirated edition, Quite Rare Bound in full contemporary sheep, professional restored, a very good complete copy.

Halfpenny, seems to authored only one book, this. In this useful handbook as the title promises, method of running, breeding, buying, dieting, and medicating, curing horses. Extremely practical there are 279 “Approved Receipts”. I find the section (chapter?) on How to order, feed, and keep any Horse for Pleasure, Hunting or Travel, particularly interesting for example.

“Nor would I have you to distract your mind with any doubt or amazement, because I prescribe you five severe times of feeding in one day, as if it should either overcharge you, or over feed your Horse….”p63 

“All editions are rare. There are several variants of the 7th edition also published in 1681. Oddly the UCLA copy on EEBO, which is also dated 1681, has a very similar but clearly different plate from the usual one and may be a pirated version  (printed by Marcy Browning, and claiming to be the 7th edition), however this same plate appears in the 9th edition as well. Henry Twyford did not produce his 7th edition until 1683 and used the same plate as in this 1681 printing. His last printing was in 1687, the 8th edition. Pagination error: 267 given as ‘297’.” Niall Kenny TA&MU

Wing H283F list UCLA see above. 


5) 539J. Gideon Harvey. (1636/7-1702) 

Casus medico-chirurgicus: or, a most memorable case of a noble-man, deceased. Wherein is shewed, His Lordship’s wound, the various diseases survening, how his physicians and surgeons treated him, how treated by the author, after my Lord was given over by all his physicians, with all their opinions and remedies. Moreover, the art of curing the most dangerous of wounds, by the first intention: with the description of the remedies. Written and published by His Majesties command. The second edition. By Gideon Harvey, M.D. physician in ordinary to His Majesty. 

London: printed for James Partridge, stationer to his Royal Highness George hereditary Prince of Denmark, and sold at his shop at the Post-house between Charing-Cross and White-hall 1685        $2,900

Octavo, 14 x 8.5 cm. Signatures: (Title page is A2.) A2-4 B-L8 Lacking initial blank only the ESTC suggests that the first leaf might be a half title.   Second edition, This copy is bound in quarter modern calf over 18th century decorated paper boards with spine label. 

“In 1678 he [Harvey] was called … to attend a nobleman, 3rd Baron Mohun, who died in October 1677 as the result of a wound received while acting as second in a duel. Harvey pleading that he was commanded by the king to write an account of the case, made it the occasion of virulent personal attacks, under feigned names, of the other physicians concerned.” DNB. 

Charles Lord Mohun father of Charles Lord Mohun 4th Baron who was best known for his frequent participation in duels and for his reputation as a rake He was killed in the celebrated Hamilton–Mohun Duel in Hyde Park. 1712. Mohun and Hamilton suffered such horrific injuries that the government passed legislation banning the use of seconds in such duels. As a member of the Kit-Cat club he traveled in political/literary circles which certainly added to his fame. William Makepeace Thackeray fictionalised Mohun’s duels in his novel The History of Henry Esmond.  Also, as a result swords were replaced as the weapons of choice in duel by the pistol, which tended to result in shorter and less bloody fights. 

“Gideon Harvey was probably born in Holland between 1630 and 1640. He learned Greek and Latin in the Low Countries, and entered Exeter College, Oxford, in 1655, studying philosophy. In 1657 he began to study medicine, anatomy and botany at Leyden. At the same time he studied chemistry from a German, was instructed by a surgeon and apothecary. He also went to Paris where he was attended in the hospitals. He then returned to Holland and was made a fellow of the College of He married in 1691, aged just fifteen. His bride was Charlotte Orby, his guardian’s daughter and the niece of his close friend Lord Macclesfield, and she had no dowry. In November of 1692 she bore a stillborn son. 

Several weeks after this distressing event, the sixteen-year old baron fought his first duel. After a night of drinking he quarreled with Lord Kennedy, four years his senior. King William III, hearing of it, feared that a duel might ensue, and commanded both young gentlemen to remain at home. They chose not to obey their monarch’s edict. In the course of their battle, each received a minor wound. Harvey became a prolific author, although many of his works were critical of both persons and practices in the medical community of the day, and earned him the ire of many contemporaries. His practice was thriving, however, and he was made “their majesties’ physician of the Tower” under William and Mary, a position he held until his death, and was then succeeded by his son.” 

He was already in bad odour with the profession for some rather discreditable publications on venereal diseases, and for a book of popular medicine (‘The Family Physician,’ &c.), which was displeasing to the apothecaries, because it revealed secrets of their trade. Five years later (1683) Harvey published a scurrilous attack on the College of Physicians, under the title of ‘The Conclave of Physicians.’ The scene is supposed to be laid in Paris, but eminent London physicians were abused under scarcely veiled disguises. Charles II, who had a strong leaning towards irregular doctors, seems to have in some way countenanced, and perhaps enjoyed, this attack on the institution of which he was the official patron; but from a contemporary pamphlet (‘Gideon’s Fleece,’ a poem, 4to, 1684, attributed to Dr. Thomas Guidott, it appears that he was believed to have interfered in order to soften the asperity of an attack on the illustrious Dr Thomas Willis. 

His only service to medicine was that of ridiculing certain old-world preparations, theriaca, mithridatium, &c., traditionally preserved in the ‘London Pharmacopœia,’ but omitted in the next century. On the other hand he was a determined opponent of Peruvian bark. One of his works, a collection of random criticisms on medical practice, with an ironical title, ‘The Art of Curing Diseases by Expectation,’ acquired some reputation on the continent, through the patronage of a far greater man, George Ernest Stahl, who published a Latin version with long notes of his own, imbued with a kindred scepticism, and in this from it provoked some controversy. Late in life Harvey published a recantation of some of his earlier doctrines, under the title of ‘The Vanities of Philosophy and Physick,’ a profession of general scepticism mingled with new hypotheses. 

“Harvey’s works have, however, the merit of a lively and witty style, though the humour is often very rough. They reflect light on medical customs and persons of the time, and thus have some historical value.. “

DNB: (Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 25  Harvey, Gideon by Joseph Frank Payne [Wood’s Athenæ Oxon. ii. 957, ed. 1721; Peacock’s English-speaking Students at Leyden (Index Society), 1883, p. 47; Harvey’s Works; Munk’s Coll. of Phys. ii. 10 (1878).] 

Wing H1058, ESTC Citation No.R22533: one US copy located. U.S. National Library of Medicine 


6) 527J 

John Baptiste Von Helmont (1577-1644), translated by Walter Charleton. (1619 –1707)

A ternary of paradoxes. The magnetick cure of wounds. Nativity of tartar in wine. Image of God in man. Written originally by Joh. Bapt. Van Helmont, and translated, illustrated, and ampliated by Walter Charleton, Doctor in physick, and physician to the late Kingn[The second impression, more reformed, and enlarged with some marginal additions] 

          Bound With
Deliramenta catarrhi: or, The incongruities, impossibilities, and absurdities couched under the vulgar opinion of defluxions. The author, that great philosopher, by fire, Joh. Bapt. Van Helmont, &c. The translator and paraphrast Dr. Charleton, physician to the late King.

London : printed by James Flesher for William Lee, dwellingin [sic] Fleetstreet, at the sign of the Turks head, 1650. &   

 London : printed by E.G. for William Lee at the signe of the Turks-head in Fleet-street, 1650.   $2,900 

Two Quartos bound together, 18 x 13.5 cm. [The second impression, more reformed, and enlarged with some marginal additions] signatures A-Z4,Aa-Bb4. ad.2] Signatures A4,a2,B-K4,L2 This copy is bound in full modern calf in an appropriate style. 

A ternary of paradoxes.

“Of the Magnetic Curing of Wounds” (1621), led to trouble with the Spanish Inquisition. In addition to suggesting that saintly relics might display their curative effects through magnetic influence, he included very uncomplimentary comments regarding Jesuit scholastics. As a result, ecclesiastical court proceedings of one sort or another were pending against him for more than 20 years. Van Helmont was a man of his age and accepted the ideas of spontaneous generation, transmutation of metals, and the existence of a medical panacea. However, he insisted that knowledge of the natural world could be obtained only by experimentation. Many of his treatises deal with the refutation of commonly held views and the experimental evidence for his own views. He rejected the ideas of the four elements (earth, air, water, and fire) of Aristotle and the three principles (salt, mercury, and sulfur) of Paracelsus (as received from Arabic alchemists). For him, the only true elements were air and water, and he demonstrated that these were not interchangeable, as some thought. 

The ‘Magnetic cure’ is good example of the typical adaptations to which the original atom- cum-void model was everywhere subjected is given by Walter Charleton, who, though defining himself as a “Gassendo-Epicurean,” nonetheless insisted that the following three postulates had to be rejected: “(1.) Quod mundus non sit a Deo constitutus, that the World was not constituted by God; (2.) Quod mundus a Deo non gubernetur, that the World was not governed by God; (3.) Quod animus noster non superfit a funere, that the soul of man doth not survive the funeral of his body.” 

In Deliramenta catarrhi Helmont opposes the popular views of his day regarding the uses of bloodletting, purgatives, and several other therapies then in vogue. He devotes a considerable portion of the book to a discussion of the Galenic theory of phlegm and mucus and presents his own views on these matters while refuting and criticizing the position of his contemporaries. “(Heirs of Hippocrates No. 411)

In what is perhaps his best-known experiment, van Helmont placed a 5-pound (about 2.2-kg) willow in an earthen pot containing 200 pounds (about 90 kg) of dried soil, and over a five-year period he added nothing to the pot but rainwater or distilled water. After five years, he found that the tree weighed 169 pounds (about 77 kg), while the soil had lost only 2 ounces (57 grams). He concluded that “164 pounds of wood, barks, and roots arose out of water only,” and he had not even included the weight of the leaves that fell off every autumn. Obviously, he knew nothing of photosynthesis, in which carbon from the air and minerals from the soil are used to generate new plant tissue, but his use of the balance is important; he believed that the mass of materials had to be accounted for in chemical processes. 

Wing 1402 and H1398, Thomason, E.601[6] 

cf. Booth, A Subtle and Mysterious Machine: The Medical World of Walter Charleton (1619-1707) 

Men were very early fascinated by magnetism because of its manifest and particular working at distance, which looked different of gravity. It was tryed to be explained by mecanism, for exemple Descartes and Boyle. Paracelse valued the therapeutics with magnets and conceived medicines as working by a magnetic virtue. Gilbert limited the medicinal properties of magnet but held it to be animated. Many authors praised remedies that work at distance of the evil as Bacon, Van Helmont, Croll, Porta, Goclenius, Digby. Such a belief related to magic ideas of this time. 

Boyle collected facts of magnetic cures, and his actual testing of the divisibility of bodies led him to conceive imponderable corpuscles. Newton supposed a subtil and universel fluid going through every solid body. Mesmer misappropriated this idea by founding the animal magnetism of which physical working was only proceeding from the inside of the patient by an effect of suggestion (psychosomatic). Homeopathy took again the notion of remedies having an infinite or a magnetic virtue, which partly issued from Paracelse’s and Mesmer’s doctrines, which were extolled in Germany at the time of Hahnemann. The latter decided in favour of a spiritualist and not corpuscular interpretation of the working of his homeopathic medicines. 

The Effect of Magnetic Fields on Wound Healing
Experimental Study and Review of the Literature
Steven L Henry, MD, Matthew J Concannon, MD, and Gloria J Yee, MD 

Through many experiments in physiology, van Helmont demonstrated that acid was the digestive element in the stomach and was neutralized by alkali in the intestine and that blood combined with a “ferment from the air,” with venous blood removing a residue that escaped through the lungs. He studied extensively the formation and nature of kidney stones. His theory of “ferments” as the agents bringing about physiological processes is a crude precursor of the idea 

Page 77 represents the first known use of the word “electricity.”

Wing H1402 &. H1398; Thomason, E.601[6],Heirs of Hippocrates No. 411,Cushing H238; Osler 2933; Waller 4304; Wellcome III, p. 242


7) 493J  John Radcliffe. (1640-1714)

 Pharmacopoeia Radcliffeana : or, Dr. Radcliff’s prescriptions, faithfully gather’d from his original recipe’s. To which are annex’d, useful observations upon each prescription. 

London; printed for Charles Rivington, at the Bible and Crown, against the North Door of St. Paul’s Church in St. Paul’s Church-Yard  1716  $900

Duodecimo, 14.5 x 8.5cm. Second edition . Information With an index and final page of advertisement.  There was no portrait with this edition . Edited by Edward Strother. Cf. Wellcome.  This copy is bound in full modern calf. 

 The most interesting quality of this pharmacopeia is the “useful observations upon each prescription.  For example under the Prescription for,  

“The Alternative Pills”  Never was a prescriber more uniform;  and consequensely somewat new from so great a Manwas never expected… These pills are the same as the Electuarium Phthisicum”.  (it is mostly comprised of Crabs-Eyes-Powder)

 John Radcliffe (1650-1714) was a successful, Oxford-educated, English physician. He established a large practice at London that was as much a result of his witty conversation as his clinical skill and accurate prognoses, though sometimes his wit seems to have verged on rudeness, especially to his social superiors, and his prognoses were blunt. He became chief physician to the Princess Anne in 1686, after which he was employed professionally by William III, whom he eventually offended. At his death he bequeathed money in trust to Oxford University to build and maintain a library, which was completed in 1747 and still bears his name, and other large sums for charitable use. 

ESTC System No. 006337447 ESTC Citation No. T66324  cf. Blake, J. NLM 18th cent.,; p. 370; Wellcome cat. of printed books,; IV, p. 462; 


8) 578J   William SALMON. (1644-1713) 

The family Dictionary; or, Household companion: Containing,I. Cookery in Dressing Flesh, Fowl, Fish, Herbs, Roots, making Sawces, &c. II. Pastry, making Pyes, Pasties, Puddings, Pancakes, Cheesecakes, Custards, Tansies, &c. III. Confects, Candies, Conserves, Preserves, Creams, Gellies, Pickles, &c. IV. Potable Liquors, as Ale, Beer, Mum, Mead, Cider, Perry, Rape, English Wines, Chocolet, Coffee, Tea, &c. V. Perfuming Sweet Balls, Pouders, Pomanders, Essences, Sweet Waters, Beautifying Washes, &c. VI. Husbandry, as it relates to the Improvement of Our Barren and Waste Lands, Manufactures &c. Vii. Preparations galenick and chymick’ relating to Physick and Chirurgery, as Cordial Waters, Spirits, Tinctures, Elixirs, Syrups, Pouders, Electuaries, Pills, Oils, Balsams, Cerecloths, and Emplasters, fitted for Curing most Diseases Incident to Men, Women, and Children. The fourth edition, with above eleven hundred additions, intersperst through the Whole Work. By William Salmon. M. D.

London : printed for H. Rhodes, at the Star, the Corner of Bride Lane, in Fleet-Street, 1710.  $2,000 

Octavo, . Signatures A4, B-Z8,Aa-Cc8.Fourth edition:with above eleven hundred additons, intersperst through the whole works.  Originally published in London in 1695 Bound in its original paneled binding of calf.

The cyclopedic nature of this book manages for some rather interesting Juxtapositions of descriptions of necessary things to know of. For example Lump or Ling=Pye (a wonderful pasterie ) and next we have Lunacy ( which is a distemper first seated in the blood and then afflicting the brain).. and there are some long descriptions of and uses for rather obscure substances, Bezorattic=Powder (a highly esteemed thing) 

And of course, there is Aqua Mirabilis, Aqua Epidemica, Scurvigras=wine, Tetters to kill: And on and on! 

William Salmon may have traveled in New England or the West Indies {Osler, Bibliotheca Osleriana } It was rumored that his earliest teacher was a traveling charlatan from whom he inherited his original stock-in-trade. Salmon set up in business near the Smithfield gate of St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in London, where he could attract patients who did not receive treatment at the hospital. 

He treated diseases, compounded and sold prescriptions, cast horoscopes, and studied alchemy, all “form[s] of medical practice common at the time”. In 1684, Salmon moved to the Blue Balcony by the ditch side, near Holborn Bridge, living there until 1692 By 1698, when he published Ars chirurgica, he indicated that his residence was the Great House by Black Friars’ Stairs. 

Salmon’s published works covered an incredibly wide range of topics, including pharmacology, medicine, surgery, alchemy, chiromancy, astrology, almanacs, botany, cooking, and art. In part, he was able to publish so prolifically because large sections of his texts were “copied, translated, abridged, enlarged and compiled from the texts of others”. 

Salmon openly acknowledged that much of his work was derivative, stating “we have scrutinized the best Authors, to many of which we have been very much beholden”, with an extensive list of members of the Mathematical, Medical, and Chyrurick Tribes, as well as Anatomists, chymists, and a multitude of others. Even by the standards of his time, he was criticized for failing to individually credit the sources from which specific materials were taken. In addition, instead of taking a specific philosophical position and siding with one of the competing schools of medical thought, Salmon created “a compendium of everything”. 

ESTC,; T91044; Cagle, W.R. Matter of taste (2nd ed.),; 982; NLM 18th cent., p. 398; Bitting, p.416 note, Heirs of Hippocrates No. 656


9) 582J  William Walwyn, (1600-1681)

 Physick for families. Or, The new, safe and powerful way of physick, upon constant proof established; enabling every one, at sea or land, by the medicines herein mentioned, to cure themselves, their friends and relations, in all distempers and diseases. Without any the trouble, hazzard, pain or danger of purgers, vomiters, bleedings, issues, glisters, blisters, opium, antimony and quicksilver, so full of perplexity in sickness. By William Walwyn physitian. 

London : printed, by J.R. and are to be sold by the author, 1696.  $2,500

Octavo,14 x 9 cm.  signatures: A2-KLacking a frontispiece A1 portrait of William Walwyn engraved by R. White .Third edition, the first wass printed in 1674. 

This copy is bound in a red textured cloth with “Birmingham Medical Institute” on the spine as well as “Walwyn’s Physic-1696.” This copy is lacking the portrait  which is supplied in xerox.

William Walwyn, the son of Robert Walwyn, was born in Newland, Worcestershire, 1600. As a young man he was apprenticed to a silkman in Paternoster Row. Later he started his own business and joined the Merchant Adventurers Company.  As a Puritan, Walwyn supported the Parliamentary army during the Civil War. In 1645 he published a pamphlet, England’s Lamentable Slavery. In 1646 Walwyn joined with John Lilburne, and John Wildman to form a new political party called the Levellers. 

Their political programme included:  voting rights for all adult males, annual elections, complete religious freedom, an end to the censorship of books and newspapers, the abolition of the monarchy and the House of Lords, trial by jury, an end to taxation of people earning less than £30 a year and a maximum interest rate of 6%.   Walwyn became the leader of the Levellers in London and in September 1647 helped organize a petition demanding male suffrage. Walwyn, along with John Lilburne and Richard Overton, published An Agreement of the People. When the reforms were opposed by officers in the New Model Army, Walwyn called for the soldiers to revolt. On 28th March 1649, Walwyn was arrested and charged with advocating communism. After being brought before the Council of State he was sent to the Tower of London. 

On his release The Leveller leaders were released from prison in November 1649 following Lilburne’s trial and acquittal. Walwyn pledged his loyalty to the Commonwealth by taking the Oath of Engagement and returned to quiet family life at his home in Moorfields. He became interested in medicine and began practicing as a physician during the 1650s, publishing several medical tracts and handbooks. He died in January 1681. 

Walwyn wrote a large number of pamphlets arguing for religious toleration. His best known work included The Fountain of Slander Discovered(1649), Counterfeit Preaching (1649) and Just Defence(1649). William Walwyn died in 1681. 

Two Copies in N.America: U.S. National Library of Medicine , University of Minnesota ,UCLA

Other copies I have located are at British Library and University of Birmingham

Wing (2nd ed.), W690