First edition of the second published work by the author of the first book by an Irishman to be printed (1483 Defensorium Curatorum ) and consequently, for example, his theory of dominion was still being discussed in the sixteenth century. (Dunne)

This is the first and only printed edition of  the Summa in questionibus Armenorum.

The most recent (and only) copy for sale at auction was SOLD BY AUCTION BY MESSRS. SOTHEBY & CO. C. G. DES GftAZ, C.B.E. C. V. PlLKlNGTON P. C. WlLSON J. C. BUTTERWICK A. R. A. Hobson A. J. B. Kiddell T. H. Clarke Auctioneers of literary Property and Work* illustrative of the Fine Art» AT THEIR LARGE GALLERIES, 34 & 35, NEW BOND STREET, W.l On MONDAY, the 11th of FEBRUARY, 1952, and Two Following Days at ELEVEN o’clock precisely each day .   


No copy located as selling in 68 Years

Only one copy located in the US


350J. Richard FitzRalph   (Ricardus Radulphus Armacanus pseudonym) (circa 1300-1360)

Summa Domini Armacani in Questionibus Armenorum noviter impressa et Correcta a magistro nostro Johanne Sudoris. Cum aliquibus Sermonibus eiusdem de Christi dominio.


Paris: Jehan Petit et Ponset le Preux, (Venales habentur in vico divi Jacobi sub Lilio aureo) 1512. [Privilège octroyé à Jean Petit et Poncet Le Preux daté du 12 mars 1511 (1512 n. st.) et prenant effet le 15 juillet 1512.].   (date suggested by dedication.).    $24,000


IMG_2942Small Folio 275 x 201 mm. 10 1/2 X 7 3/4 inches.  A6 a-z6 [et]6 A-E6 F4. [6], 177 [i. e., 178] leaves.  This copy is bound in a Remboîtage of later limp vellum; contents toned and brittle, lightly dampwrinkled with marginal dampstaining at beginning and end, contemporary inscriptions on title and scattered underscoring and marginalia, wormhole through blank IMG_2940outer margin of approximately the first 30 leaves, paper crack in o1 not affecting text, last leaf reinforced in outer margin on verso.  Unidentified Augustinian (OESA) [Ordo eremitarum sancti Augustini] branded ownership mark on bottom edge.  (Marca de fuego )


Richard FitzRalph (1299–1360) was regarded even during his lifetime as one of the leading thinkers to emerge from that generation of exceptionally talented thinkers who emerged at Oxford in the early 1330s.(Dunne)

‘In the Summa de Quaestionibus Armenorum XV–XVII, FitzRalph turned to topics of free will and predestination being concerned with what he regarded as a new heresy being spread in the schools. In language more violent than anything found before the mendicant controversy, he expressed his horror at the new teaching, which he calls a ‘diabolical knowledge’. Although Bradwardine was not the object of FitzRalph’s attack, it seems to be written in response to disciples of Bradwardine who had espoused an extreme form of predestinarianism from a reading of the De Causa Dei. Predestinarianism reduces eternal salvation or damnation to the sovereign will of God alone, and excludes free will as a secondary factor in determining man’s future state. Against an absolute determinism FitzRalph held that the punishment of the damned was just inasmuch as ‘their sin or its futurity was the reason from eternity why God willed to damn the wicked, and not the contrary, (Summa, XVI, 12) and defended the free human choice. Although the background to the debate is clearly Augustinian (see City of God, V:10), it is interesting to note that FitzRalph in the Summa seeks also to justify his position on the basis of Scripture. (Dunne)


“FitzRalph was Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dundalk, Ireland, about 1295; d. at Avignon, 16 Dec., 1360. He studied in Oxford, where we first find mention of him in 1325 as an ex-fellow and teacher of Balliol College. He was made doctor of theology before 1331, and was chancellor of Oxford University in 1333. In 1334 he was made chancellor of Lincoln IMG_2936Cathedral, and in Jan., 1335, canon and prebendary of Lichfield, “notwithstanding that he has canonries and prebends of Crediton and Bosham, and has had provision made for him of the Chancellorship of Lincoln and the canonries and prebends of Armagh and Exeter, all of which he is to resign” (Bliss, Calendar of Entries in Papal Registers, II, 524). He was archdeacon of Chester when made dean of Lichfield in 1337. On 31 July, 1346, he was consecrated Archbishop of Armagh.

Fitzralph was a man who pre-eminently joined the speculative temperament with the practical. One of the great Scholastic  luminaries of his day, and a close friend of the scholarly Richard of Bury, he fostered learning among his priests by sending many of them to take higher studies in Oxford. He was zealous too in visiting the various church provinces, and in bettering financial as well as spiritual conditions in his own see. He contended for his primatial rights against the immunity claimed by the See of Dublin; and on various occasions acted as peacemaker between the English and the Irish. He was in great demand as a preacher, and many of his sermons are still extant in manuscript. Whilst at Avignon in 1350, Fitzralph presented a memorial from the English clergy reciting certain complaints against the mendicant orders. After serving on a commission appointed by Clement VI to inquire into the points at issue, he embodied his own views in the treatise “De Pauperie Salvatoris”, which deals with the subject of evangelical poverty, as well as the questions then agitated concerning dominion, possession, and use, and the relation of these to the state of grace in man. Part of this work is printed by Poole in his edition of Wyclif’s “De Dominio Divino” (London, 1890). It was probably during this visit that Fitzralph also took part in the negotiations going on between the Armenian delegates and the pope. He composed an elaborate apologetico-polemic work, entitled “Summa in Quaestionibus Armenorum” (Paris, 1511), in which he displayed his profound knowledge of Scripture with telling effect in refuting the Greek and Armenian heresies.

Fitzralph’s controversy with the friars came to a crisis when he was cited to Avignon in IMG_29441357. Avowing his entire submission to the authority of the Holy See, he defended his attitude towards the friars in the plea entitled “Defensorium Curatorum” (printed in Goldast’s “Monarchia” and elsewhere). He maintained as probable that voluntary mendicancy is contrary to the teachings of Christ. His main plea, however, was for the withdrawal of the privileges of the friars in regard to confessions, preaching, burying, etc. He urged a return to the purity of their original institution, claiming that these privileges undermined the authority of the parochial clergy. The friars were not molested, but by gradual legislation harmony was restored between them and the parish clergy. Fitzralph’s position, however, was not directly condemned, and he died in peace at Avignon. In 1370 his remains were transferred to St. Nicholas’ church, Dundalk; miracles were reported from his tomb and for several centuries his memory was held in saintly veneration. His printed works are mentioned above. His “Opus in P. Lombardi Sententias” and several other works (list in the “Catholic University Bulletin”, XI, 243) are still in manuscript.” (Greaney CE) 



Marca de fuego of Mexican Augustinians


Biblioteca J. María Lafragua. John Carter Brown Library (Call Number: BA600 J91a in

The emblem of the Order of Saint Augustine is a flaming heart pierced by an arrow  on the background of an open book. The open book suggests a dedication to intellectual searching or study; the pursuit of knowledge, both divine and earthly.
In the emblem of the Order it reminds Augustine’s followers that they must practice and preach charity toward God and neighbour. The arrow piercing the heart and the books represents the Spirit of God piercing our minds and hearts and calling us to a continual growth of faith, hope and love in our lives.


Catalogación de impresos antiguos de la Biblioteca Lafragua

Toda biblioteca de fondo antiguo debe afrontar el desafío de conformar el catálogo de los bienes culturales que resguarda. Más allá de las normas internacionales, en lo referente a los impresos antiguos el catálogo siempre evidencia la comprensión e implicación que una institución determinada tiene con su patrimonio bibliográfico y documental. En este sentido, los catálogos de impresos antiguos han evolucionado en función de las necesidades de control patrimonial, del desarrollo de las disciplinas asociadas al estudio del libro, y en los últimos años en función de la incorporación de herramientas tecnológicas. Ejemplos de marcas de fuego de los conventos suprimidos de la ciudad de Puebla. Foto: Mercedes Isabel Salomón

Un catálogo de impresos antiguos es una secuencia organizada de registros bibliográficos. Estos últimos “representan” e individualizan los ejemplares singulares, facilitando su localización. Pero, ¿qué es aquello que debe representarse en un registro bibliográfico? Como parte de los lineamientos institucionales, en los últimos años se ha buscado que los registros del catálogo de la Biblioteca Histórica José maría Lafragua muestren, en la medida de lo posible, los valores textuales, editoriales, tipográficos e históricos asociados a los impresos antiguos, de tal forma que se facilite su reconocimiento y valoración patrimonial. En Boletín del CMCH 5

Proyectos de clasificación cuanto a la metodología, hay un principio básico que consiste en la correcta identificación del objeto que se tiene a la vista. Ningún registro bibliográfico se elabora sin tener el objeto material a la mano. Asimismo, nunca se da nada por sentado. Cada libro se coteja y compara con tantos libros y registros bibliográficos como sea necesario, tanto de la misma biblioteca como de otras instituciones.

La Biblioteca Lafragua ha priorizado una catalogación con criterios temporales, favoreciendo con ello la descripción y uniformidad de los registros bibliográficos. Actualmente se ha catalogado todo el material referente al siglo XVI y se está concluyendo el siglo XVII. Hasta hace un par de años, la catalogación estaba orientada a la descripción exhaustiva de los ejemplares singulares. Desde hace un par de meses, a esta descripción se han incorporado elementos que permiten clarificar quiénes fueron sus “antiguos poseedores” y facilitar la reconstrucción de las bibliotecas novohispanas.

Sobre esto último se le ha dado preferencia a las bibliotecas conventuales masculinas de la ciudad de Puebla, cuyos libros se incorporaron a la Biblioteca Lafragua a raíz de la supresión de las órdenes religiosas de 1859. Hasta febrero de 2018 se han catalogado 9,546 obras que formaron parte de las

bibliotecas conventuales, de las cuales 3,272 formaron parte de la librería del convento de San Francisco; 1,284 de Santo Domingo; 1,125 de San Agustín; 994 de Nuestra Señora de la Merced, 1,208 de Nuestra Señora del Carmen; 1,293 de San Antonio; y 370 de Nuestra Señora de Belén.

El catálogo de impresos antiguos de la Biblioteca Lafragua tiene una doble vertiente. Por una parte obedece a la necesidad del reconocimiento y salvaguarda del patrimonio bibliográfico, pero por otro lado aspira a fomentar la investigación histórica. Entre sus miles de registros bibliográficos, las descripciones muestran que los libros nunca se encontraron acumulando polvo en los estantes de las bibliotecas conventuales. Los libros se leían y se anotaban profusamente. Se movían a lo largo de la provincia de una orden religiosa determinada y pasaban por diversas manos; incluso, se expurgaban, intercambiaban o robaban.

Ante la imposibilidad de conseguir alguna edición los libros se transcribían e incluso se traducían. En pocas palabras, los libros formaron parte de sociedades que constituían un mundo plural y en movimiento, con expresiones y continuidades a lo largo de su historia.


Jonatan Moncayo Ramírez”



1) Yale.  2)Queen’s University Belfast 3) British Library 4) Senate House London 5) University of Cambridge 6) York Minster 7) Lambeth Palace 8 Univ of Navarra 9) BN France 10) Paris-Mazarine 11) University of Granada. Library 12)Düsseldorf, Germany 13) Universidad de Sevilla. Biblioteca 14) Erzbischöfliche Diözesan- und Dombibliothek Köln 15) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek 16) Bibliothèque de Genève



Dunne, Michael W., “Richard FitzRalph”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2019 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <;.

Richard Fitzralph. His life, times and thought. Edited by Michael W. Dunne and Simon Nolan. Pp. vii+216. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2013

Walsh, Katherine A fourteenth-century Scholar Oxfors 1981

Greaney, John. “Richard Fitzralph.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 19 Dec. 2019 <;.