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Francis Bacon

The History of the First English Essayist : Cornwallyes NOT Bacon

815F      Sir William Cornwallis d. 1631

Essayes, by Sr William Cornwallyes, the younger, knight. Newlie corrected.

London: Printed by Thomas Harper for I. M., 1632           $3,500

DSC_0241

Octavo  5 ½ 5 x 3 ½. [A3] missing A1 blank, B-Z8, Aa-Oo8. This collation is consistent with Pforzheimer catalogue.  Engraved title page. by T. Cecill containing two portraits supposed to represent Sir William and his father, Sir Charles Cornwallis.

DSC_0240DSC_0236

Third edition of the “Essayes”, Parts I and II; second edition of the “Discourses.”  DSC_0242                               This is a nice copy bound in full contemporary calf rebacked. The spine has gilt label
Overall, the leaves are in excellent condition, this copy has ample margins, not often found in this work.

 

This book is consists of three seperate works each with a seperate title page but published together. The first “Essayes” is followed by “ Essayes the Second Part” and “Discourses upon Seneca the Tragedian”.
While some state that Cornwallis “was a friend of Ben Jonson, and employed him to write ‘Penates, or a Private Entertainment for the King and Queen,’ on their visit to his house at Highgate on Mayday, 1604. This is not the author of the essays rather it is his Uncle.

His essays are in imitation of Montaigne, but lack the sprightliness of the French author. Yet they are true essays and therefor differ from Bacon, whose ‘Essays” are a collection of aphorisms. They cover such topics as ambition, resolution, youth, essays and books, and humility. DSC_0239 Cornwallis spent his life in studious retirement. The “Essayes” is also a work of considerable Shakespearean interest – it is “so rare that a writer in ‘Shakespeare’s Centurie of Prayse,’ could not find a copy”. This work is also referred to at length by Hunter in his “New Illustrations” of the Tempest, who argues that as Florio’s translation of Montaigne had undoubtedly been seen by Cornwallis before 1600, so too, it was probably seen and used by Shakespeare in his composition of the Tempest (see Hunter, Joseph “New Illustrations of the life, studies, and writings of Shakespeare” London: J.B. Nichols and son 1845).

DSC_0237

STC 5781; Arber IV, 92; Huntington C.L., 90; Grolier Club W-P I, 182; Hoe Catalogue I (1903) 322. Hazlitt I, 101.

See also : Encyclopedia of the Essay edited by Tracy Chevalier  http://www.am41SU533HULL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_azon.com/Encyclopedia-Essay-Tracy-Chevalier/dp/1884964303/ref=sr_1_sc_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1454524110&sr=8-1-spell&keywords=encycloedia+of+the+essay

 

The First English Essayist Cornwallyes NOT Bacon

815F      Sir William Cornwallis d. 1631

Essayes, by Sr William Cornwallyes, the younger, knight. Newlie corrected.

London: Printed by Thomas Harper for I. M., 1632           $3,500

DSC_0241

Octavo  5 ½ 5 x 3 ½. [A3] missing A1 blank, B-Z8, Aa-Oo8. This collation is consistent with Pforzheimer catalogue.  Engraved title page. by T. Cecill containing two portraits supposed to represent Sir William and his father, Sir Charles Cornwallis.

DSC_0240DSC_0236

Third edition of the “Essayes”, Parts I and II; second edition of the “Discourses.”  DSC_0242                               This is a nice copy bound in full contemporary calf rebacked. The spine has gilt label
Overall, the leaves are in excellent condition, this copy has ample margins, not often found in this work.

 

This book is consists of three seperate works each with a seperate title page but published together. The first “Essayes” is followed by “ Essayes the Second Part” and “Discourses upon Seneca the Tragedian”.
While some state that Cornwallis “was a friend of Ben Jonson, and employed him to write ‘Penates, or a Private Entertainment for the King and Queen,’ on their visit to his house at Highgate on Mayday, 1604. This is not the author of the essays rather it is his Uncle.

His essays are in imitation of Montaigne, but lack the sprightliness of the French author. Yet they are true essays and therefor differ from Bacon, whose ‘Essays” are a collection of aphorisms. They cover such topics as ambition, resolution, youth, essays and books, and humility. DSC_0239 Cornwallis spent his life in studious retirement. The “Essayes” is also a work of considerable Shakespearean interest – it is “so rare that a writer in ‘Shakespeare’s Centurie of Prayse,’ could not find a copy”. This work is also referred to at length by Hunter in his “New Illustrations” of the Tempest, who argues that as Florio’s translation of Montaigne had undoubtedly been seen by Cornwallis before 1600, so too, it was probably seen and used by Shakespeare in his composition of the Tempest (see Hunter, Joseph “New Illustrations of the life, studies, and writings of Shakespeare” London: J.B. Nichols and son 1845).

DSC_0237

STC 5781; Arber IV, 92; Huntington C.L., 90; Grolier Club W-P I, 182; Hoe Catalogue I (1903) 322. Hazlitt I, 101.

See also : Encyclopedia of the Essay edited by Tracy Chevalier  http://www.am41SU533HULL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_azon.com/Encyclopedia-Essay-Tracy-Chevalier/dp/1884964303/ref=sr_1_sc_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1454524110&sr=8-1-spell&keywords=encycloedia+of+the+essay

 

A Cases of treason!!!!

899G Sir Robert Holborne (-1647-) Fracis Bacon (1561-1626)

DSC_0173

The learned readings of Sir Robert Holbourne, Knight, Attorney General to King Charles I. upon the statute of 25 Edw. 3. cap. 2. being the statute of treasons.

To which is added, cases of

Prerogative.

Treason.

Misprision of treason.

Felony, &c.

Written by the Right Honourable Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, Viscount St. Alban. And now reprinted for publick benefit.

 

London : printed for Sam. Heyrick, at Grayes-Inn-Gate in Holborn, and Matthew Gilliflower, in Westminster-Hall, 1681.                               $2,200

Octavo A (±A1+chi1) B-I K . Second Edition Bound in full contemporary calf.

This is a reissue, with cancel title page and errata, of “The learned readings of Robert Holbourne, Esq; upon the statute of 25 Ed. 3. cap. 2. being the statute of treasons. … London, printed for Matt. Gillyflower, bookseller in Westminster-Hall. 1680.” (Wing H2372A).  Copies – N.America Columbia University , Folger ,Harvard Huntington ,Newberry , Princeton ,Library of Congress, University of Chicago,Toronto,  Yale
Sir Robert Holborne (died 1647) was an English lawyer and politician, of Furnival’s Inn and Lincoln’s Inn (where he was bencher and reader in English law). He acted, along with Oliver St. John, as co-counsel for John Hampden in the ship money case. He sat in the House of Commons between 1640 and 1642 and supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. He was attorney-general to the Prince of Wales, being knighted in 1643. He also published legal tracts.

“Learned lawyers, such as Bacon, would give lectures on law at their Inn of Court. One “reading” was usually a series of lectures on a given statute.”

 (Laurel Davis, Boston College Law School, 2013)

DSC_0174This text is Holbo(u)rne’s ‘reading’ of Bacon’s CASES OF TREASON. London, 1641.(Wing  B272;Gibson, R. Bacon, 198)

“In this posthumously published work, Bacon discusses crimes that constitute treason, includ- ing if “any Jesuite, or any other Priest ordained since the first yeere of the reigne of Queene Elizabeth, shall come into, or remaine in any part of this Realme.” He touches on jurisdictional issues and lists the various punishments for the commission of treasons, while also disinguishing felonies that do not rise to the level of treason.”

(Laurel Davis, Boston College Law School, 2013)

DSC_0175Bacon earned the standing of one of the learned counsels, though he had no commission or warrant, and received no salary. His relationship with the Queen further improved when he severed ties with Essex—a shrewd move, as Essex would be executed for treason in 1601. With others, Bacon was appointed to investigate the charges against Essex. A number of Essex’s followers confessed that Essex had planned a rebellion against the Queen.

Bacon was subsequently a part of the legal team headed by the Attorney General Sir Edward Coke at Essex’s treason trial. After the execution, the Queen ordered Bacon to write the official government account of the trial, which was later published as A DECLARATION of the Practices and Treasons attempted and committed by Robert late Earle of Essex and his Complices, against her Majestie and her Kingdoms … after Bacon’s first draft was heavily edited by the Queen and her ministers.

 

In 1613 Bacon was finally appointed attorney general, after advising the king to shuffle judicial appointments. As attorney general, Bacon, by his zealous efforts—which included torture—to obtain the conviction of Edmund Peacham for treason, raised legal DSC_0177controversies of high constitutional importance;  and successfully prosecuted Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset, and his wife, Frances Howard, Countess of Somerset, for murder in 1616. The so-called Prince’s Parliament of April 1614 objected to Bacon’s presence in the seat for Cambridge and to the various royal plans that Bacon had supported. Although he was allowed to stay, parliament passed a law that forbade the attorney general to sit in parliament. His influence over the king had evidently inspired resentment or apprehension in many of his peers. Bacon, however, continued to receive the King’s favour, which led to his appointment in March 1617 as temporary Regent of England (for a period of a month), and in 1618 as Lord Chancellor. On 12 July 1618 the king created Bacon Baron Verulam, of Verulam, in the Peerage of England; he then became known as Francis, Lord Verulam.

More recent scholarship on Bacon’s jurisprudence has focused on his advocating torture as a legal recourse for the crown. Bacon himself was not a stranger to the torture chamber: in his various legal capacities in both Elizabeth I’s and James I’s reigns, Bacon was listed as a commissioner on five torture warrants. In 1613(?), in a letter addressed to King James I on the question of torture’s place within English law, Bacon identifies the scope of torture: a means to further the investigation of threats to the state: “In the cases of treasons, torture is used for discovery, and not for evidence.” For Bacon, torture was not a punitive measure, an intended form of state repression, but instead offered a modus operandi for the government agent tasked with uncovering acts of treason. (Wiki)

see:

Hanson, Elizabeth (Spring 1991). “Torture and Truth in Renaissance England”. Representations. 34: 53–84. doi:10.1525/rep.1991.34.1.99p0046u.
Langbein, John H. (1976). Torture and the Law of Proof. The University of Chicago Press. p. 90.

 

Wing H2373: Gibson, R. Bacon, 199

 

The First English Essayist Cornwallyes NOT Bacon

815F      Sir William Cornwallis d. 1631

Essayes, by Sr William Cornwallyes, the younger, knight. Newlie corrected.

London: Printed by Thomas Harper for I. M., 1632           $3,500

DSC_0241

Octavo  5 ½ 5 x 3 ½. [A3] missing A1 blank, B-Z8, Aa-Oo8. This collation is consistent with Pforzheimer catalogue.  Engraved title page. by T. Cecill containing two portraits supposed to represent Sir William and his father, Sir Charles Cornwallis.

DSC_0240DSC_0236

Third edition of the “Essayes”, Parts I and II; second edition of the “Discourses.”  DSC_0242                               This is a nice copy bound in full contemporary calf rebacked. The spine has gilt label
Overall, the leaves are in excellent condition, this copy has ample margins, not often found in this work.

 

This book is consists of three seperate works each with a seperate title page but published together. The first “Essayes” is followed by “ Essayes the Second Part” and “Discourses upon Seneca the Tragedian”.
While some state that Cornwallis “was a friend of Ben Jonson, and employed him to write ‘Penates, or a Private Entertainment for the King and Queen,’ on their visit to his house at Highgate on Mayday, 1604. This is not the author of the essays rather it is his Uncle.

His essays are in imitation of Montaigne, but lack the sprightliness of the French author. Yet they are true essays and therefor differ from Bacon, whose ‘Essays” are a collection of aphorisms. They cover such topics as ambition, resolution, youth, essays and books, and humility. DSC_0239 Cornwallis spent his life in studious retirement. The “Essayes” is also a work of considerable Shakespearean interest – it is “so rare that a writer in ‘Shakespeare’s Centurie of Prayse,’ could not find a copy”. This work is also referred to at length by Hunter in his “New Illustrations” of the Tempest, who argues that as Florio’s translation of Montaigne had undoubtedly been seen by Cornwallis before 1600, so too, it was probably seen and used by Shakespeare in his composition of the Tempest (see Hunter, Joseph “New Illustrations of the life, studies, and writings of Shakespeare” London: J.B. Nichols and son 1845).

DSC_0237

STC 5781; Arber IV, 92; Huntington C.L., 90; Grolier Club W-P I, 182; Hoe Catalogue I (1903) 322. Hazlitt I, 101.

See also : Encyclopedia of the Essay edited by Tracy Chevalier  http://www.am41SU533HULL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_azon.com/Encyclopedia-Essay-Tracy-Chevalier/dp/1884964303/ref=sr_1_sc_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1454524110&sr=8-1-spell&keywords=encycloedia+of+the+essay

 

Praxis Exercitiorum Spiritualium P.S.N. Ignatti.

In my quest for books which are obviously examples and invitations into the Permutatio, I’m searching my bookshelves for ideas and I found one, a  book with images which are in contrast with any known reality. It is a guide for ‘doing” the Spiritual Exercises…

333G Izquierdo Praxis Exercitiorum 1678
333G Izquierdo Praxis Exercitiorum 1678

333G    Izquierdo, Sebastián1601-1681. Ignatius,; of Loyola, Saint,; 1491-1556.

Praxis exercitiorum spiritualium P.N.S. Ignatti. Auctore P. Sebastiano Izquierdo Alcarazense Societatis Jesu.

Romae : Typis Varesii, 1678 Superiorum Permissu                           $3,800  Octavo,

First edition  12 full-page engravings ;each page of the text is printed within an ornamental typographic border.  This is a nice clean copy, unlike the copy which has been digitized which is a mess and terribly browned . The copy offered here is clean and crisp, it is bound in modern marbled paper wrappers.

The Jesuit Sebastián Izquierdo in his Práctica de los ejercicios espirituales, written in 1665 translated in to Italian the same year then in 1678 translated as here into Latin and later published in several translations and versions offers   an illustrated guide to the Ignatian spiritual exercises. The illustrations, 12 of them, are the subject of image meditation  which was a favorite method of the Jesuits who, beginning with the monumental Evangelicae Historiae Imagines (1593) of  Jerónimo Nadal, actively took hold of religious iconography and adjusted and concentrated it for the teaching of  the Societies ( and Ignatius’ ) vision.  The images are not just simple depiction’s instead they are  mnemonic devices. These images are points of departures and give the current 21st century reader a precious examples of images that inspire meditation, direct the reception of the teachings and anchor them in the memory. Particularly memorable is the Image of Hell on page 72, or the Puteus Abyssi (the bottomless pit)  .  The lay-out shows the pedagogical intentions and possibilities of this little book: there are  12 parts consisting of 12 separate quires, numbered from ‘A’ to ‘M’ and paginated each from 1-12,  each with its own full-page illustration , these could have been  meant to be distributed  separately – according to match the educational needs or level of the students.   The Images are in high contrast, with plenty of Bloody and memorable images.
The Puteus Abyssi depicts a  poor man who is naked and sitting in a chair in some sort of oubliette.  He has seven

333G Izquierdo 1678
333G Izquierdo 1678

swords, each with animal head handles, in him  and each is strategically stuck in  various parts of the body.  The swords are labeled for the passions. Most interesting of these might be the sword marked ‘Vengeance’ it is hanging offer the mans head, the Idleness sword is stuck between his legs, Gluttony in his stomach, Lust … Envy in his back, Avarice between his Shoulders and Pride in his heart.

Izquierdo was also the author of  Pharus scientiarum, a treatise on  a methodology  to access knowledge, conceived  as a single science. In this work, he assimilated Aristotelian and Baconian logic,  and  he expressed some original ideas on mathematics and logic that have earned their author a reputation as an outstanding mathematician.  Not just like his Spanish contemporaries John Caramuel or Tomás Vicente Tosca , but also significant foreign mathematicians as Athanasius Kircher , Gaspar Knittel or Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , the latter, in particular, cited with, his Disputatio of Combinatione, in Combinatorial Art (1666).

Sommervogel, IV, 701 (#4); Landwehr:Romantic 412.; Praz,p.382

$T2eC16N,!ygE9s7HHqLLBRh(nzkFU!~~60_58-1

SYLVA SYLVARUM, Francis BACON

Francis Bacon has always been ” THE Seventeenth Century in England”  to me, he was a polymath’s polymath.  His books are all weirdly accessible and fun to read. Sylva Sylvarum is on of my favorite books to show to people who aren’t obsessed with books, and they are usually fascinated.DSC_0002 (1)

Francis Bacon, in a rather round about way, can be seen as forming the world we now know. His influence is not as popularized as Newton, but maybe he was the giant whose shoulders Newton could stand on? There has been a lot of interesting work coming to fruition on Bacon this Century, and with out a doubt the OXFORD BACON   http://www.cems.ox.ac.uk/ofb/index.shtml Is the most useful. For shorter and individuals working on bacon I really enjoy reading Giglioni. See below.

Mastering the Appetites of Matter. Francis Bacon’s Sylva Sylvarum

  • Dr Guido Giglioni

    Engaging with the past
     6e294b27bc

    Cassamarca Lecturer in Neo-Latin Cultural and Intellectual History 1400-1700

    Guido.Giglioni(at)sas.ac.uk

    Guido Giglioni is the Cassamarca Lecturer in Neo-Latin Cultural and Intellectual History at the Warburg Institute, School of Advanced Study, University of London. He has published a book on Jan Baptise van Helmont (Immaginazione e malattia, Milan 2000) and edited a volume of manuscript papers of Francis Glisson (Cambridge 1996). He has written essays on Renaissance philosophy and medicine and on such authors as Girolamo Cardano, Tommaso Campanella and Francis Bacon.

Abstract

Francis Bacon’s Sylva Sylvarum (published posthumously in 1627) occupies a paradoxical place in the history of seventeenth-century medicine and natural philosophy. It is the work where Bacon expounded, at his clearest and best, in vernacular and not in Latin, his views on the material appetites of nature, and did so not by writing in the abstract, but by describing and performing experiments aimed at disclosing the appetitive nature of matter. However, such an original model of experimental investigations on the appetites of matter was abandoned by the great majority of Bacon’s followers, especially those associated with the Royal Society, replaced with the more reassuring project to mechanise the natural forms and passions of matter. By doing so, man was restored as the proper subject of knowledge and appetite, whereas nature was left with its status of lifeless object of dispassionate study. In this paper I explore the theoretical and experimental strategies deployed by Bacon to investigate the appetites of matter. It will become apparent that a characteristic hermeneutical circle underlies Bacon’s natural philosophy, a circle that, depending on the chosen point of view, could be regarded at the time as either virtuous or vicious. On the one hand, Bacon was convinced that man’s self-knowledge rested on the knowledge that nature has of itself, since nature is first and foremost appetite and man’s essence is rooted in appetite. On the other hand, he was also convinced that knowledge of nature was based on knowledge of the self, since the best accounts concerning the nature of the appetites were to be found in the works of poets and historians (rather than in Renaissance systematisers of natural magic and natural philosophy). This is what Bacon meant by ‘georgics of the mind’: the understanding of the material appetites of nature cannot be separated from an ethical and political consideration of the mechanisms mediating knowledge and appetite in human societies. DSC_0004

464F  Bacon, Francis.   1561-1626

  Sylva Sylvarum, Or, A Naturall History, In Ten Centuries. Written by the Right Honorable Francis Lo. Verulam, Viscount of St. Alban. Published after the Authors Death, By William Rawley, Doctor in Divinitie, One of His Majesties Chaplaines. Hereunto is now added an Alphabeticall Table ofthe Principall Things contained in the Ten Centuries.

London: Printed by John Haviland for William Lee, and are to be Sold by Iohn Williams, 1635  DSC_0001 (1)   $2,800      Folio, 7 x 10.4 in.  Fourth edition. π2, A-Z6, Aa-Bb6, Cc4, a-g4 (g4 is blank). The engraved title page and portrait of Bacon dated to 1631 and 1631 respectively are both present in this volume.  This copy is bound in its original full calf. Binding tight and firm.  A good clean copy of an early edition. “The new method [Bacon’s big plan, the Instauratio Magna] is valueless, because inapplicable, unless it be supplied with materials duly collected and presented—in fact, unless there be formed a competent natural history of the Phenomena Universi. A short introductory sketch of the requisites of such a natural history, which, according to Bacon, is essential, necessary, the basis totius negotii, is given in the tract Parasceve, appended to the Novum Organum. The principal works intended to form portions of the history, and either published by himself or left in manuscript, are historia Ventorum, Historia Vitae et Mortis, Historia Densi et Rari, and the extensive collection of facts and observations entitled Sylva Sylvarum […] “Nature thus presented itself to Bacon’s mind as a huge congeries of phenomena, the manifestations of some simple and primitive qualities, which were hid from us by the complexity of the things themselves. The world was a vast labyrinth, amid the windings of which we require some clue or thread whereby we may track our way to knowledge and thence to power. This thread, the filum labyrinthi, is the new method of induction. But, as has been frequently pointed out, the new method could not be applied until facts had been observed and collected. This is an indispensable preliminary. ‘Man, the servant and interpreter of nature, can do and understand so much, and so much only as he has observed in fact or in thought of the course of nature; beyond this he neither knows anything nor can do anything.’ The proposition that our knowledge of nature necessarily begins with observation and experience, is common to Bacon and many contemporary reformers of science, but he laid peculiar stress upon it, and gave it a new meaning. What he really meant by observation was a competent natural history or collection of facts. ‘The firm foundation of a purer natural philosophy are laid in natural history.’ ‘First of all we must prepare a  natural and experimental history, sufficient and good; and this is the foundation of all.” (EB) This book is ‘the foundation of all,’ consisting of all of Bacon’s empirical experiments along with his utopian fable, The New Atlantis. STC 1172; Gibson #174. DSC_0003

Francis Bacon: Sylva Sylvarum, or a natural history in ten centuries, 1627
Posted on 27/04/2012 by 
Sylva Sylvarum or a natural history in ten centurieswas published posthumously (but very soon after Bacon’s death in April 1626) by William Rawley. It was by far  the most widely read of Bacon’s writings, at least in seventeenth century England. It went through 10 editions until 1670 and there were subsequent editions up to the end of the century[1]. There seemed to be 17th editions altogether, plus two Latin editions[2] and a French translation[3]. They not always contain the same texts. The first couple of editions contained unpublished fragments and drafts of Bacon’s natural histories, the subsequent editions contained various other material including, from 1660s on, an abridged English version of Novum Organum. All editions contained New Atlantis. However, in the first editions, this is not explicitly stated on the title page (why?). DSC_0002Sylva Sylvarum tended to be seen/read as a collection of materials for building the new science (Bacon is slightly modifying the ancient/Renaissance meaning of Silva, creating a new genre, see De Bruyn, 2001. Traditionally, sylva was used to designate the materials necessary for the construction of a discourse/speech. Bacon is not the first one to move the term in the field of natural history/natural philosophy, however). It contains 1000 “experiments” grouped in 10 groups of 100 (centuries). There are two ‘units’ of SS: solitary experiments and experiments in consort. It is not straightforward what is the meaning of ‘experimetns’ in either of the unit: observation, hearsay, travel reports, questions, suggestions, causal explanations and philosophical questions are mixed both insolitary experiments and in the experiments in consort. A number of manuscripts relating to Sylva are extant. At least one of them indicates, as Graham Rees has shown (Rees 1981), that the text of Sylva was edited and prepared for publication by Bacon himself. In other words, we don’t have a mere heap of remaining experiments and observations that didn’t find their way into Bacon’s late histories, but a book/project of its own, planned to carry forward the third part of the Instauratio (see also Rawley’s claim). Such an interpretation is substantiated by the historical and contextual paper on the publication of Sylva Sylvarum written recently by Colclough (Colclough 2010). All this is even more intriguing in view of the fact that Sylva is not only very eclectic but also highly unoriginal (at least “locally”); more than half of the “experiments” are second hand reports following ancient of Renaissance authors, some of them obviously untried by Bacon himself and accepted on dubious testimony. According to Spedding: “a considerable part of it is copied from the most celebrated book of the kind, Porta’s Natural Magic” (II. 326). However, Spedding himself does not identify all the experiments taken by Bacon from Della Porta. A thorough study of the relation between Sylva Sylvarum and Natural Magic awaits to be written. Moreover, the experiments Bacon ‘borrows’ from Della Porta, Aristotle, Pliny, Cardano, Sandys, Scaliger etc. are substantially rewritten. They are most of the times more ‘general’ and ‘theoretical’ than the punctual observations and experiments of the sources quoted above. Moreover, Bacon integrate such experiments into a larger scale program: they are the kind of experimental activity that would build up a community of experimental scientists (and in this way, they serve as illustration of the activities of Solomon’s House, see Colclough 2010). They are also a storehouse (or program?) for the future experimental philosophy. [1] Title pages of the subsequent editions don’t agree on their number or on the content, there are various editions claiming to contain “for the first time” materials published in the previous years etc.

[2] Elzevir 1648, 1661, according to Sarah Hutton, 2001 (to check!)
[3] Pierre Amboise, 1631.

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