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The Fourth Crusade: Invia virtuti nulla est via [Ovid] No way is impassable to virtue.

It is my experience that is is not often that the printer’s device matches the subject of the book, but in this case Opornius’ device is fitting  and optimistic for a History of the Fourth Crusade from the Byzatine perspective.DSC_0013

199g    Nicetas Choniates, or Niketas Choniates  ca. 1155 to 1215 or 1216

Nicetae Acominati Choniatæ, magni logothetæ secretorum, inspectoris & iudicis veli, præfecti sacri cubiculi : LXXXVI annorum historia, uidelicet ab anno restitutæ salutis circiter MCXVII, in quo Zonaras desinit, usque ad annum MCCIII, libris XIX descripta, quorum hic ordo est I liber de rebus gestis Ioannis Comneni, Alexij filij, quem uulgò Caloioannem uocant. VII libri de rebus gestis Manuelis Comneni, filij Ioannis. I liber de Alexio Porphyrogenito, Manuelis Comneni filio. II libri de rebus gestis Andronici Comneni. III libri de imperio Isaacij Angeli Comneni. III libri de imperi Alexii Angeli Comneni, post fratrem isaacium c catum & eiectum. I liber de Isaacio, & filio eius Alexio,post recuperatum, Germanorum & Venetorum ope, imperium: in quo etiam de Alexio Duca cognomento Murzuflo, seu supercilioso, & confusione status publici, & constantinopolitano excidio agitur. I liber de initijs imperij Balduini & Herrici fratrum Flandriæ comium.    

Basil : Apud Ioannem Oporinum,1557       $4,100   SALE PRICE $ 3,200

Folio, 14 ¾ X 9 ½ inches.    å4, 4a-z6A-F6G8  This copy is bound in its original blind stamped pigskin binding.

Crusades — Fourth, 1202-1204.
Geographic: Latin Empire, 1204-1261 — History.
Byzantine Empire — History — Angeli, 1185-1204.
Byzantine Empire — History — Comneni dynasty, 1081-1185.

Nicetas , sometimes called Acominatos, was a Greek historian – like his brother Michael Acominatus, whom he accompanied from their birthplace Chonae to Constantinople. Nicetas wrote this history of the Eastern Roman Empire from 1118 to 1207. Nicetas Acominatos was born to wealthy parents around or after 1150 in Phrygia in the city of Chonae (near the modern Honaz in Turkey). Bishop Nicetas of Chonae baptized and named the infant; he was later called “Choniates” after his birthplace. When he was nine, his father dispatched him, with his brother Michael, to Constantinople to receive an education. Niketas’ older brother greatly influenced him during the early stages of his life. He initially took up politics as a career, and held important appointments under the Angelus emperors (amongst them that of Grand Logothete or Chancellor) and was governor of the theme of Philippopolis at a critical period. After the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204, he fled to Nicaea, where he settled at the court of the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Lascaris, and devoted himself to literature. He died c. 1215–16.

His chief work is This History, in twenty-one books, of the period from 1118 to 1207. In spite of its florid style, it is of value as a record (on the whole impartial) of events of which he was either an eyewitness or which he had heard of first hand (though he should be balanced with the other Greek historian for this time, John Kinnamos). Its most interesting portion is the description of the occupation of Constantinople in 1204, which should be read with Geoffroi de Villehardouin’s and Paolo Rannusio’s works on the same subject.

His little treatise On the Statues destroyed by the Latins (perhaps altered by a later writer) is of special interest to the archaeologist and art historian.

His theological work, (Thesaurus Orthodoxae Fidei), although extant in a complete form in manuscripts, has only been published in part. It is one of the chief authorities for the heresies and heretical writers of the 12th century.

Nicetas Choniates  provides the sole major Byzantine account of the sack of Constantinople by western Christian armies during the Fourth Crusade. Other sources include the minor account of the Byzantine eyewitness Nicolas Mesarites, as well as the crusader sources of Geoffroy de Villehardouin, Robert of Clari, and Gunther von Pairis.

His work details both the Third and Fourth Crusades, but is especially valuable as an eyewitness account of the Fourth Crusade.

After the capture of Constantinople in 1204, Nicetas fled to Nicaea, the site of the Byzantine government in exile under the leadership of Emperor Theodoris Lascaris. There he completed his Byzantine account of the Fourth Crusade

His descriptions of the crusader’s sack of Constantinople are exceptionally vivid. He describes the looting of relics from the churches, as well as the desecration of the churches, particularly Hagia Sophia. Below is a translated selection from the work that best demonstrates the tone and spirit of the account:
Nay more, a certain harlot, a sharer in their [the crusaders] guilt, a minister of the furies, a servant of the demons, a worker of incantations and poisonings, insulting Christ, sat in the Patriarch’s seat, singing an obsene song and dancing frequently. Nor, indeed, were these crimes committed and others left undone, on the ground that these were of lesser guilt, the others of greater. But with one consent  all the most heinous sins and crimes were committed by all with equal zeal. Could those, who showed so great madness against God Himself, have spared the honorable matrons and maidens or virgins consecrated to God?  

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Here is more than a little bit on the fourth crusade!

The Fourth Crusade

Introduction

The Fourth Crusade is one of the most important of all the major crusades. It is also one of the most complex and certainly one that is easily misunderstood, or at least is often understood in much too simplistic a manner.

The general outline is this: the Third Crusade having failed in its essential objective of recovering Jerusalem, the popes almost immediately began preaching a new crusade. This turned out to take longer than anyone wanted, for a variety of reasons. By the time a new crusade was really under way, soon after the turn of the century, events were afoot in Constantinople that would cause the Fourth Crusade to take a dramatic turn away from Palestine. The Fourth Crusade did not recover Jerusalem–in fact, it never even made it to Outremer; rather, the Crusaders ended by attacking Constantinople, driving out the Byzantine Emperor, and installing one of their own in the ancient capital of Constantine.

Conquering Constantinople was hardly on the agenda when the Fourth Crusade began. How could things have gone so wrong? Was it a case of severe muddle-headedness? Or was it cynical opportunism from start to finish? Or (hush) was it a conspiracy?

The options are many, the players in the drama myriad. There is really nothing for it except to dive into the politics of Byzantium in the 1190s, as well as looking at the pontificate of Innocent III, the mess the Holy Roman Empire was in after the death of Henry VI, and the role of Venice as the actor on the center stage. If you come out the other end shaking your head and still a bit befuddled, rest assured you won’t be the only one feeling that way!


A Conflict of Emperors

The Comnenus family was ruling Byzantium in 1095, when the First Crusade began, and they were still ruling ninety years later. The last of the Comneni was Andronicus Comnenus, a fellow with a most remarkable history behind him before he ever ascended the throne, in 1182. He ruled with a heavy hand, was widely hated, and when the provinces rebelled, the people of Constantinople rioted and killed Andronicus in 1185. He was succeeded by Isaac II Angelus.

Isaac had his hands full. Bulgaria rebelled successfully, as did Serbia. A few years later, Frederick Hohenstaufen marched through his lands with a huge army; Isaac was unable to prevent the Emperor from temporarily capturing both Adrianople and Philippopolis. In the end, Frederick continued on, but only after Isaac pretty much granted him everything he wanted. He managed to recover a bit of lost ground in the ensuing years, but at the same time he lost control within the palace itself. In April of 1195, his brother Alexius III usurped the throne and had Isaac blinded.

Alexius III Angelus was no more effective than his brother and was rather more corrupt. When Emperor Henry VI pressured him, he levied a special tax to buy him off. When the Bulgars rebelled again, Alexius was unable to control them. When Serbia threw its allegiance to Hungary, Alexius could do nothing. And all the while, he continued to drain the treasury. And when the Fourth Crusade drew near, he put up a token resistance, then grabbed all the money he could find and ran.


The Western Empire

Not long after Alexius made himself emperor, Philip of Swabia married Irene Angelus. Philip was the brother of Emperor Henry VI. Irene was the daughter of the deposed emperor Isaac II. Henry, as King of Sicily, was heir to all the old Norman claims to Greek territories they had once conquered. So now the Hohenstaufen had a direct interest through Irene in the claims of Isaac II over against his brother. Confused yet? Keep reading!

Henry VI was in fact on the verge of asking for a new crusade, to be directed against Constantinople, after which he would command the combined strengths of the empires against Jerusalem. This scheme never got off the ground because Henry died in 1197. But the idea of somehow taking over the Greek Empire and using its resources in support of the liberation of Jerusalem was an attractive one to Westerners. They would pick it up again.

In 1197, however, the Holy Roman Empire was in no position to do much of anything. Henry VI had been Holy Roman Emperor, King of Sicily, King of Burgundy, King of the Romans, and King of Italy. His son, however, was only an infant and was in no position to rule. In Germany there promptly rose two rivals: Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick. Both, of course, had been elected by a faction of German princes. Neither were able to make their presence felt even in Italy, much less in Sicily, and even less could either of them contemplate going on Crusade. They might lend support but not much more.


Pope Innocent III

Almost immediately upon being elected pope, Innocent III decided that the papacy itself should assume the leadership of the next Crusade. He issued his crusading letter in August of 1198, sending it to all the archbishops of the West. He directed the call to arms not to kings and emperors, but to counts and barons and even to cities. The archbishops and bishops of the Church were likewise to contribute soldiers, or an equivalent amount in money.

The tone of the encyclical makes it clear that Innocent believed the Church itself was the true leader of the Crusades. Even so, he wrote separately to the kings of France and England, ordering them to cease their war. Not, you will note, that they should go on crusade themselves, but only that their quarrel should not interfere with the raising of troops and money for the Crusade. He likewise sent a papal legate to try to persuade Genoa and Pisa to make a truce between them, for much the same reasons, except that he wanted the Pisans and Genoese to participate in the Crusade.

The original date set by Innocent for the departure of the Crusade was March 1199, but no one left. Richard and Philip declared a truce, but Richard died soon after, and the war between England and France was on again. Preachers preached, Innocent wrote more letters and tried to raise money, but still nothing much happened. Only in November 1199 did the first significant lords take the cross and formally commit enough men to the enterprise for it to be called an army.

Almost immediately, Innocent began to lose control of the Crusade. He had intended for the Crusaders from all over Europe to assemble at Venice, where that city would agree to provide the ships to transport the hosts to the Holy Land. This service would not be free, of course; but only Venice could even contemplate building enough ships to carry an entire Crusader army. Innocent had asked Venice to participate in the Crusade, but this matter of being the primary provider of transportation was something arranged between Venice and the lay lords. From that moment on, the course of events were affected far more by Venice than by the pope.


Venice

Venice in 1200 was the richest city in the West, and one that had a direct interest in developments in the eastern Mediterranean. The city was ruled by a tightly-knit upper class of merchants and property owners, who were represented by the Doge, an executive who was elected for life by a small ruling council. The city’s wealth came almost entirely from its role as an entrep�t, moving goods from the eastern Mediterranean to Lombardy and over the Alps to northern Europe. She ruled much of the Adriatic and had outposts on the Dalmatian coast and in Greece. She also had significant trading interests in Outremer. She even had a major colony of merchants in Alexandria, even though that was a Muslim city.

Relations with Constantinople were not good. Venice had long enjoyed special trading rights in the city, but lately she had seen her privileges erode. Emperor Manuel had ordered a mass arrest of Venetians throughout the Empire in 1171, and all Latins in Constantinople were massacred in a paroxysm of anti-Western sentiment in 1182. Isaac II had renewed their privileges, and so had Alexius III, but the latter did so only for form’s sake. In practice, he had been harassing the Venetians and favoring Genoa and Pisa.

This was the situation in 1201, when six representatives of French lords arrived in the city to negotiate a deal. They wanted Venice to contract with them to carry the Crusader army over the sea, and they named a price. The city council thought about it for a few days, then made an even more generous offer in return, offering to become an equal partner in the enterprise. The city agreed to provide ships for 4,500 knights and their horses, 9,000 squires, and 20,000 foot soldiers. There was a formula for calculating the price for each type of soldier, and the whole price came to 94,000 marks. This was to be paid in installments, and the fleet was to be at the service of the army for one year and was to be ready by June 29, 1202 (the following year). In addition, Venice would supply fifty warships, and would share equally in any conquests.

Clearly Venice wanted to do more than just provide transport, which was all the original offer contemplated. She saw an opportunity to win territory. Since the French and Venice agreed secretly that the object of the Crusade would be Egypt, the city was probably thinking of the great wealth of that country and what a prize it would be should Venice be able to win half of Alexandria or Damietta or even Cairo.


The Crusaders Assemble

The first Crusader army formed in a gallant, chivalric manner, as a by-product of a tournament help in Champagne in November 1199. The count of that land, Theobald, hosted a grand event that was attended by knights from all over northern France. As part of the festivities, Count Theobald and Count Louis of Blois took the cross. Champagne and Blois both had a long crusading tradition, and the preachers had been active in northern France, so they were likely inspired to exert their leadership. As word spread of their deed, other lords likewise too the cross: Count Baldwin of Flanders, Theobald’s brother-in-law; Count Hugh of St. Pol, Counts Geoffrey and Stephen of Perche, and many others besides. Theobald’s older brother, Henry, had participated in the Third Crusade and had become the King of Jerusalem, so Theobald had very close ties with the Holy Land.

Before the Crusade ever left, however, Count Theobald died (May 1201). The Crusaders then chose Boniface of Montferrat (a marquisate in northwestern Italy) as their leader. Boniface, too, had close ties wtih the Holy Land. He was descended from crusaders. His oldest brother (now dead) was the father of King Baldwin V of Jerusalem. Another brother was the same Conrad of Montferrat who had saved Tyre from Saladin and who had been assassinated in 1192. Boniface brought in yet another Byzantine tie, as well. Another of his brothers, Renier, had married a daughter of Manuel Comnenus. Although he was killed in 1183, Renier may have been given rulership over Thessalonica by Emperor Manuel, and Boniface may have from the beginning had his eye on recovering what he regarded as a family estate. One other connection was made with Boniface: he was a close friend to Philip of Swabia, who was married to Irene, the deposed Isaac Angelus’ sister. So, Boniface brought to the leadership of the Crusade an interest in championing the cause of Isaac against Alexius III.

The Crusaders assembled first at Soissons, then moved south to C�teaux in September, where they were joined by a large number of Burgundians. They then moved on to Italy, not in a single organized army, but in separate parties, trickling in to Venice over the course of that summer, thereby delaying the agreed departure date. Moreover, a number of leaders decided to set sail from Marseilles rather than from Venice. The number of soldiers who actually made it to Venice was far less than had been originally estimated.

The result was that by autumn of 1201, the Crusaders were late and were behind in their payments, for those who did show up could not possibly pay the fee that had been set for a much larger army. The original agreement had calculated 33,500 men, whereas perhaps only 11,000 or so actually showed up in Venice. The Crusaders had assembled, but Venice was not about to transport them until it had received the amount stipulated in the contract. Crusades were crusades, but business was business.


A New Deal

The Venetians were practical businessmen, and no one of them was more pragmatic than their doge, Enrico Dandolo. There the Crusaders sat, unable to pay for their passage, unwilling to go home, and in the meantime running up bills with all the locals and equally unable to pay those. He could not play it too tough, however, for Pope Innocent III was already angry with how matters were proceeding and would not hesitate to place the city under interdict.

So, the Venetians offered a new arrangement to replace the old one. Venice had for some time ruled much of the Dalmatian coast, mainly as a way to secure control of the Adriatic and its shipping lanes. Recently, however, the King of Hungary had been inciting rebellion in the Dalmatian towns, offering them his protection. One town that had defected was Zara, which for fifteen years Venice had been trying to recover.

The doge offered to delay the payment of the contract (cancelling it was out of the question). In return, the Crusaders would help Venice recover Zara. The Crusade leaders had little choice, since the alternative was to abandon the Crusade, violate their crusading vow, and return home broke and humiliated. Even so, many in the army objected vigorously, and some even refused to go. But the Doge himself took the cross, and many Venetians followed his example.

Some time around now, a fortuitous concidence happened. Isaac II Angelus was blind and in prison in Constantinople, but his son Alexius IV had managed recently to escape and flee to the West. Early in 1202, as the Crusaders were preparing at last to depart (to attack Zara), young Alexius was in Italy and appealed to the Crusaders to help him drive out the usurper Alexius III and to him (the prince) on the throne. If they should do so, the young prince promised an extravagant amount of help for the Crusade–men, money, weapons, ships.

This appeal fits so neatly with the agenda of the principal leaders of the Crusade that many historians have smelled a plot. We won’t enter here into that controversy. Whether through chance or through careful planning, it so happened that Bonficace of Montferrat would be glad to participate because he might recover Thessalonica; and Venice would be glad because the prince promised to restore all their old privileges and more besides; and the rest of the Crusaders could look forward to that great pooling of resources of East and West that had been repeatedly touted in crusading thought.

So the agenda was set before the fleet ever sailed on October 1, 1202. The Crusaders would capture Zara for Venice, then would capture Constantinople for the young prince Alexius, and then would proceed on to Outremer. By this time, it was not at all clear whether the ultimate objective was still Egypt, for most of the leaders were no longer thinking much past Constantinople.


Zara

So, off went the Crusaders, a huge fleet of over 200 ships. Zara was not a Muslim city, but was a Christian one. Pope Innocent thundered angrily in letters, specifically forbidding the Crusaders from attacking Zara. But the papal threats were ignored, and the Crusaders landed at Zara on 10 November.

Not all the Crusaders thought it was a great idea to be attacking Christians as part of a Crusade. As the siege of the city began, these people finally spoke up openly. Most were eventually persuaded at a general council that they had to do this in order to pay Venice, and they took comfort in shifting the blame to the Venetians. A few, however, flatly refused to participate in the siege. Nevertheless, the city surrendered after only two weeks.

The Crusade spent the winter at Zara. It was here that the army in general learned of Alexius’ offer. Again, many in the army objected and some among them refused to go any further. But most of the army stayed. By attacking Zara they had automatically been excommunicated according to Innocent’s threats, so going on to Constantinople could scarcely to any more damage. They sent emissaries to Innocent to try to be reconciled. There ensued an exchange of letters, but Innocent would bend only a little and he still forbade the Crusaders from attacking Constantinople.

To no avail. The army sailed in April 1203. After capturing the island of Corf� in May, and making a few other stops, it arrived at Constantinople June 24 1203. Emperor Alexius III demanded to know what the Crusaders intended, and they replied that they intended to drive him out as a traitor. The Crusaders then appealed directly to the people of Constantinople, but the Greeks would not accept anyone who was being supported by the hated Latins. If the Crusaders were going to put their young prince on the throne, they would have to do it by force.


The Battle for Constantinople

On July 5, 1203, the Venetians were able to break the great chain that blocked the harbor, enabling the Crusaders to attack the city from both land and sea. The Franks drew up near the Blachernae palace, which lies close to the Golden Horn, while the Venetians prepared to attack from the harbor side. They built platforms in the spars of ships and put catapults on the decks.

On July 17 the Crusaders attacked in force. Defending the land side was the Varangian Guard, the Imperial palace guard that was made up of English and Danish mercenaries, and they were able to repulse the Franks. But the Venetians, led by Enrico Dandolo himself (who was at least in his 80s) were able to land on the narrow beaches and reached the top with scaling ladders. They took possession of a number of towers, descended into the city and set fire to part of it.

Meantime, Alexius had a assembled a large army for a counter-attack against the Franks. For some reason, however, his nerve failed him and he never made the attack. The Venetians in the meantime withdrew from the section of wall they had held, for they could not keep it without a victory on the Frankish side as well. Despite the fact that the Crusader assault had only partially succeeded, that night Alexius grabbed what wealth he could and fled the city with his daughter.

Those who remained in the palace thought quickly, then brought Isaac II Angelus out from his prison cell. They then turned to the Latins and declared that since Isaac was the rightful ruler, there was no need for anyone to fight on behalf of the young prince. The Crusaders countered that they would accept Isaac if his son were named co-Emperor. It was agreed, and Alexius was crowned August 1, 1203.


Pretenders and Contenders

Alexius IV quickly found Constantinople an unpleasant place. By the time he had handed out gifts all around, he did not have enough money to pay the Venetians. The tax he levied to raise the money was bitterly resented by the citizens, who didn’t much like the Westerners who were infesting their streets anyway. The Franks were rude and violent, didn’t pay their bills, and sometimes pillaged the countryside. One group decided to burn down a mosque, but the flames got out of control and a whole section of the city burned. For their part, the Franks were angry that the great promises made by Alexius were not being fulfilled. They had turned aside from their true destination, risked excommunication, and for what? To be duped once again by the wily and treacherous Greek.

Isaac II was blind and old and took little part in government. As the months passed, Alexius IV likewise steadily withdrew from public life, spending more and more time in the palace. A foreign army stalked the city, the citizens were angry and restless, and no one was steering the ship. In this atmosphere, yet another Alexius stepped forward, this one known to the Crusaders as Alexius Murzuphlus.

This Alexius was a member of the Ducas family and was a descendant of Alexius Comnenus. More importantly, he positioned himself as the leader of the anti-Latin faction and so rode a popular tide. Late in January 1204, he seized power openly, murdered Alexius IV and put Isaac back in prison again, where the poor man soon died. As Alexius V, he reinforced the city’s defenses, most of the Latins having meantime withdrawn from the city to their camp across the Golden Horn. There was now open skirmishing between the Greeks and the Latins.


A Momentous Decision

Some time in February, the Crusader leaders decided they would again capture the city, but this time they would install a Latin as emperor. This would of course solve everything, as far as they were concerned. The long split in Christendom would be healed, the wealth of the eastern Empire would be put at the disposal of the effort to liberate Jerusalem, and no longer would Outremer be betrayed by the faithless Greeks.

They had it all planned. In March a committee drew up an agreement that laid out the details. Venice would get three quarters of the booty, up to the amount needed to pay off the Crusader debt, with the remainder being divided equally. Venice would recover all properties within the Empire that it had ever held. Twelve electors, six Venetians and six non-Venetians, would then elect a Latin emperor. The Emperor himself would get a quarter of the empire, and the rest would be divided evenly between Venice and the rest of the Crusaders. A Latin clergy would be set up, and the Greek Orthodox church would be plundered to provide land and income for them. A Latin patriarch would be elected for Constantinople. The Crusaders would remain for one year in the East to assist the new Emperor; any who remained thereafter would have to take an oath of fealty to him.

There were many other provisions, but this much is enough to show how influence Venice was in these events. The city essentially got first pick, with the remains being divided among everyone else. There is no word of Jerusalem in the agreement. The Emperor got a quarter of the Empire, but Venice got three-eighths. Moreover, the Emperor was utterly dependent on his vassals to defend the Empire, while Venice was essentially an independent power within it. Similarly, the Church was to have only enough property to sustain itself, with all surplus wealth being divided among the laity. It was without doubt Enrico Dandolo’s most brilliant diplomacy.


Capture of Constantinople

The Crusaders began their assault on April 9, 1204. The initial attack was driven back and the Crusaders took a couple of days to re-group. They returned to the assault on the 13th. After some sharp fighting, the Venetians were able to go over the walls, while almost at the same time, another group broke down one of the city gates along the sea wall. Murzuphlus abandoned the city almost immediately, taking with him some jewels plus the widow and daughter of Alexius IV.

The first time the Crusaders captured the city, it was done in the name of Alexius IV, ostensibly to drive out a usurper and to restore the rightful emperor. This time, however, the attack was purely one of conquest and the Latins put the city to the sack. It was the worst looting the city ever experienced.

Constantinople was the richest city in Christendom, for it had been accumulating its wealth for almost a thousand years. Over the next three days, the Latins managed to carry off a great deal of it. According to the terms of the agreement, after three days, the loot was collected in great piles and apportioned out: three-eighths of it to Venice, one quarter to the new emperor, and the rest divided among the remaining Crusaders. Literal shiploads of gold, silver, jewels, art work, and sacred relics left the city that year. Between the plunder and the fires that broke out during the two captures of the city, Constantinople was ravaged so badly that it simply never recovered. It would not return to anything like its former glory until the Ottomans had conquered it and turned it into a great Muslim city.


Results of the Fourth Crusade

The fall of Constantinople in April 1204 marks the end of the Fourth Crusade.  The Crusaders did not immediately turn the wealth of the Empire to the conquest of Jerusalem, for they were fully pre-occupied with simply preserving what they had won. They captured Murzuphlus a year later and had him killed, but rival Greek claimants appeared immediately, the most important of which were the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus. In addition, Bulgaria also emerged as a deadly foe, with the result that although the Latin Empire of Constantinople lasted until 1261, its knights and rulers spent the entire time fighting for their own survival.

Some Crusaders stayed on, to be granted various fiefs. Most, however, returned home, brimming over with plunder. They were still technically excommunicants, but the great victory at Constantinople persuaded Innocent to remove the ban.

While there were those who were bitterly critical of the Crusaders for lining their own pockets under the protection of a Crusade, the acquisition of the Greek Empire was a very great prize, indeed.  Great things were expected, and disappointed on that score set in only gradually as people began to realize that the Latin Empire was turning out to be just another state, rather than a bulwark of Crusading.

Rather than condemning the Fourth Crusade has a terrible travesty of a grand ideal, most people continued to support crusading and the idea of crusading. The next generation would produce more crusades than any other, for people continued to believe that all that was needed was one more large effort and the Holy Land would be returned to Christendom.


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Copyright 1999, Ellis L. Knox This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

The Printed copies are in the Mail ! Fascicule XII July MMXIII (500 year old books)

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DSC_0027180j1 2Fascicule XII

July MMXIII

To download a copy of this fascicle click below.

Microsoft Word – F-XII∞.docx

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and below you will se  the web version.

 

I hope you Enjoy

1) 832g  manuscript breviary                                         

Substantial fragment of a medieval manuscript breviary, 14thcentury, probably Italian.

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Created: Italy, probably Taranto, between 1350 and 1400.      $SOLD

This copy is bound in its original deerskin over wooden boards, recently conserved and restored. This wonderful fragment is from the library ofHerbert Bloch, Pope Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, at Harvard from 1941 to 1983 He served as President of Fellows of the Medieval Academy of America (1990–93). Professor Bloch, was the author of   The Atina Dossier of Peter the Deacon ofMonte Cassino. A Hagiographical Romance of the Twelfth Centurypublished in the series Studi e Testi 346 (1998).DSC_0019 5.jpg

This book has very interesting pastedowns, consisting of

Two Bifolia written in a minuscule from  late 11th or early 12th: century proto gothic book hand.(early form of Gothic script of the 11th and 12th centuries)

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¶One bifolum. measures 340 x 234 mm and consists of 32 lines on both sides .

¶ Bifolum two measurse 330 x223mm and consists of 28 and 28 1/2  lines.

These two bifolia have not been removed from the binding, but they  are very legable. The script is easy to read as the letters conform to the type of the Caroline minuscule predecessor, except that the letters have-not become angular but DO have developed feet. The individual letters are well separated and there are no incomprehensible rows of minims. DSC_0010 3

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Letters such as h, b and l have wedged ascenders.  The letter s is tall and t is short sometimes . There is no j, k, y or z in the example, but the letter w Does Not appear. The ST ligature appears, as found in some very formal Caroline minuscule text.  The vellum is swarthy and is with easily visible guide incisions.

 

The Breviary

DSC_0011 2Large Octavo, 9 ¼x 6 ¼inches. 72 vellum leaves; nine complete signatures of eight leaves each.

Manuscript breviary, Roman rite for Franciscan use; written and illuminated in Italy.

The Breviary is the book that contains the texts of the Divine Office, the highest form of prayer of the Church after the Mass itself. It is usually published as a four-volume set, each of which covers one of the four seasons of the year.  Each volume contains the various parts of the Divine Office, entirely in Latin, and divided up according to its content.  In order to recite the Divine Office from these volumes, it was necessary to go through a long period of training, usually accomplished by a young priest during his seminary formation.  Extensive knowledge was required of a very complex set of “rubrics” or instructions, which were also published in Latin.  The average lay person had always been excluded from this highest form of prayer, not deliberately, but simply because of his lack of knowledge of Latin and of the rubrics.

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De Mensurabili Musica (concerning measured music) is a musical treatise from the early 13th century (medieval period, c. 1240) and is the first of two treatises traditionally attributed to French music theorist Johannes de Garlandia; the other is de plana musica (Concerning Plainchant). De Mensurabili Musica was the first to explain a modal rhythmic system that was already in use at the time: the rhythmic modes. The six rhythmic modes set out by the treatise are all in triple time and are made from combinations of the note values longa (long)and brevis (short) and are given the names trocheeiambdactylanapestspondaic and tribrach, although trochee, dactyl and spondaic were much more common. It is evident how influential Garlandia’s  treatise has been by the number of theorists that have used its ideas. Much of the surviving music of the Notre Dame School from the 13th century is based on the rhythmic modes set out in De Mensurabili Musica.

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2) 181J    Psalterium Latinum.

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A fifteenth century

 Manuscript Psalter

surrounded on every page by an untitled 18thcentury English History manuscript

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Tours, France circa 1430                                                  $95,000

Quarto: 19.5 X 14 cm.  171 parchment leaves plus 1 unsigned with vertical catchwords.

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A fifteenth-century manuscript Psalter with an early eighteenth-century English manuscript written in the margins throughout. The English work is mainly historical with long polemical passages concerning the Church of England. The primary aim of the author, who writes with a strong Catholic bias, is to demonstrate the illegitimacy of the reformed Church.180j1.jpg

This psalter has a long English Provenance, stretching   back to the first quarter of the sixteenth-century, when this Psalter was owned by Alice Lupset, the mother of the English humanist Thomas Lupset (See below for a full discussion.)

The Psalter:

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The illuminations in this volume is exquisite, with all of the large initials done in gold and colors, with great skill. The nine large (7-line) gilt initials are all accompanied by full illuminated borders containing leaves, fruit, flowers, and vines in many shades of blue, red, green, yellow, and orange, with gilded highlights.  There are several other 4-line gilt initials in the text as well as many two and one –line initial letters.

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This manuscript prayer book contains the complete text of the Psalms of David. The first 118 Psalms. These are followed by eighteen named Psalms (Beth, Gimel, et cetera) These are followed by Psalms 119 through 150 and, finally, eight other Psalms

This manuscripts dates to ca 1430. None of the popular saints canonized in the 1440’s and 1450’s appear either in the calendar or in the litany of saints. This manuscript contains almost exclusively the names of universally honored saints and festival occasions for the church as its “red letter days”

Provenance:

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  • The sixteenth century:

A sixteenth century inscription on the final leaf informing us that this book belonged to Alice Lupset (died 1543/4) wife of the goldsmith Thomas Lupset (died 1522/3) and mother of the English Humanist

The Inscription reads

 “Thes boke belongeth unto syster Lupshed sum tyme the wife of Thomas Lupshed gol smyth

A second shorter inscriptionapparently in the same hand reads

                 “Lent to syster Baker”

The feast days for English saints have been added to the calendar in an early sixteenth century hand (for example Cuthbert leaf 2 recto) In accordance with Henry VIII’s Proclamation of 1534 the word “Papa” has been duly erased from all entriesin the calendar bearing the names of popes. The Addition of English names (which are written in an English cursive hand similar to the one usedfor the ownership inscriptions) and the erasure of the word “Pope’ were quite possibly made by Alice Lupset herself.

  • Now to the seventeenth-century. There is a single signature, only partly legible, on the final leaf: “George {???}
  • The eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century: The ownership inscription of James Leatherbarrow appears on the first leaf and reads :

“Jas Leatherbarrow’s book 1751 No[vember] 13”

A nineteenth-century inscription on the rear flyleaf records the names of the subsequent owners of this manuscript: “This book belonged to James Leatherbarrow in 1751. See the name on the first page_by whom it was given to his Brother John Leatherbarrow, who gave it to his Daughter Mrs. Ann Lithgow, who gave it to her edest Daughter Mrs.Gasney & from her it came into the possession of her sister Elizabeth Lithgow. February 14, 1841” In another inscription John Lithgow identifies hiself as the son of Anne Lithgow.

From John Lithgow the manuscript passed to William Ormerod (1818-1860)

The English manuscript :

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Surrounding, or rather filling the entire margins of the Psalter. The work is part religious, part history, and part chronicle. The, as of now, unidentified author’s purpose is to expose the usurpation of the Church and the throne of England by Protestants, beginning with Lord Somerset, and to demonstrate the legitimate authority of the Catholic Church by tracing the history of Christanity in England and chronicling – using lists excerpted from other sources- the succession of the kings and bishops of England. A number of printed and at least one manuscript work are quoted in full while others are digested or presented only in excerpt. The author of the manuscript then comments then comments upon these works, often at length, making the voices of our author and his sources difficult to parse.

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The author cites a number of late seventeenth-century works, including Burnet’s “History of the Reformation”,and  Jeremy Collier’s Historical Dictionary. A reference to John Harris’ Lexicon Technicum gives a terminus post quem of 1704.

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3) 202J

Nicolas deLyra, 1270-1340

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Postilla super Actus Apostolorum, Epistolas Canonicales et Apocalypism.

 Incipit praefatio sancti Hieronymi   prƒbti De corpore epist bean Pauli    apopot..

 ca 1460 in several hands (see below)                           $75,000

Folio, 11 3/4 X 7 3/4. Manuscript on Paper 386 leaves.

The Postillae constitute the first Christian Bible commentary to be printed. The literalist approach led Nicholas to *Rashi, whom he often cites by name (Salomo). In this he had been anticipated by the Victorine scholars, especially by *Andrew of Saint Victor whom he quotes (G. Calandra, De… Andreae Victorini… in Ecclesiasten (1948), 83–85). However, Nicholas, who records his perusal of a controversial tract hebraice scriptus (“written in Hebrew”; see Hailperin in bibl., p. 140), used Rashi directly as well. In addition he read some rabbinic material in Raymond *Martini’s Pugio Fidei. Soon after his death, Nicholas’ Postillae were available in virtually every library in western Christendom. Nicholas had abiding influence (Hailperin, p. 282f.). Wycliffe acknowledged his indebtedness to Nicholas in his (later) English version of the Bible (c. 1388)

*Luther was particularly dependent on him, especially on Genesis. In his commentary to Daniel, Abrabanel controverts Nicholas’ christological exegesis.

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[A full physical description of the hands and decorative initals are available on request]

Thus begins the Pauline epistles :(two columns) fol 6 Romans fol 19 first Corinthians fol 31 second Corinthians fol 39 Galations fol 43 Ephesians fol 47 Philippians fol 50 Colossians fol 54 Laodocians fol 53 first Thessalonians fol 56 second Thessalonians fol 57 first Timothy fol 60 second Timothy fol 63 Titus fol 64 Philemon fol 65-80 Hebrews fol 80-97 John revelation( Apokalypse) fol 98 James Apocalypse fol 100 first Peter Apocalypse fol 106 first-third John fol 109 Jude fol 111 preface to Acts fol 113 Acts fol 146 ( new hand / single column)fol 146-170 (at 162 text switches to two columns [ Same hand]Postill (de Lyra?) Sup explanm Romans fol 170-242 Paul vocatus Apls’- thessalonians fol 242 Paul Secundum fol 288 Quatuor fol 353 Explicit postilla Apocalypum.fol 353 Incipit Postilla of Nicolai de Lyra sup apocalipsum- fol 383 -Explicit Postilla of Nicolai de Lyra sup apocalipsum (End ) Nicholas was born at Lyra in Normandy 1270 and he died in Paris in 1340. The report that he was of Jewish descent dates only from the fifteenth century. He took the Franciscan habit at Verneuil, studied theology, received the doctor’s degree in Paris and was appointed professor at the Sorbonne. In the famous controversy on the Beatific vision he took sides with the professors against John XXII. He laboured very successfully both in preaching and writing, for the conversion for the Jews. He is the author of numerous theological works, some of which are yet unpublished. It was to exegesis that Nicholas of Lyra devoted his best years. In his second prologue to his monumental work “Postilla perpetu in universam S. Scripturam” after stating that the literal sense of Sacred Scriptureis the foundation of all mystical exigesis.

The literal sense, the avers, is much obscured, owing partly to the unskilfulness of some of the correctors, and partly also to our own translation (the Vulgate) which not infrequently departs from the original Hebrew. He holds with St. Jerome that the text must be corrected from the Hebrew codices, except of course the prophecies concerning the Divinity of Christ. Another reason for this obscurity, Nicholas goes on to say, is the attachment of scholars to the method of interpretation handed down by others, who, though they have said many things well, have yet touched sparingly on the literal sense, and have so multiplied the mystical senses as nearly to choke it. Moreover, the text has been distorted by a multiplicity of arbitrary divisions and concordances. Hereupon he declares his intention of insisting, in the present work, upon the literal sense and of interspersing only a few mystical interpretations. Nicholas utilized all available sources, fully mastered the Hebrew and drew copiously from the valuable commentaries of the Jewish exegetes, especially of the celebrated Talmudist Russia (Rashi).

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“The Pugio Fidei” of Raymond Martini and the commentaries of St. Thomas Aquinas were laid under contribution. His (Nicholas de Lyra) is lucid and concise; his observations are are judicious and sound, and always original. The Postilla soon became the favorite manual of exegesis. The solid learning of Nicholas commanded the respect of both Jews and Christians.

 

Luther owes much to Nicholas of Lyra, but how widely the principles of Nicholas differed essentially from Luther’s views is best seen from Nicholas’s own words:

 

“ I protest that I do not intend to assert or determine anything that has not been manifestly determined by Sacred Scripture or by the authority of the Church.. Wherefore I submit all I have said or shall say to the correction of Holy Mother Church and of all the learned men.’.

(Prol. secund in Postillas…)

Nicholas taught no new doctrine. The early Fathers and the great schoolman had repeatedly laid down the same sound exegetical principles, but owing to adverse tendencies of the times, their efforts had partly failed. Nicholas carried out these principles effectively, and in this lies his chief merit – one which ranks him among the foremost exegites of all times.╙(Catholic Encyclopedia , Vol. XI, Thomas Plassman, p. 63)

 

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The “Praeparitio” is a gigantic feat of erudition

4)   945G       Eusebius of Caesarea                      c. 260-c. 340

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Eusebius Pa[m]phili de eua[n]gelica preparac[i]o[n]e  ex greco in latinu[m] translatus Incipit feliciter.

 

[ Cologne, Ulrich Zel, not after 1473]                                $18,000

Folio 10 ¾ x 7 ¾ inches. [a]12, [b-o]10, [p  152 of 152 leaves

One of the earliest editions most likely the Second, (editio princeps : Venice 1470) This copy is bound in new quarter calf over original wooden boards. Capitals supplied in Red and Blue.

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DSC_0007This copy contains the fifteen books of the “Praeparatio evangelica,” whose purpose is “to justify the Christian in rejecting the religion and philosphy of the Greeks in favor of that of the Hebrews, and then to justify him in not observing the Jewish manner of life […] “ The following summary of its contents is taken from Mr. Gifford’s introduction to his translation of the “Praeparitio:

 

“The first three books discuss the threefold system of Pagan Theology: Mythical, Allegorical, and Political.  The next three, IV-VI, give an account of the chief oracles, of the worship of demons, and of the various opinions of Greek Philosophers on the doctrines of Fate and Free Will.  Books VII-IX give reasons for preferring the religion of the Hebrews founded chiefly on the testimony of various authors to the excellency of their Scriptures and the truth of their history.  In Books X-XII Eusebius argues that the Greeks had borrowed from the older theology and philosphy of the Hebrews, dwelling especially on the supposed dependence of Plato upon Moses.  In the the last three books, the comparson of Moses with Plato is continued, and the mutual contradictions of other Greek Philosphers, especially the Peripatetics and Stoics, are exposed and criticized.”

The “Praeparitio” is a gigantic feat of erudition, and, according to Harnack (Chronologie, II, p. 120), was, like many of Eusebius’ other works, actually composed during the stress of the persecution.  It ranks, with the Chronicle, second only to the Church History in importance, because of its copious extracts from ancient authors, whose works have perished.” (CE)
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It is also very interesting because of its numerous lively fragments from historians and philosophers which are nowhere else preserved

DSC_0268 e.g. a summary of the writings of the Phoenician priest Sanchuniathon, or the account from Diodorus Siculus’ sixth book of Euhemerus’ wondrous voyage to the island of Panchaea, and writings of the neo-Platonist philosopher Atticus.

Eusebius (c. 263-339), Greek historian and exegete, Christian polemicist and scholar Biblical canon, became bishop of Cesarea in 314 and is considered as the father of Church History as his writings are very important for the first three centuries of the Christianity.
Goff E119;BMC I 194.   (United States of America: Boston Public Library
Indiana Univ., The Lilly Library (- 2 ff.)
YUL)
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5) 957G  Richard  Mediavilla [Middleton], d. 1302/3

          Commentum super quartem  Sententarium.

Venice: Christophorus Arnoldus, [circa 1476-7]        $22,000

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DSC_0101Folio  12 ¼ 9 ¼ inches. a-z10 [et]10 [cum]10 [per]10 A 10 B-D8 (D8v blank and aa1r blank) aa8 bb10 cc8             [320 of 320 leaves complete.]

Second edition. This copy is rubricated throughout with nicely complicated red initials. It is bound in an age appropriate binding of full calf over wooden boards with clasps and catches with quite impressive end bands.

Richard of Middleton,[Richard de Mediavilla] Franciscan friar, theologian, and philosopher, was born about the middle of the thirteenth century in either England or France. He studied at Paris, where he formed part of the so-called neo-Augustinian movement, defending the philosophy and theology of Augustine against the inroads of Aristotelianism, during the years 1276–87. He probably studied under William of Ware and Matteo d’Acquasparta, usually viewed as principal figures in this movement.

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Middleton’s Commentary on Peter Lombard’s ‘Sentences’ was probably begun in 1281 and was completed in 1284, when he became regent master of the Franciscan school in Paris, a post he held until 1287. The chief characteristic of his Commentary is its sober assessment of many of the positions of Thomas Aquinas. However, the tone of his eighty Quodlibet Questions, produced during his regency, is much more critical and on many issues shows a strong anti-Thomist reaction. In this they have more in common with his disputed questions, which were argued after the condemnations of 1277 but before his Sentences commentary. The latter commentary has been edited along with his Quodlibet Questions. A small number of his disputed questions have also been edited, as have six of his sermons. 

DSC_0008Furthermore; nine questions (23 to 31) in this volume form a veritable treatise on demonology, a rare type in the thirteenth century. Mediavilla’s remark is singular: he is the only thinker who gives autonomy of existence to the demon, in the framework of a rational description.

Mediavilla focuses on the present of the devil and its modes of action on men. He is the great thinker of the demonic turn of the 1290s.

This text offers one of the origins of a Western genre, the “novel of Satan”

 

 

 

The questions of volume IV

  1. Did the first sin of the angel come from a good principle?
  2. Can the angel at the moment of his creation sin?

25 . In the first sin of the angel, was the comparison of the creature anterior, according to the order of nature, to the distancing from God?

  1. Was the first sin of the angel pride?

27 . Did the evil angel repent of his pride?

28 . In the evil angels, does sin follow another sin without end?

  1. Does the sorrow of the evil angels leave her with a certain joy?

30 . Would the evil angels not be?

31 . Can bad angels play our sensations?

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Middleton’s link to the neo-Augustinian movement is seen especially in his treatment of the will, even though he does not entirely follow his teachers, Ware and Acquasparta. For Middleton the will is much more noble than the intellect, since it is much more noble to love God than to understand him. Understanding without the corresponding love separates man from God. However, the key to the will’s nobility is its freedom. The intellect is forced by evidence when evidence is given; the will also is forced by its nature to seek the good, but it is free in choosing the means to its predetermined goal. Even if the intellect were prudent enough to show man the best means to his goal, he would not be forced to adopt them. ‘For although the intellect, like a servant with a lamp, points out the way, the will, like the master, makes the decisions and can go in any direction it pleases’ (Stegmüller, 722).

The superiority of the human will over the intellect further manifests itself in Middleton’s conception of the nature of theology. Certainly, the study of the scriptures attempts to clarify human knowledge of both creator and creatures; principally, however, it aims to stimulate man’s affections. Middleton believes that scripture prescribes laws, forbids, threatens, attracts man through promises, and shows him models of behaviour that he should follow or avoid. The study of scripture perfects the soul, moving it toward the good through fear and love. It is more of a practical science than a speculative endeavour. A theology that is speculative is one that models itself on the theology of the metaphysician or philosopher and tends to reduce Christian faith to reason.

The influence of Aquinas is more in evidence in Middleton’s theory of knowledge. Middleton rejects the illumination theory of Bonaventure and his more loyal followers. Man’s intellectual knowledge can be explained, he argues, by the abstraction performed by the agent intellect from the singulars experienced by the human senses. In short, human individuals know, and they know by means of their own intellectual efforts, not by some special divine illumination. Unlike those who endorse the illumination theory, Middleton contends that there is no direct knowledge of spiritual beings, including God. God is not the first thing known. He can be known only by starting with creatures and by reasoning about their origins or final end. Middleton died in Rheims on 30 March 1302 or 1303.” [Oxford DNB]

Goff M-424; BMC V 206

(The ISTC shows two US copies…St Louis Univ., Pius XII Memorial Library () &YUL – i.e. both defective) add UCLA.

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No copy of this Edition in North America

7) 10H Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boethius 480-525

De Consolatione Philosophiae : Sacti thome de aquino super libris boetii de solatoe philosophie comentum cu expositione feliciter incipit. [fol. 168 recto:] In diui Seuerini Boetij de scolarium disciplina commentarium feliciter incipit.. Add: Pseudo- Boethius: De disciplina scholarium (Comm: pseudo- Thomas Aquinas)

[Lyons: Guillaume Le Roy],1487                         $16,000

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Folio 9 ½ X 6 ¾inches.  [ 235 leaves of 238.]  lacking ONLY three blanks: x6, A1, and I8;

a2-8,b-v8 (a1 blank and lacking) x6; A2-8, B-I8. 45 lines of commentary, which surrounds the text, to a page. Ff. 1, 166, 167, 238, blank, are wanting. 235 of 238 leaves.   This copy is bound in modern calf over wooden boards. It is a nice clean copy.

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Text surrounded by commentary ascribed to Thomas Aquinas, with a second work attributed to Pseudo-Boethius, De Disciplina Scholarium, with commentary of Pseudo-Aquinas; contemporary annotations, some cropped.

 

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“Boethius became the connecting link between the logical and metaphysical science of antiquity and the scientific attempts of the Middle Ages. His influence on medieval thought was still greater through his De consolatione philosophiae (written while in prison at Pavia) and the theological writings attributed to him. Whether Boethius was a Christian has been doubted; and it is certain that the Consolatio makes no mention of Christ, and all the comfort it contains it owes to the optimism of the Neoplatonic school and to the stoicism of Seneca. Nevertheless, for a long time the book was read with the greatest reverence by all Christendom, and its author was regarded as a martyr for the true faith” (Schaff-Herzog). GW ascribes the commentary on De consolatione to Thomas Waleys.

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In this prosimetrical apocalyptic dialogue, Boethius our narrator encounters Lady-Philosophy , who appears in his time of need, the muse of poetry has in short failed him.  Philosophy dresses among great protest Boethius’ bad interpretations and misunderstandings of fate and free will….

 

One thousand five hundred years later It is still fair to ask, the same questions which Boethius asks..

 

And Philosophy answers:  “The judgment of most people is based not on the merits of a case but on the fortune of its outcome; they think that only things which turn out happily are good.”

 

You have merely discovered the two-faced nature of this blind goddess [Fortune] … For now she has deserted you, and no man can ever be secure until he has been deserted by Fortune.”

 

“I [Fortune] spin my wheel and find pleasure in raising the low to a high place and lowering those who were on top. Go up, if you like, but only on condition that you will not feel abused when my sport requires your fall.”

 

The colophon has an interesting Acrostic reading DSC_0006

“CONRADUS”

 

Not in Goff.

H 3402; C 1103 = 1114; Pell 2502 & 2557; CIBN B-576; Hillard 431; Aquilon 149; Arnoult 309; Parguez 229; Péligry 196; Polain(B) 4217; IGI 1827; Kind(Göttingen) 232; Pr 8513A; BMC VIII 238.

 

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8) 998G Bernardus: Basinus 1445-1510

De magicis artibus et magorum maleficiis

dsc_0197( Tractatus exquisitissimus de magicis artibus et ma//gorum maleficiis, per sacre scientie Parisiensem doctorem ma//gistrum Bernardum Basim, canonicum Cesaraugusta//nensem, in suis vesperis compilatus. )

Paris : Antoine Caillaut,1491-1492? (Dated by CIBN: Bibliothèque Nationale. Catalogue des incunables. T. I (Xylographes, A-G);. Paris, 1981-2014. B-182)                  $ 28,000

Quarto.  7 ¾x 5 ¼ inches a8 b6.  14 of 14 leaves. This copy is bound recently in older limp vellum.

Second Edition. First Published in 1483, (Goff B-279 listing four copies)

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This treatise on magical practices was based on a speech Basin delivered in Paris before an assembly of cardinals in 1482. Basin was born 1445 in Zaragoza and he received his doctors degree in Paris, having study there theology and canon law.  In nine propositions he explains how people enlist the help of demons and if the practise of such diabolic magic makes a person a heretic.

Basin states that magic arts, such as involving the invocation of demons and pacts must be been prohibited by all laws, civil and canon alike. Hain 2703. The editio princeps was published in 1483 and is extant in 12 copies worldwide. This second edition is more rare and exists in 6 copies worldwide. A corner stone text in the study of witchcraft and inquisition.

Only one copy in the United States of America: (not in Goff) Southern Methodist Univ., Bridwell Library

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Not in Goff: Dated by CIBN; Pell(Lyon) 40; Bod-inc B-132; Sheppard 6190; Pr 7967; BSB-Ink B-233; GW 3720 ;  CIBN B-182; Aquilon 89; Parguez 146.

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9) 144JAnicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus  Boethius (480-525)

Pseudo- Boethius: De disciplina scholarium (Comm: pseudo- Thomas Aquinas) 

     [Bound with]

Boetius de consolatione philosophie necnon de disciplina scholariu[m] cum creme[n]to [sic] sancti Thome De consolatione philosophiae(with commentary ascribed in the text to Thomas Aquinas).

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Lyon: Jean Du Pré, 3 March 1491/92       $ 9,000

Small Folio 9 1/3 x 61/2 inches.  a-P8 aa6;  A-F8.  [174 of 176 leaves ] (second part lacking two leaves a blank and the title to the Consolation.    In this copy the index is bound before the preliminaries. 2 parts in one volume.  Bound in old limp vellum with hole in the spine, lacking ties. The contents are  lightly toned with scattered foxing and stains or ink blots, early inscriptions on title of Pseudo-Boethius and last page of Boethius.         Thomas Waley (once commonly ascribed to Saint Thomas Aquinas).

DSC_0030For over 1,000 years, The Consolation of Philosophywas the most popular book in Europe next to the Bible. “After Augustine, the first thinker of philosophical note was Boethius “

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Goff B796 (one copy Harvard) ; Pell 2531; CIBN B-581; Frasson-Cochet 59; Parguez 232; IBE 1118; IGI 1835; IBPort 383; Mendes 278; Walsh 3779; GW 4554

And This edition also has the Acrostic colophon:

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10)  145J    Paulus   Pergulensisca -1451.

Logica magistri Pauli Pergulensis.

Venice:  Johannes Emericus, de Spira, 22 Feb. 1495/96                                $12,500

Quarto.   10 x 8 ½  inches  a-e8, f4  [44 0f 44 leaves (complete) ]

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Signature of Thomas Stewart, Knight of St. John of Jerusalem, dated Rome 1837 on title.
Bound in early 19th-century quarter sheep; light dampstaining in lower margins throughout, title and last page soiled.

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Italy, the centre of humanism, produced the best logicians of the Renaissance. Paulus Pergulensis (d. 1451) was a pupil of Paul of Venice, author of the Logica magna and parva. The present is a more succinct and highly systematized logic, composed entirely in the form of theses.

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From 1420 to 1454 Pergulensis taught logic and natural philosophy, and then also mathematics, astronomy and theology, to the Venetian school of Rialto (founded in 1408 ), to which he gave a real university organization.  He was nominated (1448) bishop of Koper, which he renounced so as not to leave the teaching. We are left of him, manuscripts or press, some treatises of logic ( Dubia in consequentias Strodi , De sensu composite and divided , In regulas insolubilium , De scire et dubitare , Compendium logicae ), in which he discusses the new logical doctrines of the Oxford school in Padua by Paolo Veneto.

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Goff P195; H 12626; R 1314; Sander 5476; IBE 4363; IGI 7322; IBPort 1357; Horch(Rio) Suppl 13; Mendes 957; GW M30234

US Copies (Princeton Univ (2) and The Newberry Library)  Not in Copinger or British museum Catalogue of books printed in the XVth century

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11)  942G    Michæl (Michaelis Mediolanensis) Carcano ( 1427- 1484)

Sermonarium de poenitentia per adventum et per quadragesimam fratris Michælis Mediolanensis.     DSC_0027

Venice : Georgius Arrivabenus, 28 Sept. 1496                   $9,000

Large Octavo 7 ¼x 5 ½inches.  a-z8 [et]8 [con]8 [rum]8 A-E8 F10.  258 of 258 leaves.

DSC_0030 This copy is bound in bind-tooled pigskin over wooden boards. Highly impressed with blind tool roll stamps of thistles DSC_0031Strawberries and various other flowers. Lacking clasps and catches.

Carcano was one of the greatest Franciscan preachers of the 15th-century.  In this book there are 92 sermons for Advent and Lent, that amount to a systematic treatment of penitence. Carcano’s preaching was much admired by Bernardino da Feltre, who called him ‘alter sanctus apostolus Paulus et Christi Tuba’. He is known for his part in founding the montes pietatis banking system, with Bernardine of Feltre, and for the marked anti-Semitism of his attacks on usury. His sermons were later printed as Sermones quadragesimales fratris Michaelis de Mediolano de decem preceptis (1492). They include arguments in favour of religious art. (see Geraldine A. Johnson, Renaissance Art: A Very Short Introduction (2005), p. 37)

Bernardus: Basinus 1445-1510

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The wording of the colophon suggests that the archetype of this edition is that of Nicholas de Frankfordia,1487
Quadragesimale seu sermonarium de penitentia duplicatum per aduentu[m] videlicet & quadragesima[m] a venerabili viro fratre Michaele Mediolanensi ordinis fratrum minorum de obseruantia editum: qui tum sanctimonia vite, tu[m] ferue[n]tissima verbi dei p[re]dicatione a deo inumeris meruit corruscare miraculis felici numine explicitum est. Impressu[m] Venetijs optimaq[ue] castigatione eme[n]datu[m]: per Georgiu[m] de Arriuabenis Ma[n]tuanum. Anno d[omi]ni .M.cccclxxxxvj. die .xxviij. Septembris./

 

Goff C197; H 4507*;; Walsh 2140; BMC V 386  

(HEHL, Harvard, CL,LC,St Bonaventure Univ ,Univ. of Kentucky, Univ. of Minnesota)

 

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12) 174J  Niocola de Orbellis

Eximii doctoris magistri Nicholai de orbellis super sentencias compendium per utile, elegantiora doctoris subtilis dicta summatim complectens.

Rouen : Martin Morin, for Jean Alexandre, 1497             $SOLDDSC_0024

Octavo 6 ½x 4 inches   a-i8 k4 A-E8 a-d48 e-f8 aa-ii8,kk-ss8 tt10, Last blank present and filled with notes and Printers mark on the back. This copy is profusely filled with very small notes.  Printer’s mark on title page (cf. Brunet v.2, p. 363).

Bound in 18th century tree calf, with gilt spine.

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Not in Goff,  see O76.

2 copies in the US: St Bonaventure and Johns Hopkins.

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Cosentini, F. La Bibliofilia,; 16 (1915), p. 425; Incunabula short title catalogue,; io00077500; GW,; M28154

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5770105

14)  203J   Sebastian Brant(1458-1520)UB Basel : [Das Narrenschiff] [3]

DAS NARRENSCHIFF. {Hie vahet sich an das neü narren schiff vo[n] Narrogonia zu Nutz vnd Heylsamer ler zu vermeyden straffe der narrheyt } 

 

Basel, Johann Bergmann von Olpe, (12 Feb.) 1499.              $44,000

Quarto (213 x 152mm.), 162 leaves (of 164),  a-t8, u v6, lacking two leaves: a1 (title) and a8, quire a defective with some loss of text,  h8 and i1 defective, s1 torn without loss, s6-8 and t1-6 defective, u6 and quire v torn at upper corner, quire v becoming detached, occasional light staining.   With 112 (of 114) large woodcuts with two woodcut borders on each page mostly attributed to Albrecht Dürer and the Haintz Narr Master, a.o. and with elaborate ornamented and historiated woodcut borders on both sides on each page.

5770137

Gothic type. 30 lines. Bound in original quarter pigskin over wooden boards, expertly restored, with one original clasp.

First published in German in 1494 this is a milestone in the history of book illustrations with many woodcuts by Albrecht Dürer  printed from the original blocks.

Sebastian Brant’s work is present here in a rare third German edition printed by the original publisher.  This edition adds a so-called ”Protestation” of fourty lines, now often numbered as chapter 113, written to protect Brant against the Unauthorized additions and mutilations of pirated editions, which.  In splendid collaboration with this humanist- printer Johann Bergmann of Olpe, the Basel editions of the “Ship of Fools” have turned out as a “remarkably complete mirror of human life”, based upon the “very universality of Brant’s self-righteous surliness, and the picturesqueness of his metaphors” (Panofsky). The illustrations of human weakness in large woodcuts by the young Dürer and the Haintz Narr Master, a.o. are printed from the original blocks

Its commentary on the boasting, pedantry, false learning, gambling, gluttony, medical folly, adultery, greed, envy, hatred, pride and other failings that mark humanity are sharp and telling, and, sadly, as relevant today as they were 450 years ago.

Before Goethe’s Werther arrived on the scene, this work was the most successful book ever published in Germany, immensely popular and read until it fell to pieces. This is one of literature’s most famous satires and a remarkable illustrated book. Sebastian Brant describes in his “Ship of Fools” the voyage of a ship bearing 100 fools, to the fools’ paradise of Narragonia, and he satirizes all the follies of his time including representatives of every human and social type.

Many of the  woodcuts have been Attributed to Albrecht Dürer.

PMM calls it “the first original work by a German which passed into world literature and helped to blaze the trail that leads from medieval allegory to modern satire, drama and novel of character”.

The reference to the newly discovered America is found on fol. 76 verso (cf. Harrise, BAV, Additions, no. 21).

 

 

 

Complete incunabular editions were issued three times in German by 5770119 2the original printer Bergmann of Olpe with the Dürer woodcuts:

These editions are now unobtainable. Since 1906 most probably only 1 incomplete copy has been recorded in German book auctions.  

In the United States there are only four copies of anyBergmann de Olpe German editions with the Dürer woodcuts.  

: 1494   Goff 1080.  Two copies : 

Morgan Library and Library of Congress (- a1). 3

: 1495 Goff 1082.  One copy: Metropolitan Museum of art.

:1499 not in Goff.   This copy. ( it can be yours!) 

Walter L. Strauss in his catalogue raisonné, Albrecht Durer Woodcuts and Woodblocks, surveys the state of critical dispute about the number of pieces definitely created by Durer and not simply by others trying to imitate his accomplishments. Strauss and Panofsky are the most conservative; Winkler (1928) “who undertook the most thorough examination of the illustrations, concluded that seventy-three are by Durer” and in later editions added 5 more for a grand total of 78 by Durer.

5770105

Wolfgang Hutt’s Albrecht Durer 1471 bis 1528: Das gesampte graphische Werk: Druckgraphik (1970), assigns 74 of the woodcuts to Durer; Alain Borer and Cécile Bon’s L’Oeuvre Graphique de Albrecht Durer (1980; identified as “Borer” in the descriptions) prints 78 woodcuts as Durer’s. We follow the new catalogue raisonné of Durer’s woodcuts for books, Rainer Schoch, Matthias Mende, and Anna Scherbaum, Albrecht Dürer: Das Druckgraphische Werk: Band III: Buchillustrationen (Munchen: Prestel, 2004), here referred to as SMS. This work prints and illustrates each of the 78 works Winkler accepted as by Durer. There is also a complete English translation of Brant’s Ship of Fools by Edwin H. Zeydel (NY: Dover, 1944; rpt. 1962);

5770119

Sébastien Brant. 500e anniversaire de La Nef des Folz (Basel, 1994), 182-7.

 

5770145

GW 5047 (records only 11 copies complete or fragmentary in public libraries, the Bodlian copy in Oxford is imperfect, as well as the Basel UB copy, the only one in Switzerland, see digitalisat);

Not in Goff :  NO US COPIES ; HC 3742; Pr 7782; Hieronymus, Buchillus. 195; Wilhelmi 182; Panofsky, Dürer II, pp. 275-276; Meder p. 275; cf. PMM 37.

Holdings

British LibraryBritish Library (IA.37957)

AustriaWien, ÖNB (Ink 12.H.16)

British Isles Oxford Bodley (imperfect)

FranceStrasbourg BNU (2, 1 imperfect)

GermanyBamberg SB

Berlin KupferstichKab

Berlin SB (copy destroyed)

Dresden SLUB

Schleusingen NaturhistM (Prov GymB)

SwitzerlandBasel UB (imperfect)

5770125Contents:

a2r Brant, Sebastian: Das Narrenschiff. ‘Ein vorred in das Narrenschiff’. Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Zarncke, 1-4. Sebastian Brant, Das Narrenschiff. Nach der Erstausgabe (Basel 1494) mit den Zusätzen der Ausgaben von 1495 und 1499, ed. Manfred Lemmer, 3rd edn (Tübingen, 1986), 2-6.

a4v Brant, Sebastian: Das Narrenschiff. ‘Von vnnutzen buchern’. Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Zarncke, 4-114; Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Lemmer, 6-208.

v2v [First Colophon.]

v3r Brant, Sebastian: Das Narrenschiff. ‘Der wyß man’. Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Zarncke, 114-15; Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Lemmer, 208-9.

v4v [Second Colophon.] ‘End des narrenschiffs’. Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Zarncke, 115; Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Lemmer, 210.

v5r ‘Register des Narrenschiffs’.cc

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13)   172J [Printed Book of Hours (Use of Rome) In Latin and French]

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Ces presentes heures a lusaige de Ro[m]me ont este faictes pour Simon Vostre Libraire domourant a Paris a la rue neuue nostre dame a le enseigne sainct Jehan l’evangeliste.

Paris [Philippe Pigouchet per] Simon Vostre, 16 Sept 1500.              $28,000

Quarto 8 1/4 x 5 1/2 inches.  a-l 8, ; A 8: (A 1-8 lacking).    88 of 96 leaves printed on vellum, lacking the “Sensuiuent les sept pseaulmes en françoys”(not surprisingly  other copies are lacking the final ‘A’ quire) .

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Initial spaces and spaces for initials within the line. Initials, paragraph marks and line fillers illuminated in gold on alternating red and blue grounds, red-ruled. (Some wear and darkening.) This copy is bound in full 18th century chagrin. It is a beautiful wide margined copy.

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DSC_0027 7The present Horae are illustrated with 22 full-page engravings in the text and numerous and smaller cuts, metalcut historiated and ornamental borders on every page, many with criblé grounds , depicting biblical scenes, the Virtues, the stag hunt, apple harvest and memento mori vignettes depicting including Pigouchet’s Dance of Death series (Claudin II, 53-53)

Pigouchet appears to have introduced the criblé technique, in which the black areas of a woodblock are punched with white dots, giving the page a lively tonality. Philipee Pigouchet’s collaboration with Simon Vostre lasted for over 18 years, during which period the duo produced hundreds of Books of Hours for European readers. The almanac was apparently kept standing in type for use in several Pigouchet edition.

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Goff H412; C 3106; Bohatta, H. Livres d’Heures;(1924)

730 = 705;

Lacombe 109; Pell Ms 5892 (5878); Castan(Besançon) 554; Adams H1007;

GW 13263  Cambridge UL                                                                                                                                                                                            Oxford Bodley Quebec Laval UL (vell) Besançon BM                                                                                                                                                                     Paris BN

Number of Holding Institutions. 5

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“Truth consists of an adequation between the intellect and a thing”

16)        930G  Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274. editor Theodoricus de Susteren.

Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris s[an]cti Thome Aquinatis. que olim … me[n]dis scatebat. Nouissime iam per … magistru[m] nostru[m] Theodericum de Susteren co[n]uentus Coloniens[is] fratru[m] predicatoru[m] regentem … laboriose reuisa … feliciter incipit.

 

Cologne : Heinrich Quentell,

7 Mar. 1499             $12,500

Folio.10 ½x 8 inches 2°: A-Z6, Aa-Gg6; {signature Dd signed De}

180 of 180 leaves.  Third Edition, the final 15th  century edition. Bound in blind-tooled calf including some blind ’title’ on the front board, full calf over wooden  boards.  Clasps missing, but the catch-plates are present. Light foxing, with some red and green ink dots along edges. On this book all edges were striped in Green and red now quite faded.  Front pastedown shows slight signs of water damage.Occasional small red stains on text block (e.g. E3v and Q5), likely from the books’ rubricator, but otherwise a clean text block.rubricated throughout.

 

“Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris sancti Thome Aquinatis…”First written around 1256, Thomas Aquinas’ “Disputed Questions on Truth” defends “the view that truth consists of an adequation between the intellect and a thing. Aquinas develops a notion of truth of being (“ontological truth”) along with truth of the intellect (what might be called “logical truth”)” (Wippel, 295)

Subjects: Truth; God’s Knowledge; Ideas; The Divine Word; Providence; Predestination; The Book of Life; The Knowledge of Angels; Communication of Angelic Knowledge; The Mind; The Teacher; Prophecy; Rapture; Faith; Higher and Lower Reason; Synderesis; Conscience; The Knowledge of the First Man in the State of Innocence; Knowledge of the Soul After Death; The Knowledge of Christ; Good; The Tendency to Good and the Will; God’s Will; Free Choice; Sensuality; The Passions of the Soul; Grace; The Justification of Sinners; and The Grace of Christ.  For each topic, Aquinas reviews the topic’s Difficulties, and then responses with ‘To the Contrary’ and ‘Reply’. Aquinas concludes each topic with an “Answers to Difficulties” section, demonstrating his typical insightful worldview and readable literary style.“Everything is a being essentially. But a creature is good not essentially but by participation. Good, therefore, really adds something to being (“Good” [U1v])

translation from   http://dhspriory.org/thomas/QDdeVer21.htm).

Goff T181; (Columbia University, Union Theological Seminary;HEHL; LC ;Massachusetts Historical Society;YUL);  BMC I, 289/90; Only one Copy in The British Isles (BL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15) 209J Giovanni Battista Trovamala de Salis

Incipit liber q[ui] Rosella casuum appellatur.

 

Summa casuum conscientiae  (second version, known as Rosella casuum). Add: Sixtus IV: Bulla “Etsi dominici gregis” 30 Dec. 1479. Rubricae iuris civilis et canonici.

Venice: Paganinus de Paganinis, 21 Dec. 1499        $7,500

Large 8vo, π4 a10 aa-zz16 &&16 2[con]162[rum]16 Aa-Cc16 Dd12

 

Leaf pi4 includes the bull “Etsi dominici gregis” Printed register at end does not allow for the first [14] leaves which contain the “Rubrice iuris civilis” and “Summa Angelica.” But they are present.

 

In the fifteenth century, many authors of Summasfor confessors addressed loans and usury, the concept of “Cambium siccum Trovamala” In this book de Salis argues that ‘dry exchange is not usury because of its speculative nature.

 

After the Fourth Lateran council of 1215 a number of manuals of confession appeared. Their purpose was the intellectual preparation of priests for a prudent and informed exercise of the office of confessor. This manual for confessors was completed by Father Battista Trovamala in the convent of Levanto in 1483. Also known as the Summa casuum conscientiae or Summa Baptistiniana, it was first printed by Nicolaus Girardengus in 1484. In 1489 Trovamala made an expanded and revised version, the Rosella Casuum or Summa Rosella, printed first in Pavia in 1489 and then in Venice by Giorgio Arrivabeni in 1489, 1495, and 1499.Early and second octavo edition of this famous manual for confessors, first published in Novi Ligure in 1484 and expanded by the author four years later. Battista Travamala, died 1496, was a Franciscan friar from Salo, in Liguria, from which he took the alternative name de Salis. His most influential work was this Summa casuum, also known as Summa Baptistiana, Rosella casuum or Summa Rosella, completed in 1483 in the convent of Levanto. It encountered immediate success.

 

Goff S50; HC 14186*; CIBN B-70; Parguez 898; Péligry 696; Maignien(Grenoble) 570; Polain(B) 3839; Pr 5178; BMC V 460

 

 

 

IINDEX  of incunables.                               fascicule                                     VII

 

945G        Eusebius 1473 :Goff  E119; BMC I 194.   (Boston Public Library, Indiana )

957G       Mediavilla 1476-7 Goff M 424 BMC V 206. (St Louis Univ., (),YUL (–) UCLA)

10H         Boethius 1487 Not in Goff. H 3402; (No US copies!)

169J         Diß durchleuchtigist – dy bibel 1483 Goff B632.GW 4303; BMC II, 424 SOLD

998G       Bernardus: Basinus:   1491/2  not in Goff (1 US copy SMU)

144J         Boethius 1491/2 Goff B796 (1 US copy Harvard only) (No UK copy)

145J         Paulus Pergulensis 1495/6 Goff P195 (Princeton Univ. (2) The Newberry Library)

942G       Carcano 1496: Goff C197; (HEH, Harv, CL ,LC ,St Bonaventure ,U of Kentucky, U. of Minn

174J         Orbellius 1497: Not in Goff: IGI 7021;(JHU & SBU)

203J         Brant 1499 Not in Goff; GW 5047 (No US copies!)

172J         Heures a l’usaige de Romme. Ca. 1500 Goff; H412  GW 13263  (No US copies!)

930G        Aquinas 1499: Goff T181. (Columbia, Union Theological ;HEHL; LC ;Ma. Historical; YUL)

209J         Trovamala de Salis 1499: Goff S50 (many US copies)

723G        Raymond, of Sabunde 1502. Adams S-36; VD 16, R 174. (5 us copies)

982G      Marino Becichemo 1506 (U of Illinois only)

756G        Diodorus 1505-1508; Goff D214. GW VII Sp.431a(Har , CL,N.L.M, Williams, YUL)

960G       Nicolaus de Byard 1511 (one copy in Oclc)(No US copies!)

 

Live   ISTC   Link                                              fascicule     XII

 

 

945G       Eusebius 1473:  http://data.cerl.org/istc/ie00119000

 

957G       Mediavilla 1476-7: http://data.cerl.org/istc/im00422800

 

10H        Boethius1 1487; http://data.cerl.org/istc/ib00782500

 

169J         Diß durchleuchtigist … dy bible 1483 Goff B632.GW 4303; BMC II, 424 SOLD

 

998G       Bernardus: Basinus  :  1491/2 : http://data.cerl.org/istc/ib00279500

 

144J         Boethius 1491/2: http://data.cerl.org/istc/ib00796000

 

145J         Paulus   Pergulensis 1495/6 : http://data.cerl.org/istc/ip00195000

 

942G       Carcano 1496 : http://data.cerl.org/istc/ic00197000

 

172J          Heures a l’usaige de Romme.1498 http://data.cerl.org/istc/ih00395000

 

174J          Orbellius 1497  http://data.cerl.org/istc/io00077500  GW M28154

 

930G        Thomas Aquinas  1499 : http://data.cerl.org/istc/it00181000

 

209J         Trovamala de Salis 1499 https://data.cerl.org/istc/is00050000

 

 

End of fascicule XII

 

617-678-4515

 

46 Hobbs Road Princeton Ma.

01541

 

 

 

Fascicule XII July MMXIII (500 year old books)

DSC_0027Fascicule XII

July MMXIII

To download a copy of this fascicule click below.

A down loadable printable copy of fascicule XII

OR

Microsoft Word – F-XII∞.docx

180j1

1) 832g  manuscript breviary                                         

Substantial fragment of a medieval manuscript breviary, 14thcentury, probably Italian.

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Created: Italy, probably Taranto, between 1350 and 1400.      $SOLD

This copy is bound in its original deerskin over wooden boards, recently conserved and restored. This wonderful fragment is from the library ofHerbert Bloch, Pope Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, at Harvard from 1941 to 1983 He served as President of Fellows of the Medieval Academy of America (1990–93). Professor Bloch, was the author of   The Atina Dossier of Peter the Deacon ofMonte Cassino. A Hagiographical Romance of the Twelfth Centurypublished in the series Studi e Testi 346 (1998).DSC_0019 5.jpg

This book has very interesting pastedowns, consisting of

Two Bifolia written in a minuscule from  late 11th or early 12th: century proto gothic book hand.(early form of Gothic script of the 11th and 12th centuries)

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¶One bifolum. measures 340 x 234 mm and consists of 32 lines on both sides .

¶ Bifolum two measurse 330 x223mm and consists of 28 and 28 1/2  lines.

These two bifolia have not been removed from the binding, but they  are very legable. The script is easy to read as the letters conform to the type of the Caroline minuscule predecessor, except that the letters have-not become angular but DO have developed feet. The individual letters are well separated and there are no incomprehensible rows of minims. DSC_0010 3

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Letters such as h, b and l have wedged ascenders.  The letter s is tall and t is short sometimes . There is no j, k, y or z in the example, but the letter w Does Not appear. The ST ligature appears, as found in some very formal Caroline minuscule text.  The vellum is swarthy and is with easily visible guide incisions.

 

The Breviary

DSC_0011 2Large Octavo, 9 ¼x 6 ¼inches. 72 vellum leaves; nine complete signatures of eight leaves each.

Manuscript breviary, Roman rite for Franciscan use; written and illuminated in Italy.

The Breviary is the book that contains the texts of the Divine Office, the highest form of prayer of the Church after the Mass itself. It is usually published as a four-volume set, each of which covers one of the four seasons of the year.  Each volume contains the various parts of the Divine Office, entirely in Latin, and divided up according to its content.  In order to recite the Divine Office from these volumes, it was necessary to go through a long period of training, usually accomplished by a young priest during his seminary formation.  Extensive knowledge was required of a very complex set of “rubrics” or instructions, which were also published in Latin.  The average lay person had always been excluded from this highest form of prayer, not deliberately, but simply because of his lack of knowledge of Latin and of the rubrics.

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De Mensurabili Musica (concerning measured music) is a musical treatise from the early 13th century (medieval period, c. 1240) and is the first of two treatises traditionally attributed to French music theorist Johannes de Garlandia; the other is de plana musica (Concerning Plainchant). De Mensurabili Musica was the first to explain a modal rhythmic system that was already in use at the time: the rhythmic modes. The six rhythmic modes set out by the treatise are all in triple time and are made from combinations of the note values longa (long)and brevis (short) and are given the names trocheeiambdactylanapestspondaic and tribrach, although trochee, dactyl and spondaic were much more common. It is evident how influential Garlandia’s  treatise has been by the number of theorists that have used its ideas. Much of the surviving music of the Notre Dame School from the 13th century is based on the rhythmic modes set out in De Mensurabili Musica.

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2) 181J    Psalterium Latinum.

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A fifteenth century

 Manuscript Psalter

surrounded on every page by an untitled 18thcentury English History manuscript

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Tours, France circa 1430                                                  $95,000

Quarto: 19.5 X 14 cm.  171 parchment leaves plus 1 unsigned with vertical catchwords.

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A fifteenth-century manuscript Psalter with an early eighteenth-century English manuscript written in the margins throughout. The English work is mainly historical with long polemical passages concerning the Church of England. The primary aim of the author, who writes with a strong Catholic bias, is to demonstrate the illegitimacy of the reformed Church.180j1.jpg

This psalter has a long English Provenance, stretching   back to the first quarter of the sixteenth-century, when this Psalter was owned by Alice Lupset, the mother of the English humanist Thomas Lupset (See below for a full discussion.)

The Psalter:

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The illuminations in this volume is exquisite, with all of the large initials done in gold and colors, with great skill. The nine large (7-line) gilt initials are all accompanied by full illuminated borders containing leaves, fruit, flowers, and vines in many shades of blue, red, green, yellow, and orange, with gilded highlights.  There are several other 4-line gilt initials in the text as well as many two and one –line initial letters.

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This manuscript prayer book contains the complete text of the Psalms of David. The first 118 Psalms. These are followed by eighteen named Psalms (Beth, Gimel, et cetera) These are followed by Psalms 119 through 150 and, finally, eight other Psalms

This manuscripts dates to ca 1430. None of the popular saints canonized in the 1440’s and 1450’s appear either in the calendar or in the litany of saints. This manuscript contains almost exclusively the names of universally honored saints and festival occasions for the church as its “red letter days”

Provenance:

180j1 2 

  • The sixteenth century:

A sixteenth century inscription on the final leaf informing us that this book belonged to Alice Lupset (died 1543/4) wife of the goldsmith Thomas Lupset (died 1522/3) and mother of the English Humanist

The Inscription reads

 “Thes boke belongeth unto syster Lupshed sum tyme the wife of Thomas Lupshed gol smyth

A second shorter inscriptionapparently in the same hand reads

                 “Lent to syster Baker”

The feast days for English saints have been added to the calendar in an early sixteenth century hand (for example Cuthbert leaf 2 recto) In accordance with Henry VIII’s Proclamation of 1534 the word “Papa” has been duly erased from all entriesin the calendar bearing the names of popes. The Addition of English names (which are written in an English cursive hand similar to the one usedfor the ownership inscriptions) and the erasure of the word “Pope’ were quite possibly made by Alice Lupset herself.

  • Now to the seventeenth-century. There is a single signature, only partly legible, on the final leaf: “George {???}
  • The eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century: The ownership inscription of James Leatherbarrow appears on the first leaf and reads :

“Jas Leatherbarrow’s book 1751 No[vember] 13”

A nineteenth-century inscription on the rear flyleaf records the names of the subsequent owners of this manuscript: “This book belonged to James Leatherbarrow in 1751. See the name on the first page_by whom it was given to his Brother John Leatherbarrow, who gave it to his Daughter Mrs. Ann Lithgow, who gave it to her edest Daughter Mrs.Gasney & from her it came into the possession of her sister Elizabeth Lithgow. February 14, 1841” In another inscription John Lithgow identifies hiself as the son of Anne Lithgow.

From John Lithgow the manuscript passed to William Ormerod (1818-1860)

The English manuscript :

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Surrounding, or rather filling the entire margins of the Psalter. The work is part religious, part history, and part chronicle. The, as of now, unidentified author’s purpose is to expose the usurpation of the Church and the throne of England by Protestants, beginning with Lord Somerset, and to demonstrate the legitimate authority of the Catholic Church by tracing the history of Christanity in England and chronicling – using lists excerpted from other sources- the succession of the kings and bishops of England. A number of printed and at least one manuscript work are quoted in full while others are digested or presented only in excerpt. The author of the manuscript then comments then comments upon these works, often at length, making the voices of our author and his sources difficult to parse.

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The author cites a number of late seventeenth-century works, including Burnet’s “History of the Reformation”,and  Jeremy Collier’s Historical Dictionary. A reference to John Harris’ Lexicon Technicum gives a terminus post quem of 1704.

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3) 202J

Nicolas deLyra, 1270-1340

DSC_0229The codex begins

Postilla super Actus Apostolorum, Epistolas Canonicales et Apocalypism.

 Incipit praefatio sancti Hieronymi   prƒbti De corpore epist bean Pauli    apopot..

 ca 1460 in several hands (see below)                           $75,000

Folio, 11 3/4 X 7 3/4. Manuscript on Paper 386 leaves.

The Postillae constitute the first Christian Bible commentary to be printed. The literalist approach led Nicholas to *Rashi, whom he often cites by name (Salomo). In this he had been anticipated by the Victorine scholars, especially by *Andrew of Saint Victor whom he quotes (G. Calandra, De… Andreae Victorini… in Ecclesiasten (1948), 83–85). However, Nicholas, who records his perusal of a controversial tract hebraice scriptus (“written in Hebrew”; see Hailperin in bibl., p. 140), used Rashi directly as well. In addition he read some rabbinic material in Raymond *Martini’s Pugio Fidei. Soon after his death, Nicholas’ Postillae were available in virtually every library in western Christendom. Nicholas had abiding influence (Hailperin, p. 282f.). Wycliffe acknowledged his indebtedness to Nicholas in his (later) English version of the Bible (c. 1388)

*Luther was particularly dependent on him, especially on Genesis. In his commentary to Daniel, Abrabanel controverts Nicholas’ christological exegesis.

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[A full physical description of the hands and decorative initals are available on request]

Thus begins the Pauline epistles :(two columns) fol 6 Romans fol 19 first Corinthians fol 31 second Corinthians fol 39 Galations fol 43 Ephesians fol 47 Philippians fol 50 Colossians fol 54 Laodocians fol 53 first Thessalonians fol 56 second Thessalonians fol 57 first Timothy fol 60 second Timothy fol 63 Titus fol 64 Philemon fol 65-80 Hebrews fol 80-97 John revelation( Apokalypse) fol 98 James Apocalypse fol 100 first Peter Apocalypse fol 106 first-third John fol 109 Jude fol 111 preface to Acts fol 113 Acts fol 146 ( new hand / single column)fol 146-170 (at 162 text switches to two columns [ Same hand]Postill (de Lyra?) Sup explanm Romans fol 170-242 Paul vocatus Apls’- thessalonians fol 242 Paul Secundum fol 288 Quatuor fol 353 Explicit postilla Apocalypum.fol 353 Incipit Postilla of Nicolai de Lyra sup apocalipsum- fol 383 -Explicit Postilla of Nicolai de Lyra sup apocalipsum (End ) Nicholas was born at Lyra in Normandy 1270 and he died in Paris in 1340. The report that he was of Jewish descent dates only from the fifteenth century. He took the Franciscan habit at Verneuil, studied theology, received the doctor’s degree in Paris and was appointed professor at the Sorbonne. In the famous controversy on the Beatific vision he took sides with the professors against John XXII. He laboured very successfully both in preaching and writing, for the conversion for the Jews. He is the author of numerous theological works, some of which are yet unpublished. It was to exegesis that Nicholas of Lyra devoted his best years. In his second prologue to his monumental work “Postilla perpetu in universam S. Scripturam” after stating that the literal sense of Sacred Scriptureis the foundation of all mystical exigesis.

The literal sense, the avers, is much obscured, owing partly to the unskilfulness of some of the correctors, and partly also to our own translation (the Vulgate) which not infrequently departs from the original Hebrew. He holds with St. Jerome that the text must be corrected from the Hebrew codices, except of course the prophecies concerning the Divinity of Christ. Another reason for this obscurity, Nicholas goes on to say, is the attachment of scholars to the method of interpretation handed down by others, who, though they have said many things well, have yet touched sparingly on the literal sense, and have so multiplied the mystical senses as nearly to choke it. Moreover, the text has been distorted by a multiplicity of arbitrary divisions and concordances. Hereupon he declares his intention of insisting, in the present work, upon the literal sense and of interspersing only a few mystical interpretations. Nicholas utilized all available sources, fully mastered the Hebrew and drew copiously from the valuable commentaries of the Jewish exegetes, especially of the celebrated Talmudist Russia (Rashi).

messagepart 2

“The Pugio Fidei” of Raymond Martini and the commentaries of St. Thomas Aquinas were laid under contribution. His (Nicholas de Lyra) is lucid and concise; his observations are are judicious and sound, and always original. The Postilla soon became the favorite manual of exegesis. The solid learning of Nicholas commanded the respect of both Jews and Christians.

 

Luther owes much to Nicholas of Lyra, but how widely the principles of Nicholas differed essentially from Luther’s views is best seen from Nicholas’s own words:

 

“ I protest that I do not intend to assert or determine anything that has not been manifestly determined by Sacred Scripture or by the authority of the Church.. Wherefore I submit all I have said or shall say to the correction of Holy Mother Church and of all the learned men.’.

(Prol. secund in Postillas…)

Nicholas taught no new doctrine. The early Fathers and the great schoolman had repeatedly laid down the same sound exegetical principles, but owing to adverse tendencies of the times, their efforts had partly failed. Nicholas carried out these principles effectively, and in this lies his chief merit – one which ranks him among the foremost exegites of all times.╙(Catholic Encyclopedia , Vol. XI, Thomas Plassman, p. 63)

 

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The “Praeparitio” is a gigantic feat of erudition

4)   945G       Eusebius of Caesarea                      c. 260-c. 340

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Eusebius Pa[m]phili de eua[n]gelica preparac[i]o[n]e  ex greco in latinu[m] translatus Incipit feliciter.

 

[ Cologne, Ulrich Zel, not after 1473]                                $18,000

Folio 10 ¾ x 7 ¾ inches. [a]12, [b-o]10, [p  152 of 152 leaves

One of the earliest editions most likely the Second, (editio princeps : Venice 1470) This copy is bound in new quarter calf over original wooden boards. Capitals supplied in Red and Blue.

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DSC_0007This copy contains the fifteen books of the “Praeparatio evangelica,” whose purpose is “to justify the Christian in rejecting the religion and philosphy of the Greeks in favor of that of the Hebrews, and then to justify him in not observing the Jewish manner of life […] “ The following summary of its contents is taken from Mr. Gifford’s introduction to his translation of the “Praeparitio:

 

“The first three books discuss the threefold system of Pagan Theology: Mythical, Allegorical, and Political.  The next three, IV-VI, give an account of the chief oracles, of the worship of demons, and of the various opinions of Greek Philosophers on the doctrines of Fate and Free Will.  Books VII-IX give reasons for preferring the religion of the Hebrews founded chiefly on the testimony of various authors to the excellency of their Scriptures and the truth of their history.  In Books X-XII Eusebius argues that the Greeks had borrowed from the older theology and philosphy of the Hebrews, dwelling especially on the supposed dependence of Plato upon Moses.  In the the last three books, the comparson of Moses with Plato is continued, and the mutual contradictions of other Greek Philosphers, especially the Peripatetics and Stoics, are exposed and criticized.”

The “Praeparitio” is a gigantic feat of erudition, and, according to Harnack (Chronologie, II, p. 120), was, like many of Eusebius’ other works, actually composed during the stress of the persecution.  It ranks, with the Chronicle, second only to the Church History in importance, because of its copious extracts from ancient authors, whose works have perished.” (CE)
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It is also very interesting because of its numerous lively fragments from historians and philosophers which are nowhere else preserved

DSC_0268 e.g. a summary of the writings of the Phoenician priest Sanchuniathon, or the account from Diodorus Siculus’ sixth book of Euhemerus’ wondrous voyage to the island of Panchaea, and writings of the neo-Platonist philosopher Atticus.

Eusebius (c. 263-339), Greek historian and exegete, Christian polemicist and scholar Biblical canon, became bishop of Cesarea in 314 and is considered as the father of Church History as his writings are very important for the first three centuries of the Christianity.
Goff E119;BMC I 194.   (United States of America: Boston Public Library
Indiana Univ., The Lilly Library (- 2 ff.)
YUL)
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5) 957G  Richard  Mediavilla [Middleton], d. 1302/3

          Commentum super quartem  Sententarium.

Venice: Christophorus Arnoldus, [circa 1476-7]        $22,000

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DSC_0101Folio  12 ¼ 9 ¼ inches. a-z10 [et]10 [cum]10 [per]10 A 10 B-D8 (D8v blank and aa1r blank) aa8 bb10 cc8             [320 of 320 leaves complete.]

Second edition. This copy is rubricated throughout with nicely complicated red initials. It is bound in an age appropriate binding of full calf over wooden boards with clasps and catches with quite impressive end bands.

Richard of Middleton,[Richard de Mediavilla] Franciscan friar, theologian, and philosopher, was born about the middle of the thirteenth century in either England or France. He studied at Paris, where he formed part of the so-called neo-Augustinian movement, defending the philosophy and theology of Augustine against the inroads of Aristotelianism, during the years 1276–87. He probably studied under William of Ware and Matteo d’Acquasparta, usually viewed as principal figures in this movement.

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Middleton’s Commentary on Peter Lombard’s ‘Sentences’ was probably begun in 1281 and was completed in 1284, when he became regent master of the Franciscan school in Paris, a post he held until 1287. The chief characteristic of his Commentary is its sober assessment of many of the positions of Thomas Aquinas. However, the tone of his eighty Quodlibet Questions, produced during his regency, is much more critical and on many issues shows a strong anti-Thomist reaction. In this they have more in common with his disputed questions, which were argued after the condemnations of 1277 but before his Sentences commentary. The latter commentary has been edited along with his Quodlibet Questions. A small number of his disputed questions have also been edited, as have six of his sermons. 

DSC_0008Furthermore; nine questions (23 to 31) in this volume form a veritable treatise on demonology, a rare type in the thirteenth century. Mediavilla’s remark is singular: he is the only thinker who gives autonomy of existence to the demon, in the framework of a rational description.

Mediavilla focuses on the present of the devil and its modes of action on men. He is the great thinker of the demonic turn of the 1290s.

This text offers one of the origins of a Western genre, the “novel of Satan”

 

 

 

The questions of volume IV

  1. Did the first sin of the angel come from a good principle?
  2. Can the angel at the moment of his creation sin?

25 . In the first sin of the angel, was the comparison of the creature anterior, according to the order of nature, to the distancing from God?

  1. Was the first sin of the angel pride?

27 . Did the evil angel repent of his pride?

28 . In the evil angels, does sin follow another sin without end?

  1. Does the sorrow of the evil angels leave her with a certain joy?

30 . Would the evil angels not be?

31 . Can bad angels play our sensations?

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Middleton’s link to the neo-Augustinian movement is seen especially in his treatment of the will, even though he does not entirely follow his teachers, Ware and Acquasparta. For Middleton the will is much more noble than the intellect, since it is much more noble to love God than to understand him. Understanding without the corresponding love separates man from God. However, the key to the will’s nobility is its freedom. The intellect is forced by evidence when evidence is given; the will also is forced by its nature to seek the good, but it is free in choosing the means to its predetermined goal. Even if the intellect were prudent enough to show man the best means to his goal, he would not be forced to adopt them. ‘For although the intellect, like a servant with a lamp, points out the way, the will, like the master, makes the decisions and can go in any direction it pleases’ (Stegmüller, 722).

The superiority of the human will over the intellect further manifests itself in Middleton’s conception of the nature of theology. Certainly, the study of the scriptures attempts to clarify human knowledge of both creator and creatures; principally, however, it aims to stimulate man’s affections. Middleton believes that scripture prescribes laws, forbids, threatens, attracts man through promises, and shows him models of behaviour that he should follow or avoid. The study of scripture perfects the soul, moving it toward the good through fear and love. It is more of a practical science than a speculative endeavour. A theology that is speculative is one that models itself on the theology of the metaphysician or philosopher and tends to reduce Christian faith to reason.

The influence of Aquinas is more in evidence in Middleton’s theory of knowledge. Middleton rejects the illumination theory of Bonaventure and his more loyal followers. Man’s intellectual knowledge can be explained, he argues, by the abstraction performed by the agent intellect from the singulars experienced by the human senses. In short, human individuals know, and they know by means of their own intellectual efforts, not by some special divine illumination. Unlike those who endorse the illumination theory, Middleton contends that there is no direct knowledge of spiritual beings, including God. God is not the first thing known. He can be known only by starting with creatures and by reasoning about their origins or final end. Middleton died in Rheims on 30 March 1302 or 1303.” [Oxford DNB]

Goff M-424; BMC V 206

(The ISTC shows two US copies…St Louis Univ., Pius XII Memorial Library () &YUL – i.e. both defective) add UCLA.

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No copy of this Edition in North America

7) 10H Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boethius 480-525

De Consolatione Philosophiae : Sacti thome de aquino super libris boetii de solatoe philosophie comentum cu expositione feliciter incipit. [fol. 168 recto:] In diui Seuerini Boetij de scolarium disciplina commentarium feliciter incipit.. Add: Pseudo- Boethius: De disciplina scholarium (Comm: pseudo- Thomas Aquinas)

[Lyons: Guillaume Le Roy],1487                         $16,000

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Folio 9 ½ X 6 ¾inches.  [ 235 leaves of 238.]  lacking ONLY three blanks: x6, A1, and I8;

a2-8,b-v8 (a1 blank and lacking) x6; A2-8, B-I8. 45 lines of commentary, which surrounds the text, to a page. Ff. 1, 166, 167, 238, blank, are wanting. 235 of 238 leaves.   This copy is bound in modern calf over wooden boards. It is a nice clean copy.

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Text surrounded by commentary ascribed to Thomas Aquinas, with a second work attributed to Pseudo-Boethius, De Disciplina Scholarium, with commentary of Pseudo-Aquinas; contemporary annotations, some cropped.

 

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“Boethius became the connecting link between the logical and metaphysical science of antiquity and the scientific attempts of the Middle Ages. His influence on medieval thought was still greater through his De consolatione philosophiae (written while in prison at Pavia) and the theological writings attributed to him. Whether Boethius was a Christian has been doubted; and it is certain that the Consolatio makes no mention of Christ, and all the comfort it contains it owes to the optimism of the Neoplatonic school and to the stoicism of Seneca. Nevertheless, for a long time the book was read with the greatest reverence by all Christendom, and its author was regarded as a martyr for the true faith” (Schaff-Herzog). GW ascribes the commentary on De consolatione to Thomas Waleys.

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In this prosimetrical apocalyptic dialogue, Boethius our narrator encounters Lady-Philosophy , who appears in his time of need, the muse of poetry has in short failed him.  Philosophy dresses among great protest Boethius’ bad interpretations and misunderstandings of fate and free will….

 

One thousand five hundred years later It is still fair to ask, the same questions which Boethius asks..

 

And Philosophy answers:  “The judgment of most people is based not on the merits of a case but on the fortune of its outcome; they think that only things which turn out happily are good.”

 

You have merely discovered the two-faced nature of this blind goddess [Fortune] … For now she has deserted you, and no man can ever be secure until he has been deserted by Fortune.”

 

“I [Fortune] spin my wheel and find pleasure in raising the low to a high place and lowering those who were on top. Go up, if you like, but only on condition that you will not feel abused when my sport requires your fall.”

 

The colophon has an interesting Acrostic reading DSC_0006

“CONRADUS”

 

Not in Goff.

H 3402; C 1103 = 1114; Pell 2502 & 2557; CIBN B-576; Hillard 431; Aquilon 149; Arnoult 309; Parguez 229; Péligry 196; Polain(B) 4217; IGI 1827; Kind(Göttingen) 232; Pr 8513A; BMC VIII 238.

 

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8) 998G Bernardus: Basinus 1445-1510

De magicis artibus et magorum maleficiis

dsc_0197( Tractatus exquisitissimus de magicis artibus et ma//gorum maleficiis, per sacre scientie Parisiensem doctorem ma//gistrum Bernardum Basim, canonicum Cesaraugusta//nensem, in suis vesperis compilatus. )

Paris : Antoine Caillaut,1491-1492? (Dated by CIBN: Bibliothèque Nationale. Catalogue des incunables. T. I (Xylographes, A-G);. Paris, 1981-2014. B-182)                  $ 28,000

Quarto.  7 ¾x 5 ¼ inches a8 b6.  14 of 14 leaves. This copy is bound recently in older limp vellum.

Second Edition. First Published in 1483, (Goff B-279 listing four copies)

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This treatise on magical practices was based on a speech Basin delivered in Paris before an assembly of cardinals in 1482. Basin was born 1445 in Zaragoza and he received his doctors degree in Paris, having study there theology and canon law.  In nine propositions he explains how people enlist the help of demons and if the practise of such diabolic magic makes a person a heretic.

Basin states that magic arts, such as involving the invocation of demons and pacts must be been prohibited by all laws, civil and canon alike. Hain 2703. The editio princeps was published in 1483 and is extant in 12 copies worldwide. This second edition is more rare and exists in 6 copies worldwide. A corner stone text in the study of witchcraft and inquisition.

Only one copy in the United States of America: (not in Goff) Southern Methodist Univ., Bridwell Library

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Not in Goff: Dated by CIBN; Pell(Lyon) 40; Bod-inc B-132; Sheppard 6190; Pr 7967; BSB-Ink B-233; GW 3720 ;  CIBN B-182; Aquilon 89; Parguez 146.

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9) 144JAnicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus  Boethius (480-525)

Pseudo- Boethius: De disciplina scholarium (Comm: pseudo- Thomas Aquinas) 

     [Bound with]

Boetius de consolatione philosophie necnon de disciplina scholariu[m] cum creme[n]to [sic] sancti Thome De consolatione philosophiae(with commentary ascribed in the text to Thomas Aquinas).

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Lyon: Jean Du Pré, 3 March 1491/92       $ 9,000

Small Folio 9 1/3 x 61/2 inches.  a-P8 aa6;  A-F8.  [174 of 176 leaves ] (second part lacking two leaves a blank and the title to the Consolation.    In this copy the index is bound before the preliminaries. 2 parts in one volume.  Bound in old limp vellum with hole in the spine, lacking ties. The contents are  lightly toned with scattered foxing and stains or ink blots, early inscriptions on title of Pseudo-Boethius and last page of Boethius.         Thomas Waley (once commonly ascribed to Saint Thomas Aquinas).

DSC_0030For over 1,000 years, The Consolation of Philosophywas the most popular book in Europe next to the Bible. “After Augustine, the first thinker of philosophical note was Boethius “

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Goff B796 (one copy Harvard) ; Pell 2531; CIBN B-581; Frasson-Cochet 59; Parguez 232; IBE 1118; IGI 1835; IBPort 383; Mendes 278; Walsh 3779; GW 4554

And This edition also has the Acrostic colophon:

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10)  145J    Paulus   Pergulensisca -1451.

Logica magistri Pauli Pergulensis.

Venice:  Johannes Emericus, de Spira, 22 Feb. 1495/96                                $12,500

Quarto.   10 x 8 ½  inches  a-e8, f4  [44 0f 44 leaves (complete) ]

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Signature of Thomas Stewart, Knight of St. John of Jerusalem, dated Rome 1837 on title.
Bound in early 19th-century quarter sheep; light dampstaining in lower margins throughout, title and last page soiled.

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Italy, the centre of humanism, produced the best logicians of the Renaissance. Paulus Pergulensis (d. 1451) was a pupil of Paul of Venice, author of the Logica magna and parva. The present is a more succinct and highly systematized logic, composed entirely in the form of theses.

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From 1420 to 1454 Pergulensis taught logic and natural philosophy, and then also mathematics, astronomy and theology, to the Venetian school of Rialto (founded in 1408 ), to which he gave a real university organization.  He was nominated (1448) bishop of Koper, which he renounced so as not to leave the teaching. We are left of him, manuscripts or press, some treatises of logic ( Dubia in consequentias Strodi , De sensu composite and divided , In regulas insolubilium , De scire et dubitare , Compendium logicae ), in which he discusses the new logical doctrines of the Oxford school in Padua by Paolo Veneto.

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Goff P195; H 12626; R 1314; Sander 5476; IBE 4363; IGI 7322; IBPort 1357; Horch(Rio) Suppl 13; Mendes 957; GW M30234

US Copies (Princeton Univ (2) and The Newberry Library)  Not in Copinger or British museum Catalogue of books printed in the XVth century

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11)  942G    Michæl (Michaelis Mediolanensis) Carcano ( 1427- 1484)

Sermonarium de poenitentia per adventum et per quadragesimam fratris Michælis Mediolanensis.     DSC_0027

Venice : Georgius Arrivabenus, 28 Sept. 1496                   $9,000

Large Octavo 7 ¼x 5 ½inches.  a-z8 [et]8 [con]8 [rum]8 A-E8 F10.  258 of 258 leaves.

DSC_0030 This copy is bound in bind-tooled pigskin over wooden boards. Highly impressed with blind tool roll stamps of thistles DSC_0031Strawberries and various other flowers. Lacking clasps and catches.

Carcano was one of the greatest Franciscan preachers of the 15th-century.  In this book there are 92 sermons for Advent and Lent, that amount to a systematic treatment of penitence. Carcano’s preaching was much admired by Bernardino da Feltre, who called him ‘alter sanctus apostolus Paulus et Christi Tuba’. He is known for his part in founding the montes pietatis banking system, with Bernardine of Feltre, and for the marked anti-Semitism of his attacks on usury. His sermons were later printed as Sermones quadragesimales fratris Michaelis de Mediolano de decem preceptis (1492). They include arguments in favour of religious art. (see Geraldine A. Johnson, Renaissance Art: A Very Short Introduction (2005), p. 37)

Bernardus: Basinus 1445-1510

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The wording of the colophon suggests that the archetype of this edition is that of Nicholas de Frankfordia,1487
Quadragesimale seu sermonarium de penitentia duplicatum per aduentu[m] videlicet & quadragesima[m] a venerabili viro fratre Michaele Mediolanensi ordinis fratrum minorum de obseruantia editum: qui tum sanctimonia vite, tu[m] ferue[n]tissima verbi dei p[re]dicatione a deo inumeris meruit corruscare miraculis felici numine explicitum est. Impressu[m] Venetijs optimaq[ue] castigatione eme[n]datu[m]: per Georgiu[m] de Arriuabenis Ma[n]tuanum. Anno d[omi]ni .M.cccclxxxxvj. die .xxviij. Septembris./

 

Goff C197; H 4507*;; Walsh 2140; BMC V 386  

(HEHL, Harvard, CL,LC,St Bonaventure Univ ,Univ. of Kentucky, Univ. of Minnesota)

 

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12) 174J  Niocola de Orbellis

Eximii doctoris magistri Nicholai de orbellis super sentencias compendium per utile, elegantiora doctoris subtilis dicta summatim complectens.

Rouen : Martin Morin, for Jean Alexandre, 1497             $SOLDDSC_0024

Octavo 6 ½x 4 inches   a-i8 k4 A-E8 a-d48 e-f8 aa-ii8,kk-ss8 tt10, Last blank present and filled with notes and Printers mark on the back. This copy is profusely filled with very small notes.  Printer’s mark on title page (cf. Brunet v.2, p. 363).

Bound in 18th century tree calf, with gilt spine.

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Not in Goff,  see O76.

2 copies in the US: St Bonaventure and Johns Hopkins.

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Cosentini, F. La Bibliofilia,; 16 (1915), p. 425; Incunabula short title catalogue,; io00077500; GW,; M28154

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14)  203J   Sebastian Brant(1458-1520)UB Basel : [Das Narrenschiff] [3]

DAS NARRENSCHIFF. {Hie vahet sich an das neü narren schiff vo[n] Narrogonia zu Nutz vnd Heylsamer ler zu vermeyden straffe der narrheyt } 

 

Basel, Johann Bergmann von Olpe, (12 Feb.) 1499.              $44,000

Quarto (213 x 152mm.), 162 leaves (of 164),  a-t8, u v6, lacking two leaves: a1 (title) and a8, quire a defective with some loss of text,  h8 and i1 defective, s1 torn without loss, s6-8 and t1-6 defective, u6 and quire v torn at upper corner, quire v becoming detached, occasional light staining.   With 112 (of 114) large woodcuts with two woodcut borders on each page mostly attributed to Albrecht Dürer and the Haintz Narr Master, a.o. and with elaborate ornamented and historiated woodcut borders on both sides on each page.

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Gothic type. 30 lines. Bound in original quarter pigskin over wooden boards, expertly restored, with one original clasp.

First published in German in 1494 this is a milestone in the history of book illustrations with many woodcuts by Albrecht Dürer  printed from the original blocks.

Sebastian Brant’s work is present here in a rare third German edition printed by the original publisher.  This edition adds a so-called ”Protestation” of fourty lines, now often numbered as chapter 113, written to protect Brant against the Unauthorized additions and mutilations of pirated editions, which.  In splendid collaboration with this humanist- printer Johann Bergmann of Olpe, the Basel editions of the “Ship of Fools” have turned out as a “remarkably complete mirror of human life”, based upon the “very universality of Brant’s self-righteous surliness, and the picturesqueness of his metaphors” (Panofsky). The illustrations of human weakness in large woodcuts by the young Dürer and the Haintz Narr Master, a.o. are printed from the original blocks

Its commentary on the boasting, pedantry, false learning, gambling, gluttony, medical folly, adultery, greed, envy, hatred, pride and other failings that mark humanity are sharp and telling, and, sadly, as relevant today as they were 450 years ago.

Before Goethe’s Werther arrived on the scene, this work was the most successful book ever published in Germany, immensely popular and read until it fell to pieces. This is one of literature’s most famous satires and a remarkable illustrated book. Sebastian Brant describes in his “Ship of Fools” the voyage of a ship bearing 100 fools, to the fools’ paradise of Narragonia, and he satirizes all the follies of his time including representatives of every human and social type.

Many of the  woodcuts have been Attributed to Albrecht Dürer.

PMM calls it “the first original work by a German which passed into world literature and helped to blaze the trail that leads from medieval allegory to modern satire, drama and novel of character”.

The reference to the newly discovered America is found on fol. 76 verso (cf. Harrise, BAV, Additions, no. 21).

 

 

 

Complete incunabular editions were issued three times in German by 5770119 2the original printer Bergmann of Olpe with the Dürer woodcuts:

These editions are now unobtainable. Since 1906 most probably only 1 incomplete copy has been recorded in German book auctions.  

In the United States there are only four copies of anyBergmann de Olpe German editions with the Dürer woodcuts.  

: 1494   Goff 1080.  Two copies : 

Morgan Library and Library of Congress (- a1). 3

: 1495 Goff 1082.  One copy: Metropolitan Museum of art.

:1499 not in Goff.   This copy. ( it can be yours!) 

Walter L. Strauss in his catalogue raisonné, Albrecht Durer Woodcuts and Woodblocks, surveys the state of critical dispute about the number of pieces definitely created by Durer and not simply by others trying to imitate his accomplishments. Strauss and Panofsky are the most conservative; Winkler (1928) “who undertook the most thorough examination of the illustrations, concluded that seventy-three are by Durer” and in later editions added 5 more for a grand total of 78 by Durer.

5770105

Wolfgang Hutt’s Albrecht Durer 1471 bis 1528: Das gesampte graphische Werk: Druckgraphik (1970), assigns 74 of the woodcuts to Durer; Alain Borer and Cécile Bon’s L’Oeuvre Graphique de Albrecht Durer (1980; identified as “Borer” in the descriptions) prints 78 woodcuts as Durer’s. We follow the new catalogue raisonné of Durer’s woodcuts for books, Rainer Schoch, Matthias Mende, and Anna Scherbaum, Albrecht Dürer: Das Druckgraphische Werk: Band III: Buchillustrationen (Munchen: Prestel, 2004), here referred to as SMS. This work prints and illustrates each of the 78 works Winkler accepted as by Durer. There is also a complete English translation of Brant’s Ship of Fools by Edwin H. Zeydel (NY: Dover, 1944; rpt. 1962);

5770119

Sébastien Brant. 500e anniversaire de La Nef des Folz (Basel, 1994), 182-7.

 

5770145

GW 5047 (records only 11 copies complete or fragmentary in public libraries, the Bodlian copy in Oxford is imperfect, as well as the Basel UB copy, the only one in Switzerland, see digitalisat);

Not in Goff :  NO US COPIES ; HC 3742; Pr 7782; Hieronymus, Buchillus. 195; Wilhelmi 182; Panofsky, Dürer II, pp. 275-276; Meder p. 275; cf. PMM 37.

Holdings

British LibraryBritish Library (IA.37957)

AustriaWien, ÖNB (Ink 12.H.16)

British Isles Oxford Bodley (imperfect)

FranceStrasbourg BNU (2, 1 imperfect)

GermanyBamberg SB

Berlin KupferstichKab

Berlin SB (copy destroyed)

Dresden SLUB

Schleusingen NaturhistM (Prov GymB)

SwitzerlandBasel UB (imperfect)

5770125Contents:

a2r Brant, Sebastian: Das Narrenschiff. ‘Ein vorred in das Narrenschiff’. Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Zarncke, 1-4. Sebastian Brant, Das Narrenschiff. Nach der Erstausgabe (Basel 1494) mit den Zusätzen der Ausgaben von 1495 und 1499, ed. Manfred Lemmer, 3rd edn (Tübingen, 1986), 2-6.

a4v Brant, Sebastian: Das Narrenschiff. ‘Von vnnutzen buchern’. Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Zarncke, 4-114; Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Lemmer, 6-208.

v2v [First Colophon.]

v3r Brant, Sebastian: Das Narrenschiff. ‘Der wyß man’. Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Zarncke, 114-15; Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Lemmer, 208-9.

v4v [Second Colophon.] ‘End des narrenschiffs’. Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Zarncke, 115; Brant, Narrenschiff, ed. Lemmer, 210.

v5r ‘Register des Narrenschiffs’.cc

                              )0(

 

13)   172J [Printed Book of Hours (Use of Rome) In Latin and French]

DSC_0025

Ces presentes heures a lusaige de Ro[m]me ont este faictes pour Simon Vostre Libraire domourant a Paris a la rue neuue nostre dame a le enseigne sainct Jehan l’evangeliste.

Paris [Philippe Pigouchet per] Simon Vostre, 16 Sept 1500.              $28,000

Quarto 8 1/4 x 5 1/2 inches.  a-l 8, ; A 8: (A 1-8 lacking).    88 of 96 leaves printed on vellum, lacking the “Sensuiuent les sept pseaulmes en françoys”(not surprisingly  other copies are lacking the final ‘A’ quire) .

DSC_0026 2

 

Initial spaces and spaces for initials within the line. Initials, paragraph marks and line fillers illuminated in gold on alternating red and blue grounds, red-ruled. (Some wear and darkening.) This copy is bound in full 18th century chagrin. It is a beautiful wide margined copy.

DSC_0027 5

DSC_0027 7The present Horae are illustrated with 22 full-page engravings in the text and numerous and smaller cuts, metalcut historiated and ornamental borders on every page, many with criblé grounds , depicting biblical scenes, the Virtues, the stag hunt, apple harvest and memento mori vignettes depicting including Pigouchet’s Dance of Death series (Claudin II, 53-53)

Pigouchet appears to have introduced the criblé technique, in which the black areas of a woodblock are punched with white dots, giving the page a lively tonality. Philipee Pigouchet’s collaboration with Simon Vostre lasted for over 18 years, during which period the duo produced hundreds of Books of Hours for European readers. The almanac was apparently kept standing in type for use in several Pigouchet edition.

DSC_0027 8

DSC_0030 3

 

Goff H412; C 3106; Bohatta, H. Livres d’Heures;(1924)

730 = 705;

Lacombe 109; Pell Ms 5892 (5878); Castan(Besançon) 554; Adams H1007;

GW 13263  Cambridge UL                                                                                                                                                                                            Oxford Bodley Quebec Laval UL (vell) Besançon BM                                                                                                                                                                     Paris BN

Number of Holding Institutions. 5

                                 )0(

 

“Truth consists of an adequation between the intellect and a thing”

16)        930G  Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274. editor Theodoricus de Susteren.

Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris s[an]cti Thome Aquinatis. que olim … me[n]dis scatebat. Nouissime iam per … magistru[m] nostru[m] Theodericum de Susteren co[n]uentus Coloniens[is] fratru[m] predicatoru[m] regentem … laboriose reuisa … feliciter incipit.

 

Cologne : Heinrich Quentell,

7 Mar. 1499             $12,500

Folio.10 ½x 8 inches 2°: A-Z6, Aa-Gg6; {signature Dd signed De}

180 of 180 leaves.  Third Edition, the final 15th  century edition. Bound in blind-tooled calf including some blind ’title’ on the front board, full calf over wooden  boards.  Clasps missing, but the catch-plates are present. Light foxing, with some red and green ink dots along edges. On this book all edges were striped in Green and red now quite faded.  Front pastedown shows slight signs of water damage.Occasional small red stains on text block (e.g. E3v and Q5), likely from the books’ rubricator, but otherwise a clean text block.rubricated throughout.

 

“Summa de veritate celeberrimi doctoris sancti Thome Aquinatis…”First written around 1256, Thomas Aquinas’ “Disputed Questions on Truth” defends “the view that truth consists of an adequation between the intellect and a thing. Aquinas develops a notion of truth of being (“ontological truth”) along with truth of the intellect (what might be called “logical truth”)” (Wippel, 295)

Subjects: Truth; God’s Knowledge; Ideas; The Divine Word; Providence; Predestination; The Book of Life; The Knowledge of Angels; Communication of Angelic Knowledge; The Mind; The Teacher; Prophecy; Rapture; Faith; Higher and Lower Reason; Synderesis; Conscience; The Knowledge of the First Man in the State of Innocence; Knowledge of the Soul After Death; The Knowledge of Christ; Good; The Tendency to Good and the Will; God’s Will; Free Choice; Sensuality; The Passions of the Soul; Grace; The Justification of Sinners; and The Grace of Christ.  For each topic, Aquinas reviews the topic’s Difficulties, and then responses with ‘To the Contrary’ and ‘Reply’. Aquinas concludes each topic with an “Answers to Difficulties” section, demonstrating his typical insightful worldview and readable literary style.“Everything is a being essentially. But a creature is good not essentially but by participation. Good, therefore, really adds something to being (“Good” [U1v])

translation from   http://dhspriory.org/thomas/QDdeVer21.htm).

Goff T181; (Columbia University, Union Theological Seminary;HEHL; LC ;Massachusetts Historical Society;YUL);  BMC I, 289/90; Only one Copy in The British Isles (BL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15) 209J Giovanni Battista Trovamala de Salis

Incipit liber q[ui] Rosella casuum appellatur.

 

Summa casuum conscientiae  (second version, known as Rosella casuum). Add: Sixtus IV: Bulla “Etsi dominici gregis” 30 Dec. 1479. Rubricae iuris civilis et canonici.

Venice: Paganinus de Paganinis, 21 Dec. 1499        $7,500

Large 8vo, π4 a10 aa-zz16 &&16 2[con]162[rum]16 Aa-Cc16 Dd12

 

Leaf pi4 includes the bull “Etsi dominici gregis” Printed register at end does not allow for the first [14] leaves which contain the “Rubrice iuris civilis” and “Summa Angelica.” But they are present.

 

In the fifteenth century, many authors of Summasfor confessors addressed loans and usury, the concept of “Cambium siccum Trovamala” In this book de Salis argues that ‘dry exchange is not usury because of its speculative nature.

 

After the Fourth Lateran council of 1215 a number of manuals of confession appeared. Their purpose was the intellectual preparation of priests for a prudent and informed exercise of the office of confessor. This manual for confessors was completed by Father Battista Trovamala in the convent of Levanto in 1483. Also known as the Summa casuum conscientiae or Summa Baptistiniana, it was first printed by Nicolaus Girardengus in 1484. In 1489 Trovamala made an expanded and revised version, the Rosella Casuum or Summa Rosella, printed first in Pavia in 1489 and then in Venice by Giorgio Arrivabeni in 1489, 1495, and 1499.Early and second octavo edition of this famous manual for confessors, first published in Novi Ligure in 1484 and expanded by the author four years later. Battista Travamala, died 1496, was a Franciscan friar from Salo, in Liguria, from which he took the alternative name de Salis. His most influential work was this Summa casuum, also known as Summa Baptistiana, Rosella casuum or Summa Rosella, completed in 1483 in the convent of Levanto. It encountered immediate success.

 

Goff S50; HC 14186*; CIBN B-70; Parguez 898; Péligry 696; Maignien(Grenoble) 570; Polain(B) 3839; Pr 5178; BMC V 460

 

 

 

IINDEX  of incunables.                               fascicule                                     VII

 

945G        Eusebius 1473 :Goff  E119; BMC I 194.   (Boston Public Library, Indiana )

957G       Mediavilla 1476-7 Goff M 424 BMC V 206. (St Louis Univ., (),YUL (–) UCLA)

10H         Boethius 1487 Not in Goff. H 3402; (No US copies!)

169J         Diß durchleuchtigist – dy bibel 1483 Goff B632.GW 4303; BMC II, 424 SOLD

998G       Bernardus: Basinus:   1491/2  not in Goff (1 US copy SMU)

144J         Boethius 1491/2 Goff B796 (1 US copy Harvard only) (No UK copy)

145J         Paulus Pergulensis 1495/6 Goff P195 (Princeton Univ. (2) The Newberry Library)

942G       Carcano 1496: Goff C197; (HEH, Harv, CL ,LC ,St Bonaventure ,U of Kentucky, U. of Minn

174J         Orbellius 1497: Not in Goff: IGI 7021;(JHU & SBU)

203J         Brant 1499 Not in Goff; GW 5047 (No US copies!)

172J         Heures a l’usaige de Romme. Ca. 1500 Goff; H412  GW 13263  (No US copies!)

930G        Aquinas 1499: Goff T181. (Columbia, Union Theological ;HEHL; LC ;Ma. Historical; YUL)

209J         Trovamala de Salis 1499: Goff S50 (many US copies)

723G        Raymond, of Sabunde 1502. Adams S-36; VD 16, R 174. (5 us copies)

982G      Marino Becichemo 1506 (U of Illinois only)

756G        Diodorus 1505-1508; Goff D214. GW VII Sp.431a(Har , CL,N.L.M, Williams, YUL)

960G       Nicolaus de Byard 1511 (one copy in Oclc)(No US copies!)

 

Live   ISTC   Link                                              fascicule     XII

 

 

945G       Eusebius 1473:  http://data.cerl.org/istc/ie00119000

 

957G       Mediavilla 1476-7: http://data.cerl.org/istc/im00422800

 

10H        Boethius1 1487; http://data.cerl.org/istc/ib00782500

 

169J         Diß durchleuchtigist … dy bible 1483 Goff B632.GW 4303; BMC II, 424 SOLD

 

998G       Bernardus: Basinus  :  1491/2 : http://data.cerl.org/istc/ib00279500

 

144J         Boethius 1491/2: http://data.cerl.org/istc/ib00796000

 

145J         Paulus   Pergulensis 1495/6 : http://data.cerl.org/istc/ip00195000

 

942G       Carcano 1496 : http://data.cerl.org/istc/ic00197000

 

172J          Heures a l’usaige de Romme.1498 http://data.cerl.org/istc/ih00395000

 

174J          Orbellius 1497  http://data.cerl.org/istc/io00077500  GW M28154

 

930G        Thomas Aquinas  1499 : http://data.cerl.org/istc/it00181000

 

209J         Trovamala de Salis 1499 https://data.cerl.org/istc/is00050000

 

 

End of fascicule XII

 

617-678-4515

 

46 Hobbs Road Princeton Ma.

01541

 

 

 

Please meet me at my booth # 519 during the Boston International Book Fair: November 10th through Nov 12 Below you will find three lists attached where you will find some books will be on display for sale. Please enjoy reading and I hope to see you soon.

Please see the links to my catalogues at the Bottom of this Blog!!

F VIII

FX.2

fIX.2

fVIII.6  Link

Come and see many of my books  at our booth #519

Hynes Convention Center
900 Boylston Street
Boston, MA

Friday Nov 10: 5:00PM – 9:00PM
Saturday Now 11: Noon – 7:00PM
Sunday Nov 12: Noon – 5:00PM

DSC_0162James Gray Booksellers LLC: 46 Hobbs Road Princeton Ma

jamesgray2@me.com

 

All books subject to prior sales. Prices in US dollars.

                     Credit cards encouraged

   images-1  

image-copy

Here is a list of some of the books which I will be offering for sale. Please check the links and explore!

Please be patient it takes a while to down-load but it might be worth it! 

FX.2

fIX.2

fVIII.6

 

I would be pleased to meet you at my booth # 519 during the Boston International Book Fair: November 10th through Nov 12 Below you will find three lists attached where you will find some books will be on display for sale. Please enjoy reading and I hope to see you soon.

Please see the links to my catalogues at the Bottom of this Blog!!

F VIII

FX.2

fIX.2

fVIII.6  Link

Come and see many of my books  at our booth #519

Hynes Convention Center
900 Boylston Street
Boston, MA

Friday Nov 10: 5:00PM – 9:00PM
Saturday Now 11: Noon – 7:00PM
Sunday Nov 12: Noon – 5:00PM

James Gray Booksellers LLC: 46 Hobbs Road Princeton Ma

jamesgray2@me.com

 

All books subject to prior sales. Prices in US dollars.

                     Credit cards encouraged

   images-1  

image-copy

Here is a list of some of the books which I will be offering for sale. Please check the links and explore!

Please be patient it takes a while to down-load but it might be worth it! 

FX.2

fIX.2

fVIII.6

 

The Seven Wonders of the World!

De Septem Orbis Spectaculis

Philo byzantius. De Septem orbis spectaculis, Leonis Allatii opera nunc primum graece et latine prodit, cum notis.

We are all familiar with the phrase “The Seven Wonders of the World” , it is even easy to bring up images of them in our minds,but can you name the seven popularly accepted ones, do they still exist,where are they?

In 1640,Leo Allatius(1586-1669), a Librarian  at the Vatican Library published and translated a Manuscript of De Septem Orbis

 The Seven Wonders of the World by Michael Ashley (Glasgow: Fontana Paperbacks, 1980)

Spectaculis.

At this time Allatius attributes the text to Philon of Bizantium. Philon of Byzantium (Φίλων ὁ Βυζάντιος)  i known as “the Paradoxographer”{ not to be confused with Philo Mechanicus}, Our Phylon is now dated probably the 4th-5th century A.D, which thickens our stew, once the two Phylons were considered one and were dated at  ca. 280 BC – ca. 220 BC. which is much more convenient, as I will explain.    

After I bought this Wonderful book, I looked in my usual places for Biographies and assessments of the text, Sandys,EB,CE,OIE… the usual suspects, none of these were gratifying, So I searched on  Amazon and found Michael Ashley’s book.  In his book on the subject, there are some really good insights and a nice chronological explanation of how the text of Phylon fits in the history and dissemination of the “Seven Wonders” . What I found most useful are the charts and I will use them here.   But first Allatius.

Leo Allatius, portrait in the Collegio Greco of Rome, Italy.

 

The main source of our knowledge of Allatius is the incomplete life by Stephanus Gradi, Leonis Allatii vita, published by Cardinal Mai, in Nova Bibliotheca Patrum. A complete enumeration of his works is contained in E. Legrand, Bibliographie hellenique du X VII eme siecle (Paris, 1895, iii. 435-471).  Leonis Allatii Hellas (Athens, 1872), are inaccurate and untrustworthy. For a special account of his share in the foundation of the Vatican Library, see Curzio Mazzi, Leone Allacci e la Palatina di Heidelberg (Bologna, 1893).

Allatius, was born on the island of Chios (then part of the Ottoman Empire and known as Sakız) in 1586.  He was taken by his maternal uncle Michael Nauridis to Italy to be educated at the age of nine, first in Calabria and then in Rome where he was admitted into the Greek college. A graduate of the Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius in Rome, he spent his career in Rome as teacher of Greek at the Greek college, devoting himself to the study of classics and theology. He found a patron in Pope Gregory XV. In 1622, after the capture of Heidelberg by Tilly, when the Protestant Elector of Bavaria Frederick V was supplanted by a Catholic one, the victorious elector Maximilian of Bavaria presented the  war booty (The Palatinate library composed of 196 cases containing about 3500 manuscripts) to Pope Gregory.  Allatius supervised its transport by a caravan of 200 mules across the Alps to Rome, where it was incorporated in the Vatican library.This took Allatius almost a year to process. The death of Gregory XV. just before his return deprived him of a fitting reward (Vatican Librarian); and he was even suspected of having appropriated or given away part of this charge. He was supported by the liberality of some of the cardinals, especially Francesco Barberini, who made him his private librarian (1638). Alexander VII. appointed him keeper of the Vatican library in 1661, and he lived the retired life of a scholar until his death. All but 39 of the Heidelberg manuscripts, which had been sent to Paris in 1797 and were returned to Heidelberg at the Peace of Paris in 1815, and a gift from Pope Pius VII of 852 others in 1816, remain in the Vatican Library to this day.

Allatius is perhaps best known today for his De Praeputio Domini Nostri Jesu Christi Diatriba (A Discussion of the Foreskin of Our Lord Jesus Christ), a minor essay mentioned in Fabricius’s Bibliotheca Graeca (xiv. 17) as an unpublished work. According to an unconfirmed nineteenth-century source,its thesis – is that the rings of Saturn (then-recently observed by telescope) are the prepuce of Jesus. Makes one wonder about the conversations about Astronomy around the Vatican?

BUT! there is more (and we haven’t even come to the Wonders yet?) Allatius was trained as a physician. In 1645 he included the first methodical discussion of vampires, in De Graecorum hodie quorundam opinationibus (“On certain modern opinions among the Greeks)

By the seventeenth century most texts (that we know of today) by Byzatine authors were already printed yet because of Allatius’ access to the Vatican, and perhaps because it was after the ‘age of  wonder’

The classic seven wonders were:

Great Pyramid of Giza
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
Colossus of Rhodes
Lighthouse of Alexandria
The only ancient world wonder that still exists is the Great Pyramid of Giza

The Seven Wonders were first defined as themata (Greek for ‘things to be seen’ which, in today’s common English, we would phrase as ‘must sees’) by Philo of Byzantium in 225 BCE, in his work On The Seven Wonders. Other writers on the Seven Wonders include Herodotus, Callimachus of Cyrene and Antipater of Sidon. Of the original seven, only the Great Pyramid exists today.

GREAT PYRAMID AT GIZA
The Great Pyramid at Giza was constructed between 2584 and 2561 BCE for the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (known in Greek as `Cheops’) and was the tallest man-made structure in the world for almost 4,000 years. Excavations of the interior of the pyramid were only initiated in earnest in the late 18th and early 19th centuries CE and so the intricacies of the interior which so intrigue modern people were unknown to the ancient writers. It was the structure itself with its perfect symmetry and imposing height which impressed ancient visitors.

 

HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, if they existed as described, were built by Nebuchadnezzar II between 605-562 BCE as a gift to his wife. They are described by the ancient writer Diodorus Siculus as being self-watering planes of exotic flora and fauna reaching a height of over 75 feet (23 metres) through a series of climbing terraces. Diodorus wrote that Nebuchadnezzar’s wife, Amtis of Media, missed the mountains and flowers of her homeland and so the king commanded that a mountain be created for her in Babylon. The contoversy over whether the gardens existed comes from the fact that they are nowhere mentioned in Babylonian history and that Herodotus, `the Father of History’, makes no mention of them in his descriptions of Babylon. There are many other ancient facts, figures, and places Herodotus fails to mention, however, or has been shown to be wrong about. Diodorus, Philo, and the historian Strabo all claim the gardens existed. They were destroyed by an earthquake sometime after the 1st century CE.

 

STATUE OF ZEUS AT OLYMPIA
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was created by the great Greek sculptor Phidias (known as the finest sculptor of the ancient world in the 5th century BCE, he also worked on the Parthenon and the statue of Athena there in Athens). The statue depicted the god Zeus seated on his throne, his skin of ivory and robes of hammered gold, and was 40 feet (12 m) tall, designed to inspire awe in the worshippers who came to the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Not everyone was awestruck by the statue, however. Strabo reports, “Although the temple itself is very large, the sculptor is criticized for not having appreciated the correct proportions. He has shown Zeus seated, but with the head almost touching the ceiling, so that we have the impression that if Zeus moved to stand up he would unroof the temple” (Seven Wonders). The Temple at Olympia fell into ruin after the rise of Christianity and the ban on the Olympic Games as `pagan rites’. The statue was carried off to Constantinople where it was later destroyed, sometime in either the 5th or 6th centuries CE, by an earthquake.

TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS AT EPHESOS
The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, a Greek colony in Asia Minor, took over 120 years to build and only one night to destroy. Completed in 550 BCE, the temple was 425 feet (about 129 m) high, 225 feet (almost 69 m) wide, supported by 127 60 foot (about 18 m) high columns. Sponsored by the wealthy King Croesus of Lydia, who spared no expense in anything he did (according to Herodotus, among others) the temple was so magnificent that every account of it is written with the same tone of awe and each agrees with the other that this was among the most amazing structures ever raised by humans. On July 21, 356 BCE a man named Herostratus set fire to the temple in order, as he said, to achieve lasting fame by forever being associated with the destruction of something so beautiful. The Ephesians decreed that his name should never be recorded nor remembered but Strabo set it down as a point of interest in the history of the temple. On the same night the temple burned, Alexander the Great was born and, later, offered to rebuild the ruined temple but the Ephesians refused his generosity. It was rebuilt on a less grand scale after Alexander’s death but was destroyed by the invasion of the Goths. Rebuilt again, it was finally destroyed utterly by a Christian mob lead by Saint John Chrysostom in 401 CE.

 

MAUSOLEUM OF HALICARNASSUS
The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus was the tomb of the Persian Satrap Mauslos, built in 351 BCE. Mauslos chose Halicarnassus as his capital city, and he and his beloved wife Artemisia went to great lengths to create a city whose beauty would be unmatched in the world. Mauslos died in 353 BCE and Artemisia wished to create a final resting place worthy of such a great king. Artemisia died two years after Mauslos and her ashes were entombed with his in the mausoleum (Pliny the Elder records that the craftsmen continued work on the structure after her death, both as a tribute to their patroness and knowing the work would bring them lasting fame). The tomb was 135 feet (41 m) tall and ornately decorated with fine sculpture. It was destroyed by a series of earthquakes and lay in ruin for hundreds of years until, in 1494 CE, it was completely dismantled and used by the Knights of St. John of Malta in the building of their castle at Bodrum (where the ancient stones can still be seen today). It is from the tomb of Mauslos that the English word `mausoleum’ is derived.

COLOSSUS OF RHODES
The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the god Helios (the patron god of the island of Rhodes) constructed between 292 and 280 BCE. It stood over 110 feet (just over 33 m) high overlooking the harbor of Rhodes and, despite fanciful depictions to the contrary, stood with its legs together on a base (much like the Statue of Liberty in the harbor off New York City in the United States of America, which is modeled on the Colossus) and did not straddle the harbour. The statue was commissioned after the defeat of the invading army of Demetrius in 304 BCE. Demetrius left behind much of his siege equipment and weaponry and this was sold by the Rhodians for 300 talents (approximately 360 million U.S. dollars) which money they used to build the Colossus. The statue stood for only 56 years before it was destroyed by an earthquake in 226 BCE. It lay in impressive ruin for over 800 years, according to Strabo, and was still a tourist attraction. Pliny the Elder claims that the fingers of the Colossus were larger than most statues of his day. According to the historian Theophanes the bronze ruins were eventually sold to “a Jewish merchant of Edessa” around 654 CE who carried them away on 900 camels to be melted down.

 

LIGHTHOUSE OF ALEXANDRIA
The Lighthouse at Alexandria, built on the island of Pharos, stood close to 440 feet (134 m) in height and was commissioned by Ptolemy I Soter. Construction was completed sometime around 280 BCE. The lighthouse was the third tallest human-made structure in the world (after the pyramids) and its light (a mirror which reflected the sun’s rays by day and a fire by night) could be seen as far as 35 miles out to sea. The structure rose from a square base to a middle octagonal section up to a circular top and those who saw it in its glory reported that words were inadequate to describe its beauty. The lighthouse was badly damaged in an earthquake in 956 CE, again in 1303 CE and 1323 CE and, by the year 1480 CE, it was gone. The Egyptian fort Quaitbey now stands on the site of the Pharos, built with some of the stones from the ruins of the lighthouse.

 

The Seven Wonders of the World!

De Septem Orbis Spectaculis

Philo byzantius. De Septem orbis spectaculis, Leonis Allatii opera nunc primum graece et latine prodit, cum notis.

We are all familiar with the phrase “The Seven Wonders of the World” , it is even easy to bring up images of them in our minds,but can you name the seven popularly accepted ones, do they still exist,where are they?

In 1640,Leo Allatius(1586-1669), a Librarian  at the Vatican Library published and translated a Manuscript of De Septem Orbis

 The Seven Wonders of the World by Michael Ashley (Glasgow: Fontana Paperbacks, 1980)

Spectaculis.

At this time Allatius attributes the text to Philon of Bizantium. Philon of Byzantium (Φίλων ὁ Βυζάντιος)  i known as “the Paradoxographer”{ not to be confused with Philo Mechanicus}, Our Phylon is now dated probably the 4th-5th century A.D, which thickens our stew, once the two Phylons were considered one and were dated at  ca. 280 BC – ca. 220 BC. which is much more convenient, as I will explain.    

After I bought this Wonderful book, I looked in my usual places for Biographies and assessments of the text, Sandys,EB,CE,OIE… the usual suspects, none of these were gratifying, So I searched on  Amazon and found Michael Ashley’s book.  In his book on the subject, there are some really good insights and a nice chronological explanation of how the text of Phylon fits in the history and dissemination of the “Seven Wonders” . What I found most useful are the charts and I will use them here.   But first Allatius.

Leo Allatius, portrait in the Collegio Greco of Rome, Italy.

 

The main source of our knowledge of Allatius is the incomplete life by Stephanus Gradi, Leonis Allatii vita, published by Cardinal Mai, in Nova Bibliotheca Patrum. A complete enumeration of his works is contained in E. Legrand, Bibliographie hellenique du X VII eme siecle (Paris, 1895, iii. 435-471).  Leonis Allatii Hellas (Athens, 1872), are inaccurate and untrustworthy. For a special account of his share in the foundation of the Vatican Library, see Curzio Mazzi, Leone Allacci e la Palatina di Heidelberg (Bologna, 1893).

Allatius, was born on the island of Chios (then part of the Ottoman Empire and known as Sakız) in 1586.  He was taken by his maternal uncle Michael Nauridis to Italy to be educated at the age of nine, first in Calabria and then in Rome where he was admitted into the Greek college. A graduate of the Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius in Rome, he spent his career in Rome as teacher of Greek at the Greek college, devoting himself to the study of classics and theology. He found a patron in Pope Gregory XV. In 1622, after the capture of Heidelberg by Tilly, when the Protestant Elector of Bavaria Frederick V was supplanted by a Catholic one, the victorious elector Maximilian of Bavaria presented the  war booty (The Palatinate library composed of 196 cases containing about 3500 manuscripts) to Pope Gregory.  Allatius supervised its transport by a caravan of 200 mules across the Alps to Rome, where it was incorporated in the Vatican library.This took Allatius almost a year to process. The death of Gregory XV. just before his return deprived him of a fitting reward (Vatican Librarian); and he was even suspected of having appropriated or given away part of this charge. He was supported by the liberality of some of the cardinals, especially Francesco Barberini, who made him his private librarian (1638). Alexander VII. appointed him keeper of the Vatican library in 1661, and he lived the retired life of a scholar until his death. All but 39 of the Heidelberg manuscripts, which had been sent to Paris in 1797 and were returned to Heidelberg at the Peace of Paris in 1815, and a gift from Pope Pius VII of 852 others in 1816, remain in the Vatican Library to this day.

Allatius is perhaps best known today for his De Praeputio Domini Nostri Jesu Christi Diatriba (A Discussion of the Foreskin of Our Lord Jesus Christ), a minor essay mentioned in Fabricius’s Bibliotheca Graeca (xiv. 17) as an unpublished work. According to an unconfirmed nineteenth-century source,its thesis – is that the rings of Saturn (then-recently observed by telescope) are the prepuce of Jesus. Makes one wonder about the conversations about Astronomy around the Vatican?

BUT! there is more (and we haven’t even come to the Wonders yet?) Allatius was trained as a physician. In 1645 he included the first methodical discussion of vampires, in De Graecorum hodie quorundam opinationibus (“On certain modern opinions among the Greeks)

By the seventeenth century most texts (that we know of today) by Byzatine authors were already printed yet because of Allatius’ access to the Vatican, and perhaps because it was after the ‘age of  wonder’

The classic seven wonders were:

Great Pyramid of Giza
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
Colossus of Rhodes
Lighthouse of Alexandria
The only ancient world wonder that still exists is the Great Pyramid of Giza

The Seven Wonders were first defined as themata (Greek for ‘things to be seen’ which, in today’s common English, we would phrase as ‘must sees’) by Philo of Byzantium in 225 BCE, in his work On The Seven Wonders. Other writers on the Seven Wonders include Herodotus, Callimachus of Cyrene and Antipater of Sidon. Of the original seven, only the Great Pyramid exists today.

GREAT PYRAMID AT GIZA
The Great Pyramid at Giza was constructed between 2584 and 2561 BCE for the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (known in Greek as `Cheops’) and was the tallest man-made structure in the world for almost 4,000 years. Excavations of the interior of the pyramid were only initiated in earnest in the late 18th and early 19th centuries CE and so the intricacies of the interior which so intrigue modern people were unknown to the ancient writers. It was the structure itself with its perfect symmetry and imposing height which impressed ancient visitors.

 

HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, if they existed as described, were built by Nebuchadnezzar II between 605-562 BCE as a gift to his wife. They are described by the ancient writer Diodorus Siculus as being self-watering planes of exotic flora and fauna reaching a height of over 75 feet (23 metres) through a series of climbing terraces. Diodorus wrote that Nebuchadnezzar’s wife, Amtis of Media, missed the mountains and flowers of her homeland and so the king commanded that a mountain be created for her in Babylon. The contoversy over whether the gardens existed comes from the fact that they are nowhere mentioned in Babylonian history and that Herodotus, `the Father of History’, makes no mention of them in his descriptions of Babylon. There are many other ancient facts, figures, and places Herodotus fails to mention, however, or has been shown to be wrong about. Diodorus, Philo, and the historian Strabo all claim the gardens existed. They were destroyed by an earthquake sometime after the 1st century CE.

 

STATUE OF ZEUS AT OLYMPIA
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was created by the great Greek sculptor Phidias (known as the finest sculptor of the ancient world in the 5th century BCE, he also worked on the Parthenon and the statue of Athena there in Athens). The statue depicted the god Zeus seated on his throne, his skin of ivory and robes of hammered gold, and was 40 feet (12 m) tall, designed to inspire awe in the worshippers who came to the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Not everyone was awestruck by the statue, however. Strabo reports, “Although the temple itself is very large, the sculptor is criticized for not having appreciated the correct proportions. He has shown Zeus seated, but with the head almost touching the ceiling, so that we have the impression that if Zeus moved to stand up he would unroof the temple” (Seven Wonders). The Temple at Olympia fell into ruin after the rise of Christianity and the ban on the Olympic Games as `pagan rites’. The statue was carried off to Constantinople where it was later destroyed, sometime in either the 5th or 6th centuries CE, by an earthquake.

TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS AT EPHESOS
The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, a Greek colony in Asia Minor, took over 120 years to build and only one night to destroy. Completed in 550 BCE, the temple was 425 feet (about 129 m) high, 225 feet (almost 69 m) wide, supported by 127 60 foot (about 18 m) high columns. Sponsored by the wealthy King Croesus of Lydia, who spared no expense in anything he did (according to Herodotus, among others) the temple was so magnificent that every account of it is written with the same tone of awe and each agrees with the other that this was among the most amazing structures ever raised by humans. On July 21, 356 BCE a man named Herostratus set fire to the temple in order, as he said, to achieve lasting fame by forever being associated with the destruction of something so beautiful. The Ephesians decreed that his name should never be recorded nor remembered but Strabo set it down as a point of interest in the history of the temple. On the same night the temple burned, Alexander the Great was born and, later, offered to rebuild the ruined temple but the Ephesians refused his generosity. It was rebuilt on a less grand scale after Alexander’s death but was destroyed by the invasion of the Goths. Rebuilt again, it was finally destroyed utterly by a Christian mob lead by Saint John Chrysostom in 401 CE.

 

MAUSOLEUM OF HALICARNASSUS
The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus was the tomb of the Persian Satrap Mauslos, built in 351 BCE. Mauslos chose Halicarnassus as his capital city, and he and his beloved wife Artemisia went to great lengths to create a city whose beauty would be unmatched in the world. Mauslos died in 353 BCE and Artemisia wished to create a final resting place worthy of such a great king. Artemisia died two years after Mauslos and her ashes were entombed with his in the mausoleum (Pliny the Elder records that the craftsmen continued work on the structure after her death, both as a tribute to their patroness and knowing the work would bring them lasting fame). The tomb was 135 feet (41 m) tall and ornately decorated with fine sculpture. It was destroyed by a series of earthquakes and lay in ruin for hundreds of years until, in 1494 CE, it was completely dismantled and used by the Knights of St. John of Malta in the building of their castle at Bodrum (where the ancient stones can still be seen today). It is from the tomb of Mauslos that the English word `mausoleum’ is derived.

COLOSSUS OF RHODES
The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the god Helios (the patron god of the island of Rhodes) constructed between 292 and 280 BCE. It stood over 110 feet (just over 33 m) high overlooking the harbor of Rhodes and, despite fanciful depictions to the contrary, stood with its legs together on a base (much like the Statue of Liberty in the harbor off New York City in the United States of America, which is modeled on the Colossus) and did not straddle the harbour. The statue was commissioned after the defeat of the invading army of Demetrius in 304 BCE. Demetrius left behind much of his siege equipment and weaponry and this was sold by the Rhodians for 300 talents (approximately 360 million U.S. dollars) which money they used to build the Colossus. The statue stood for only 56 years before it was destroyed by an earthquake in 226 BCE. It lay in impressive ruin for over 800 years, according to Strabo, and was still a tourist attraction. Pliny the Elder claims that the fingers of the Colossus were larger than most statues of his day. According to the historian Theophanes the bronze ruins were eventually sold to “a Jewish merchant of Edessa” around 654 CE who carried them away on 900 camels to be melted down.

 

LIGHTHOUSE OF ALEXANDRIA
The Lighthouse at Alexandria, built on the island of Pharos, stood close to 440 feet (134 m) in height and was commissioned by Ptolemy I Soter. Construction was completed sometime around 280 BCE. The lighthouse was the third tallest human-made structure in the world (after the pyramids) and its light (a mirror which reflected the sun’s rays by day and a fire by night) could be seen as far as 35 miles out to sea. The structure rose from a square base to a middle octagonal section up to a circular top and those who saw it in its glory reported that words were inadequate to describe its beauty. The lighthouse was badly damaged in an earthquake in 956 CE, again in 1303 CE and 1323 CE and, by the year 1480 CE, it was gone. The Egyptian fort Quaitbey now stands on the site of the Pharos, built with some of the stones from the ruins of the lighthouse.

 

Lucretius: On the Nature of Things!

Lucretius, has always made me feel hopeful and some how more connected to the universe and less to the subjective problems we perceive.

“Happy is he who has discovered the causes of things and has cast beneath his feet all fears, unavoidable fate, and the din of the devouring Underworld.”  VIRGIL

Lucretius London 1683

“In De Rerum Natura, Lucretius sought to clear the mental rubbish that obscures reality. He exposed flaws in common assumptions about gods. To begin with, he scoffed at the anthropocentric notion that gods created the earth for humans.”Gary Sloan

T.Lucretius Carus His Six Books Of Epicurean Philosophy, Done into English Verse, with Notes. The Third Edition. Demetri, Teq; Tigelli Discipulorum inter jubeo plorare Cathedras; i, Puer, atque meo citus hœc subscribe libello.

London: Printed for Thomas Sawbridge at the Three Flewer-de-luces in little Britain, and Anthony Stephens Bookseller near the Theatre in Oxford, 1683                                               $1,800
 Octavo, 7.25 x 4.75 inches.  Third edition. (π1), A4, b-e4, f2, A-E4, (a)-(g)4, h2.
  This copy is bound in original full calf its front joint is cracked at the foot, up to the second band, the rear joint is

Lucretius 1683 ,147F

beginning to crack at either end, but it is completely sound and still quite appealing. The leaves are very clean and fresh, with deep impressions of the type.

This translation was prepared by Thomas Creech (1659-1700).   The prefatory material contains commendatory poems by John Evelyn, NahaumTate, Thomas Otway, and Aphra Behn among others, many of which were added after the first edition.   Creech’s Lucretius first appeared in 1682, with certain portions of the text, notably those in the fourth book about the nature of love, left untranslated.In this edition they are present in translation.  Both Pope and Evelyn praised the translation, and Dibdin says that the editor’s erudition, research, and correctness in this excellent and scarce work are acknowledged by every critic.The influence of Lucretius can be seen in Pope’s ‘Essay on Man.’ Lucretius was also favorite reading of Shelley, Wordsworth, and Tennyson.

“Creech’s translation of Lucretius vied in popularity with Dryden’s Virgil and Pope’s Homer. The son of one of his friends is reported to have said that the translation was made in Creech’s daily walk round the parks in Oxford in sets of fifty lines, which he would afterwards write down in his chamber and correct at leisure. […] When Dryden published his translations from Theocritus, Lucretius, and Horace, he disclaimed in the preface any intention of robbing Creech ‘of any part of that commendation which he has so justly acquired,’ and referred to his predecessor’s ‘excellent annotations, which I have often reprinted in the last century, and was included in the edition of the British poets which was issued by Anderson.” (DNB)

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http://www.iep.utm.edu/lucretiu/

The

Who was The Earl of Rochester, John Wilmot…..?

I find it hard to pin down who Rochester was, maybe it is because he revealed of much contradictory emotion in his verse, or maybe it is his reputation of which so much is written about displays the uneasy relation between actions , feelings and expression. I highly recommend the Movie version of his life ,The Libertine (2004) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0375920/.

But there must be so much more, I read and (re)read some of his poems and wonder “How?” other poems fit easily into Restoration literature taken to its absurdist extreame.  Rochester was maybe never sure who he was himself, explaining his ‘inconstancy, his drinking, his syphilis, and is disguises…

“All I shall say for myself on this score is this, if I appear to any one like a counterfeit, even for the sake of that chiefly ought I to be construed a true man, [for] who is the counterfeit’s example, his original, and that which he employs his industry and pains to imitate and copy? Is it therefore my fault if the cheat by his wits and endeavours makes himself so like me, that consequently I cannot avoid resembling of him?”

-from Dr. Alexander Bendo’s advertisement of services (in the 1696 edition of Poems, page 138; see below)

All of these paradoxes keep me reading Rochester and finding New customers for his books , currently I have three editions of his works [1696,1705 and 1709. and a copy of Burnet’s “some Passages 1680]

Here is a link to the Poetry Foundations very good biography of him. http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/john-wilmot

 

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Love and Life: A Song

BY JOHN WILMOT, EARL OF ROCHESTER

All my past life is mine no more,
         The flying hours are gone,
Like transitory dreams giv’n o’er,
Whose images are kept in store
         By memory alone.
The time that is to come is not;
         How can it then be mine?
The present moment’s all my lot;
And that, as fast as it is got,
         Phyllis, is only thine.
Then talk not of inconstancy,
         False hearts, and broken vows;
If I, by miracle, can be
This live-long minute true to thee,
         ’Tis all that Heav’n allows.

Rochester is generally considered to be the most considerable poet and the most learned among the Restoration wits. A few of his love songs have passionate intensity; many are bold and frankly erotic celebrations of the pleasures of the flesh. He is also one of the most original and powerful of English satirists. His “History of Insipids” (1676) is a devastating attack on the government of Charles II, and his “Maim’d Debauchee” has been described as “a masterpiece of heroic irony.” A Satyr Against Mankind(1675) anticipates Swift in its scathing denunciation of rationalism and optimism and in the contrast it draws between human perfidy and folly and the instinctive wisdom of the animal world.

In 1674 Rochester was appointed ranger of Woodstock Forest, where much of his later poetry was written. His health was declining, and his thoughts were turning to serious matters. His correspondence (dated 1679–80) with the Deist Charles Blount shows a keen interest in philosophy and religion, further stimulatedsc_0128d by his friendship with Gilbert Burnet, later bishop of Salisbury. Burnet recorded their religious discussions in Some Passages of the Life and Death of John, Earl of Rochester (1680).
(see a description below of a copy currently in my stock) In 1680 he became seriously ill and experienced a religious conversion, followed by a recantation of his past; he ordered “all his profane and lewd writings” burned.

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735F     Wilmot, John. Earl of Rochester.     1647-1680

 Poems, (&c.) on several occasions: with Valentinian: a tragedy. Written by the right honourable John late earl of Rochester.

London: Printed for Jacob Tonson, 1696      $6,600

dsc_0132Octavo, 11 x 17.5 cm.  Second edition. A8,a8, B-R8

The spine has been rebacked with the original boards so the binding is tight and secure throughout, and bound with new endpapers. A previous owner has written his name several times throughout but this does not affect the text and indeed adds to the book. The pages are clean, if browned. The only flaw is wormholes to the pages’ top margins. These are predominantly from page 200 to the end but with other smaller worming present in the book. There has also been some bookworm damage to the rear board, and this has now been repaired. Needless to say, the worms are long since gone.

“During Rochester’s lifetime only a few of his writings were printed as broadsides or in miscellanies, [Later this week I’ll write about Miscellanies]  but many of his works were known widely from manuscript copies, a considerable number of which seem to have existed. ( I do wish I could come apon one of these!) […] In February of 1690/91, Jacob Tonson, the most reputable publisher of the day, produced a volume entitled ‘Poems On Several Occasions.’ The appearance of the author’s name and title on the title-page is significant. It may indicate that this edition was produced with the approval of the Earl’s family and friends, and it is possible that they may have intervened to prevent the publication of Saunders’s projected edition [license obtained from the Stationer’s Company by Saunders in November of 1690, no edition was ever produced]. Tonson’s edition is introduced by a laudatory preface written by Thomas Rymer which states that the book contains ‘such Pieces only, as may be receiv’d in a vertuous Court’ and is therefore to be regarded only as a selection of Rochester’s writings. Nevertheless it contains, in addition to twenty-three genuine poems which had appeared in the [pirated] Antwerp editions of 1680, sixteen others, including some of Rochester’s best lyrics. No spurious material seems to have been admitted to this collection, but there is a possibility that salacious passages may have been toned down to suit the taste of a ‘virtuous Court.’”

“[Wilmot] is one of these English poets who deserve to be called ‘great’ as daring and original explorers of reality; his place is with such memorable spiritual adventurers as Marlowe, Blake, Byron, Wilfred Owen and D. H. Lawrence. Like Byron and Lawrence, he was denounced as licentious, because he was a devastating critic of conventional morality. Alone among the English poets of his day, he perceived the full significance of the intellectual and spiritual crisis of that age. His poetry expresses individual experience in a way that no other poetry does till the time of Blake. It makes us feel what it was like to live in a world which had been suddenly transformed by the scientists into a vast machine governed by mathematical laws, where God has become a remote first cause and man  an insignificant ‘reas’ning Engine.’ [See ‘A Satyr Against Mankind] In his time there was beginning the great Augustan attempt to found a new orthodoxy on the Cartesian-Newtonian world-picture, a civilized city of good taste, common sense and reason. Rochester’s achievement was to reject this new orthodoxy at the very outset. He made three attempts to solve the problem of man’s position in the new mathematical universe. The first was the adoption of the ideal of the purely aesthetic hero, the ‘Strephon’ of his lyrics and the brilliant and fascinating Dorimant of Etherege’s comedy. It was a purely selfish ideal of the ethical hero, the disillusioned and penetrating observer of the satires. This ideal was related to truth, but its relationship was purely negative. The third was the ideal of the religious hero, who bore a positive relation to truth. This was the hero who rejected the ‘Fools-Coat’ of the world and lived by an absolute passion for reality. In his short life Rochester may be said to have anticipated the Augustan Age and the Romantic Movement and passed beyond both. In the history of English thought his poetry is an event of the highest significance. Much of it remains alive in its own right in the twentieth century, because it is what D.H. Lawrence called ‘poetry of this immediate present, instant poetry … the soul and the mind and body surging at once, nothing left out.” (Quoted from Vivian de Sola Pinto’s edition of Wilmot’s Poems published by ‘The Muses Library’)

Wing 1757; Prinz XIV;Grolier’s Wither to Prior #987;  O’Donnell A 16  (Prologue), BB 4.1c.    

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756d     Burnet, Gilbert.   1643-1715

 

 Some Passages Of The Life and Death Of the Right Honourable John Earl of Rochester, Who died the 26th of July, 1680. Writen by his own Direction on his Death-Bed, By Gilbert Burnet, D.D.

 

London: Printed for Richard Chiswel, at the Rose and Crown in St. Pauls Church-Yard, 1680         $1,600   Octavo, 6.7 x 4.3 inches.  First edition, second issue without the errata on A8 verso. A-N8 (A1 and N8 blank). The portrait of the Earl of Rochester is bound opposite the title page. This copy is bound in contemporary full calf, blindstamped borders, with loss at the spine head. A previous owner’s ink and pencil notes to endpapers, and a previous owner has inked a simple design. The upper corner of the lower board is cracked.

 

John Wilmot, second Earl of Rochester was known as a libertine and a poet, and often referred to as the “Rake of Rochester.” This work is the product of Rochester’s death-bed repentance, when he charged Burnet “not to spare him in anything which [he] thought might be of use to the Living.” Burnet, while obliged to mention the faults, added: “I have touched them as tenderly as the Occasion would bear: and I am sure with much more softness than he desired”. As Dr. Johnson wrote: “This is a work which the critic ought to read for its elegance, the philosopher for its arguments, and the saint for its piety.”

Wither to Prior 125; Wing B-5922.

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1007E Wilmot, John. Earl of Rochester.    1647-1680

 

     Poems, On several occasions: with Valentinian: a tragedy. Written by the right honourable John late Earl of Rochester.

 

London: Printed for Jacob Tonson, 1705    $4,500

 

Octavo, 7.5 X 4.5 inches .  The third edition of the authentic works. A8, a8 B- R8  This copy is bounds in modern panneled calf,in a early eighteenth style. It has the lighter than usual age spotting through out  for this edition, a very nice copy.

Prinz XVII* ( an exact reperint of the 1691 XIII {the best collection }

Grolier’s Wither to Prior #988;  O’Donnell A 16  (Prologue), BB 4.1c.

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349F  Rochester, John Wilmot, Earl of.    1647-1680

 

      The Works of the Right Honourable the Earls of Rochester, and Roscommon. With Some Memoirs of the Earl of Rochester’s Life, by Monsieur St. Evremont: In a Letter to the Dutchess of Mazarine. The Third Edition. To which is added, A Collection of Miscellany Poems. By the most Eminent Hands.      [bound with]                                                                                                                                                        Miscellaneous Works by the Right Honourable The Earl of Roscommon

London: Printed by E. Curll, at the Peacock without Temple-Bar, 1709    SOLD

Octavo, 7.6 x 4.75 inches.  Third edition. [π]2, c8, a-b8, A-D8, E6 (Leaves E7 and E8, and F1-5 [pages 76 to 90] have all been sliced out of this copy because of the licentious nature of the poems therein.), F6-8, G-L8; A-M8, N1. This copy lacks the portrait of Rochester. This copy is in good condition in contemporary boards.

The following poems were excised from this copy: “A Description of a Maidenhead,” “The Virgin’s Desire,” “The Perfect Enjoyment,” and “The Imperfect Enjoyment.”

ESTC T95392.

 

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